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182 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
An adolescent with Deep Dyslexia will:
A. HAVE TROUBLE READING irregularly spelled words but read regularly spelled words acurately
b. substitute words with similar meaning while reading
c. be unable to read a sentence she has just written
d. be unable to read (promounce) pseudo words.
b. substitute words with similar meanings while reading -
Deep syslexia involves several types of reading errors including semantic paralexia, which involves substituting words with similar meanings (e.g., foot for hand, sleep for dream, doctor for physician).
What does it mean have trouble reading irregularly spelled words but read regularly spelled words accurately?
surface alexia
What does it mean to be unable to read a sentence you have just written
pure alexia
What does it mean to be unable to read/pronounce pseudowords?
phonological alexia
Currently, autism is considered
a. primarily psychosocial in nature
b. primarily biogenic innature
c. a transactional phenomenon
d. a geneti disorder
b. primarily biogenic in nature - linked to a variety of neurological, neurochemical, adn genetic factors - although no single factor has been found adequate to explain the majority of cases
A child with Asperger's Disorder exhibits severe abnormalities in:
a. social bx
b. cog functioning
d. language acquisition
d. adaptive functioning
a. social behavior - severe, sustained impairment in social interactions
A 30yo father of two is insecure about his self-worth, has difficulty setting goals, procrastinates, is easily bored, adn frequently tries new hobbies. When frustrated, he often has a coupld of beers. These symptoms are most suggestive of:
a. Dysthymia
b. Generalized Anxiety Disorder
c. Impulse Control Disorder
d. ADHD
d. ADHD - symptoms listed are fairly typical of adult ADHD - differ somewhat for children and adults
In developing a tx plan for a child with conduct Disorder, which of the following would be most important to include:
a. social learning family intervention
b. pharmacotherapy
c. structural family therapy
d. contingency management and group therapy
a. social learning family intervention - family interventions most commonly tx for conduct disorder -
The use of imipramine in the tx of nocturnal anuresis:
a. is easier to administer and is more effective than the bell and pad method
b. is about equally as effective as the bell and pad method
c. substantilly reduces relapse when used in conjunction with the bell and pad method
d. is less effective than the bell and pad method, especially in the long-run
d. is less effective than the bell and pad method, especially in the long-run - although antidepressants are widely used as a tx for functional enuresis, they work only while being administered and are less effective than the bell and pad method
Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are most associated with:
a. Huntington's disease
b. Pick's Disease
Alzheimer's Dementia
d. Vascular Dementia
d. vascular dementia - often preceded by a treatable disease or disorder, esp hypertension or diabetes mellitus
Currently, confirmation of a diagnosis of Alzheimer's dementia depends on the results of
a. a psychodiagnostic workup
b. a CT scan
c. cognitive tests
d. a brain biopsy
d. brain biopsy
9. With some medical illnesses and following surgery, elderly people are particularly susceptible to:
a. dementia
b. pseudodementia
c. delirium
d. dissociation
d. delirium
10. An ex-smoker is MOST likely to smoke again
a. to avoid withdrawal symptoms
b. in response to feelings of anxiety, frustration, or depression
c. after inhi
b. in response to feelings of anxiety, frustration, or depression
11. A person with Korsakoff's Syndrome will exhibit:
a. retrograde amnesia without anterograde amnesia
b. anterograde amnesia without retrograde amnesia
c. both anterograde and retrograde amnesia with better recall for ermote events
d. both anterograde and retrograde amnesia with better recall for recent events
c. both anterograde and retrograde amnesia with better recall for remote events
12. Of the physiological correlates of Schizophrenia, which of the following has been found in the largest proportion of patients:
a. enlarged hippocampus
b. enlarged frontal lobes
c. enlarged temporal lobes
d. enlarged ventricles
d. enlarged ventricles (15-30% enlargment of the lateral and third ventricles)
13. The biological brother of a person who has received a dx of Schizophrenia is ____ times more likely to develop the disorder than a member of the general population.
a. two
b. five
c. ten
d. twenty
c. ten - one percent of the gen pop develops Schizophrenia
Among African-Americans, Schizophrenia
a. has lower remission rates
b. is often suggested by the presence of hallucinations and delusions
c. most often involves predominant motor symptoms
d. has a later age of onset
b. is often suggested by the presence of hallucinations and delusions - AA have a higher rate of Schizophrenia than the general population. may be due to a mis diagnosis of hallucinations and delusions that are actually smptoms of another disorder
Studies on Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent suggests that psychosocial stressors:
a. play a more significant role in the precipitation of the first and second episodes
b. play an increasingly more significant role in the precipitation of later episodes
c. are consistent precipitants of episodes for some people but consistently not precipitants for other people
d. are not associated with the precipitation of episodes at any particular time during the course of the disorder
a. play a more significant role in the precipitation of the first and second episodes - often follow a severe psychosocial stressor.... can become chronic
Among children, depression is most likely to misdiagnoses as:
a. an anxiety disorder
b. a disruptive behavior disorder
c. adjustment disorder
d. bipolar disorder
b. a disruptive behavior disorder - children often exhibit increased aggression during depressive episodes
Among depressed adolescents, suicide risk has been found to increase when:
a. the depression is atypical
b. the depression is accompanied by phobic anxiety
c. the depression is accompanied by conduct problems
d. there is a family hx of depression
c. the depression is accompanied by conduct problems
18. which of the following is true about the rates of suicide among white males:
a. the rates increase until early adulthood and thereafter remain stable
b. the rates increase until mid-life and thereafter remain relatively stable
c. the rates increase until about age 65 and then decline somewhat
d. the rates increase until about age 65 and thereafter increase more sharply
d. the rates increase until about age 65 and thereafter increase more sharply
In children, panic attacks
a. are more common than in adults
b. are less common than in adults
c. are about as common as in adults
d. are about as common as in adults but involve a different set of symptoms
b. are less common than in adults
20. The best conclusion that can be drawn about tx for panic disorder is that:
a. tricyclics are more effective than cognitive-bx therapy
b. cognitive-bx therapy is more effective than tricyclics
c. tricyclics and cognitive-bx therapy are more equally effective, but there doesn't seem to be an advantage to combining the two treatments
d. tricyclics and cognitive-bx therapy are about equally effective, and there seems to be an advantage to combining the two treatments
d. tricyclics and cognitive-bx therapy are about equally effective, and there seems to be an advantage to combining the two tx
21. When using exposure to tx a client with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, it's important to keep in mind that
a. in vivo exposure is most effective when combined with response prevention
b. in vivo exposure is more effective when it is gradual
c. in vivo exposure is much more effective than exposure in imagination
d. in vivo exposure is not as effective as sytematic desensitization
a. in vivo exposure is most effective when combined with response prevention
A person with Dissociative (functional) Amnesia will most likely exhibit:
a. anterograde amnesia involving an inability to acquire new information
b. retrograde amnesia involving a loss of memory for events related to a trauma
c. anterograde amnesia involving primarily a loss of memory for events related to personal identity
c. anterograde amnesia involving primarily a loss of memory for events related to personal identity
The "sleep attack" associated with narcolepsy is characterized by:
a. REM sleep and cataplexy
b. jREM sleep and dyskinesia
c. slow wave sleep and ataxia
d. slow wave sleep and muscular rigidity
a. REM sleep and cataplexy
As defined by DSM, a dx of a personality disorder requires:
a. an onset prior to age 18
b. that symptoms are experienced as ego-syntonic
c. the presence of distress or impaired functioning
d. a decline in the previous level of functioning
c. the presence of distress or impaired functioning
In contrast to Freud, a number of contemporary psychoanalysts have redefined countertransference as
a. detrimental to the progress of therapy
b. an opoortunity for the analyst to respond to the patient in an authentic way
c. useful for fostering insight into the patient's inner world
d. a chance for the patient to see how she affects others
c. useful for fostering insight into the patient's inner world
Which of the following theories of personality considers attachment to be a biologically-imprinted drive that influences personality development:
a. psychoanalytic
b. interpersonal
c. object relations
d. existential
c. object relations
As a practitioner of brief psychodynamic therapy, Dr. F will most likely:
a. reject the use of transference
b. focus more on positive than negative transference
c. focus more on negative than positive transference
d. view positive and negative transferences as imp to foster early in tx
b. focus more on positive than negative transference - - emphasis on positive transference which is considered essential to the development of a good therapeutic relationship. Negative transference is generally discouraged due to time constraints
5. From the perspective of Gestalt therapy, transference:
a. represents confusion between fantasy and reality
b. represents projection of disowned parts of the self
c. is an attempt to avoid strong feelings
d. is a manifestation of a boundary disturbance
a. represents confusion between fantasy and reality - to get the client back in the here and now, helps her disginguish between fantasy and reality - I'm your therapist, not your mother!
From the perspective of Rational Emotive Therapy, maladaptive behavior is maintained primarily by
a. intrinsic reinforcement
b. lack of motivation
c. self-indoctrination
d. social learning
c. self-indoctrination - according to Ellis, maladaptive bx has its origins in both biological predisposition and early life experience. Maladaptive bx is maintained through the internalization and repetition of the parents' critical attitudes
When an open system is faced with an external threat, it will react by:
a. attacking the threat either overtly or covertly
b. becoming more rigid and inflexible
c. defending itself against or adapting to the threat
d. disintegrating
c. defending itself against or adapting to the threat - open systems interact with the environment and under normal circumstances have the capacity to react to threats from the environment in various ways
A family therapist notices that, whenever the mother talks, the father and son contradict what she says and criticize her. The father and son's bx is best described as
a. triangulation
b. a coalition
c. positive feedback
d. scapegoating
b. a coalition
A structural family therapist would advocate the use of tracking and mimesis as methods for
a. avoiding emotional triangulation
b. fostering differentiation of individual family members
d. restoring the family's homeostasis
d. joining the family system
d. joining the family system
During the tenth session of a therapy group, the group's cotherapists find themselves disagreeing about an issue raised by one of the group members. According to Yalom, the best course of action in this situation would be:
a. to have the senior therapist lead the discussion about the issue
b. for the therapists to discuss the issue outside therapy and present a united front in the next session
c. for the therapist to allow the patient to present her own point of vies and to remain neutral
d. for the therapists to discuss their disagreement in front of the group members
d. for the therapists to discuss their disagreement in front of the group members
According to Yalosm, ____ is the analogue of the client-therapist relationship in individual therapy and is a key curative factor in group therapy:
a. cohesivenesss
b. family reenactment
c. universality
d. identification
a. cohesiveness
Research on group therapy suggests that the biggest impediment to the success of therapy is
a. the misuse of group therapy for certain kinds of problems
b. the therapist's lack of expertise and training
c. a lack of member prescreening
d. a lack of psychological mindedness of group members
c. the lack of member prescreening
In contaast to feminist therapists, practitioners of non-sexist therapy:
a. make use of self-disclosure
b. place more emphasis on the personal than the political
c. stress the egalitatian nature of the therapeutic relationship
d. view gender differences as largely innate
b. place more emphasis on the personal than the political
Studies assessing the effects of hypnosis on memory suggest that:
a. hypnosis inc both the accuracy and details of an individual's memories about a past event
b. hypnosis may inc the likelihood that an individual will confabulate memories but, once no longer hypnotized, the individual is likely to be able to distinguish between confabulated and accurate memories
c. hypnosis may increase the likelihood that an individual wil confabulate memories and, once no longer hypnotized, the individual will be more willing to accept an uncertain memory
d. hypnosis may inc the likelihood that an individual's memories will contain inaccurate details, but hypnosis rules out the possibility that the individual will deliberately lie about a past event
c. hypnosis may increase the likelihood that an individual wil confabulate memories and, once no longer hypnotized, the individual will be more willing to accept an uncertain memory
Which of the following individuals is most likely to be an inpatient in a state or county psychiatric hospital?
a. a widowed man
b. a never-married man
c. a married woman
d. a divorced woman
b. a never-married man - although females have a higher rate of mental disorders, males have a higher rate of admissions to state and county psychiatric hospitals
By the end of six months of therapy, you would expect about what proportion of clients to exhibit measurable improvement:
a. 40%
b. 55%
c. 70%
d. 90%
c. 70%
Studies comparing the utilization rates of mental health services for whites to those of members of culturally-diverse groups indicate that
a. the rates are higher for members of culturally diverse groups
b. the rates are lower for members of all culturally diverse groups
c. the rates are higher for some culturally diverse groups but lower for others
c. the rates are higher for some culturally-diverse groups but lower for others - - some groups tend to underutilize mental health services (Asian and Hispanic) while others overutilize them (AA)
A client who is a member of a minority group expresses negative feelings about her own culture and positive feelings toward the dominant (Anglo) culture. From the perspective of the Racial/Cultural Identity Development Model, this client is in which stage:
a. conformity
b. dinnonance
c. immersion
d. denial
a. conformity
When working with an AA client exhibiting "healthy cultural paranoia," an Anglo therapist would be advised to
a. refer the client to an AA therapist
b. use a culturally-sensitive approach that helps reduce the paranoia
c. help the clieint bring feelings of suspiciousness and antipathy toward whites into conscious awareness
c. help bring feelings of suspiciousness and antipathy toward whites into conscious awareness
A therapist adopting an "etic" approach:
a. believes that psychological principles are universally applicable
b. views diff culture in relativistic terms
c. believes that her own approach can be adapted to other cultures
d. is equally comfortable in multiple cultures
c. believes that her own approach can be adapted to other cultures - etic refers to universal approaches - emic refers to culture-specific approaches
A Caucasian in the reintegration stage of white identity development:
a. finds socially acceptable ways to expresss antipathy toward minorities
b. views race as less imp than other qualities
c. begins to reject her racist views
d. views whites as superior and minorities as inferior
d. views whites as superior and minorities as inferior - six identity statuses: contact, disintegration, reintegration, pseudo-independence, immersion-emersion, and autonomy
According to Berry's acculturation model, a member of a culturally-diverse group is exhibiting marginalization when she:
a. has rejected the mainstream culture
b. has rejected her own minority culture
c. is uninvolved in both mainstream and minority culture
d. is highly invovled in the minority culture but uninvolved in the mainstream culture
c. is uninvolved in both
An aversive (unconditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented just prior to a stimulus that is assoc with the target bx. This will have which of the following effects on the target bx:
a. extinguish it
b. suppress it
c. increase it
d. have no effect on it
d. have no effect on it - the question describes backwards conditioning which is rarely effective
Research on the effectiveness of aversive therapy, for addictive and other self-reinforcing behaviors suggest that it:
a. is less effective than pharmacological approaches
b. has substantial short-and long term effects
c. has good short-term but limited long term effecs if used alone
d. is ineffective in most cases in terms of both short and long term effects
c. has good short-term but limited long-term effects if used alone
Variable A is paired with Variable B so that, eventually, the response automatically produced by Variable A is also produced by Variable B. Then, Variable B iw paired with Variable C, so that it too produces the same response. When Variable B is paired with Variable C, Variable B is being treated as a(n):
a. contioned stimulus
b. unconditioned stimulus
c. secondary reinforcer
d. primary reinforcer
b. unconditioned stimulus
-technique is higher order conditioning. When the original CS is paired with a second CS, the original CS is acting as a US
Research using the dismantling strategy suggests that the benefits of systematic desensitization are due to:
a. counterconditioning
b. extinction
c. fading
d. trace conditioning
b. extinction
Use of Wolpe's "reciprocal inhibition" involves:
a. pairing anxiety-inducing stimuli with relaxation
b. pairing an undesirable behavior with an aversive stimulus
c. replacing external attributions with internal attributions
d. narrowing the cues that trigger the target response
a. pairing anxiety-inducing stimuli with relaxation -
In classical conditioning, blocking is likely to occur when:
a. a neutral stimulus is simultaneously presented with the conditioned stimulus just before presentation of the unconditioned stimulus
b. a neutral stimulus is simultaneously presented with the unconditioned stimulus just after the conditioned stimulus
c. the conditioned stimulus is presented just after the unconditioned stimulus
a. neutral stimulus is simultaneously presented with the conditioned stimulus just before presentation of the unconditioned stimulus
Which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement:
a. a truck driver stops speeding after rec her third ticket for driving fast
b. a child keeps whining bec of the negative attention she rec whenever she does so
c. a college student's fear of flunking out of college ensures that he studies for at least 20 hrs/week
d. a boy's fear that he will b spanked keeps him from fighting with his little sis
C. a college student's fear of flunking out of college ensures that she studies for at least twenty hours a week - negative reinforcement is occurring when a bx is performed in order to escape or avoid a stimulus Negative reinforcement, like positive reinforcement, results in an increase in a behavior
The parents of a 6mo old complains that he whines constantly and that he will only stop when they pick him up. The psychologist tells them to stop picking him up when he whines. From the bx perspective, what is most likely to occur:
a. whining will gradually decrease
b. whining will first increase, then decrease
c. whining will continue to increase
d. whining will be replaced by another undesirable behavior
b. whining will first increase, then decrease - use of extinction to eliminate a previously reinforced response often results in a temporary extinction burst
You reward a child whenever he does not exhibit the target bx but, instead, engages in other activities during a prespecified period of time. This is called
a. response cost
b. overcorrection
c. time out
d. D.R.O.
d. D.R.O. - differential reinforcement for other behaviors involves reinforcing a person when she exhibits other, alternative behaviors to the target behavior during a predetermined period of time
To increase the effectiveness of a time-out, you would be best advised to
a. have the length of the time out match the severity of the misbehavior
b. make sure the alternative bx is truly incompatible
c. begin the time out with a brief explanation of its purpose
d. maximize the duration of the time out
c. begin the time out with a brief explanation of its purpose.... any operatnt technique is more likely to be effective when the person knows just what behavior is being reinforced or punished
A mother nags her daughter to get her to clean her room. The mother finds that she has to nag for longer and longer periods of time before her daughter complies. The girl's eventual willingness to clean her room is best described as the result of
a. avoidance conditioning
b. escape conditioning
c. overcorrection
d. stimulus discrimination
b. escape conditioning - This is a straightforward application of negative reinforcment and is also known as escape conditionind - the bx allows escape from nagging
When relying on the cognitive techniques of Beck, a therapist would emphasize the use of
a. circular questioning
b. Socratic questioning
d. deflection
d. positioning
b. Socratic questioning - an essential technique in cognitive therapy is guided discovery
When working with a client suffering from Panic Disorder, a therapist adopting Beck's cognitive approach would initially:
a. have the client id the antecedents and consequences of his symptoms
b. help the client understand how the symptoms are controlling his life
c. help the client identify the source of his symptoms
d. help the client see how he misinterprets the meaning of his symptoms
d. help the client see how he misinterprets the meaning of his symptoms - Beck: Panic Disorder stems from "catastrophic misinterpretations" of bodily senasions and mental experiences.
Research comparing the effects of biofeedback and relaxation training on hypertension has found that:
a. biofeedback is less effective than relaxation traing
b. biofeedback is more effective than relaxation training
c. biofeedback adn relaxation training are about equally effective
c. biofeedback and relaxation training are about equally effective
In treating a child's fear of the dark, you would most likely use:
a. flooding
b. gradual exposure
c. modeling
d. cognitive self-control
d. cognitive self-control
In your research study on retroactive interference, subjects in the control group will:
a. learn a list of ten words and then count backwards from 10 over and over again before being asked to recell the list of words
b. learn a list of ten words and then learn another list of ten words before being asked to recall the original list
c. learn a list of ten words and then "do nothing" for ten minutes before being asked to recall the original list of words
d. watch a ten minute file, learn a list of ten words, and then recall the list of words
a. lean a list of ten words and then count backwards from ten over and over again before being asked to recal the list of words - retroactive interference occurs when newly acq info inhibits the ability to recall previously acquired info.
To remember pairs of unrelated words, the best method would be to:
a. create an acronym
b. repeat the word pairs over and over again
c. create a visual image that links each word pair
d. use chunking
c. create a visual image that links each word pair
An elderly person with deficits in episodic memory will have trouble:
a. remembering a future doctor's appointment
b. making a cake using a complicated recipe
c. remembering which key opens the front door
d. recalling where he took his wife for their 50th anniversary
d. recalling where he took his wife for the 50th anniversary - episodic memory
If you are to be tested on a list of unrelated terms on Tuesday morning, you would be best advised to:
a. study a few weeks ahead of time to reduce proactive interference
b. study a few weeks ahead of time to reduce retroactive interference
c. study the day befroe to reduce proactive interference
d. study the day before to reduce retroactive interference
d. study the day before to reduce retroactive interference proactive interference occurs when previously learned material interfers with recall of newly learned material
Overlearning is most useful for learning:
a. abstract concepts
b. specific, concrete material
c. tasks involving fine motor coord
d. contradictory info
b. specific, concrete material
Frame of reference training is useful for:
a. increasing organizational commitment
b. management development
c. increasing job productivity
d. improving rater accuracy
d. improving rater accuracy
A problem with establishing "comparable worth" is that
a. job eval techniques are not useful for complex jobs
b. males and females may use diff strategies to reach the same decision or solution
c. the job eval techniques themselves may be gender-biased
d. it is diff to compare success across diff domains
c. the job eval techniques themselves mayb e gender-biased - eval techniques used to determine salries may themselves be gender-biased and may not alleviate gender-related biases in salaries
WHich of the following statements is most true about the results of research investigating the relationship between teacher gender and gender bias in evaluating students?
b. male and female teachers both are more likely to negatively evaluate boys than girls
A new client comes to see you and you find his political views to be distasteful. In this situation, as an ethical psycho, you should:
respect the client's political views and proceed with therapy
According to psychoanalytical theory, defense mechanisms are derived:
a. by the unconscious part of the ego tranforming the warded-off impulse into a symtom which....
b. to satisfy the id's wish for unbridled gratification
c. as a means of keeping unconscious libidinal or aggressive impulses from reaching consciousness
c. as a means of keeping unconscious libidinal or aggressive impulses from reaching consciousness
Symtpoms of memory impairment, faulty judgment, and impaired concentration sould most likely result from lesions to the:
a. frontal lobe
b. parietal lobe
c. temporaal lobe
c. temporal lobe
According to Kagan's research on the effects of day care centers, one can say that:
there is no adverse effect of placing children over a period of time in day care centers on their cognitive abilities, adaptive functioning, or perceptual motor abilities compared to those who remain at home under their mother's care
The neuropsychological term and definition that is incorrectly matched is:
a. agnosia - the loss of ability to recognize various non-language types of stimulation
b. ataxia - loss of muscular coordination
c. aphasia - disturbance of language
d. apraxia - disturbances in involuntary movement when the person is at rest
d. apraxia- problems in voluntary movement
ataxia -
problems in movement
You have developed and administered a reading enrichment program for gifted children. A friend of yours, who happens to be a newspaper reporter, asks if his 7yo daughter can enroll in the program. Would this be ethical?
no, because you'd be involved in a dual relationship
In the Prisoner's Dilemma game, it was found that people:
a. compete from the beginning
b. cooperate initially but then compete
c. compete initially but later cooperate
d. cooperate from the beginning
a. compete from the beginning - People are presented with a situation where if they cooperate, they each will receive moderate reward. If they compete, one will receive a big reward adn the other will receive nothing. What happens is that people tend to compete straight away. They take a risk. Outside of our family and reference group we tend to be suspicious and hostile
The diff between the General Guidelines for Providers of Psycho Services and Ethical principles of psychos is that the former:
a. deals with delivery of services to consumers, and the latter with ethics in general
b. deals with clinical practice, and the latter with ethics in general
a. deals with delivery of services to consumers, and the latter with ethics in general
Behavioral approaches dealing with Autistic children would employ primarily:
shaping
As part of an evaluation of a third-grade girl referred for her disruptive bx, the school psycho interviewed the girl's father. The father related that, whenever the girl acted out at home, the parents would make every attempt to be understanding and accepting and would try to reason with her. The father reported that this usu worked in getting the daughter to stop. From a behavioral view, the psychologist would reason that:
b. parental attention would be reinforcing the girl's disruptive behaviors
In Skinner's operant conditioning paradigm, the evidence indicating that learning has taken place is:
a. response amplitude
b. latency of response
c. rate of responding
d. quality of response
c. rate of responding - the cululative reponse curves, which are always pictured in chapters on learning, show how mych and at what rate the organism responded to the reinforcment. - rate of responding provides the best index of whether learning has taken place
WHich of the following is true regarding an infant's crying?
a. for all infants, one cry represents all human emotions
b. in a newborn infant, cries for hunger, anger and pain are distinguishable
d. in a newborn infant, cries for hunger, anger, and pain are distinguishable - the fourth cry - one for attention, develops later than the other types - about three weeks after birth
In determining the incremental validity of a selection test, the minimum amount of information one has to know is the:
a. base rate, sample size, and validity of the test
b. selection ratio, sample size, and validity of the test
c. base rate, selection ratio, and the validity of the test
d. base rate, selection ratio, sample size, and validity of the test
c. base rate, selection ratio, and validity of the test
A job selection test's incremental validity is the _____ that is obtained by using the test as compared to not using it.
increase in predictive accuracy
Three factors influce the incremental validity of a test: _____ or the percentage of correct hiring decisions made when the test is not used;
base rate
The ____
test's validity coefficient
and the _____, or the ratio of job openings to total applicants (for instance, if 100 people are applying for 5 positions, the selection ratios is 5/100, or .05)
selection ratio
Which of the following is the reason why many experts recomment 6 to 8 sessions as the duration of crisis intervention therapy?
a. Six to eight sessions is about how long many crises last
b. Most people who are experienncing a crisis would not be able to endure the anxiety evoked by long-term psychotherapy
.a. six to eight sessions is about how long a crises lasts
The parents of two children, Jimmy, 4, and Janie, 11, divorce without exposing their children to overt conflict. Based on the results on research investigating the effects of divorce on children, you would expect that:
a. Jimmy will expericne more negative effects initially as well as a more negative delayed reaction
b. Jimmy will experience more negative effects than Janie initially, but Janie will experience a more negative delayed reaction
b. developmental level is an important mediator of the effects of divorce on children. Older children are better able to understand.... as a result they exhibit fewer negative effects at the time of the divorce. However, they often display delayed negative effects, such as painful memories and fears that they will have an unsuccessful marriage
Research suggests that, generally speaking, individuals who migrate to the US from another country would be most likely to experience symptoms of psychiatric disorders:
a. immediately before they migrate
b. immediately after they arrive in the US
c. about one or two years after they arrive in the US
d. five years or more after they arrive in the US
c. about one or two years after they arrive in the US
The _____ is the tendency of immigrants to initially experience elation and optimis, followed by a period of frustration, depression, and confusion as the reality of the adjustments required by their new lives sets in.
social displacement syndrome
In a study of 400 personality variables, it was found that 19 correlated at the .05 level of significance with a measure of actual behavior.The 19 significant correlations could be considered valid for:
a. future research
b. future therapy
c. both future research and future therapy
d. neither future research nor future therapy
d. neither one - at the .05 level of significance, there is a 5% probability of making a Type I error. So, out of 400 relationships, you'd expect 20 or so to be found significant when they really aren't. Hence the 19 significant correlations probably aren't very meaningful
A consultant gathers descriptions of jobs through direct observation, through published information, and through interviews of incumbents. This process is undertaken for the purpose of:
a. validating a selection procedure
b. establishing the content of a job selection test
b. establishing the content of a job selection test
In short, a _____ can be used to identify appropriate content for a job selection measure.
job analysis
Research suggests that the best single tx for Agoraphobia is:
a. implosive therapy
b. flooding
c. systematic desensitization
d. psychotropic med
b. flooding - exposure while preventing an avoidance response. In-vivo flooding - improvment long-term for 75% of tx patients
A managed health care organization decides that additional mental health services for one of your clients are not "mediclaly necessary." you disagree, becuase you believe the client may experience severe and long-term mental distress without at least two or three more sessions. Based on current standards of practice as well as the implications of the court's ruling in Wickline v. California, your duty in this situation would be:
appeal the decision of the managed health care organization
A test has a reliability coefficient of .90. What percentage of variability among examinees on this test is due to true score differences?
a. 100%
b. 90%
c. 81%
d. 50%
b. 90% - in most cases you would square the correlation coefficient to obtain the answer to this question. However, the reliability coefficient is an exception to this rule: is is never squared. Instead it is interpreted directly. This means that the value of the reliability coefficient itself indicates the proportion of variance in a test that reflects true variance.
A 60yo coupld complains of a decrease in their sex life. Althogh they don't feel they need psychotherapy, they would like some information. There is no indication of medical or emotional problems. You should tell them that:
a. there is nothing that you as a psychotherapist can do at this time
b. there is a wide variation in sexual activity depending on physical and emotional variables
b. ther is a wide variation in sexual activity depending on physical and emotional variables
A mother passes the trait of color blindness onto her son, but is not color blind herself. This is a characteristic of the mother's:
a. genotype
b. phenotype
c. chromosome
d. RNA
a. genotype
Which of the following variables is most strongly related to positive outcome after exposure to a highly stressful situation?
a. perceived social support
b. actual social support
c. accessialbe social support
d. quality of social support
a. perceived social support
The thermal biofeedback technique of hand warming is used to treat migraine headaches. The therapeutic effects of this technique would be primrily mediated by the:
a. somatic nervous system
b. sympathetic nervous system
c. parasympathetic nervous system
d. spinal cord
b. sympathetic nervous system
A Guttman sclae is an attitude scale on which:
a. agreement with a particular item implies agreement with other lower-level items
b. agreement with a particular item implies disagreement with other lower-level items
c. items are scored based on the degree to which they reflect a person's position on a particular issue
a. agreement with a particular item implies agreement with other lower-level items
Which of the following is not an advantage of the use of co-therapists in group therapy?
When co-therapists pursue their own separate agendas in therapy, clients have the opportunity to intervene and learn conflict management skills - mayu be overly competititve and pursue their own terpretations rather than supporting inquireies begin by the group
Research comparing patients with Schizo from non-Western developing countries to those from Western industrialized countries has found that they differ in terms of
a. symptoms
b. age and gender
c. course and outcome
c. course and outcome - patients from developing countries more often exhibit an acute onset, a shorter clinical course, and a complete remission of symptoms - no consistent differences were found between these two groups in regards to age, gender, or type of symptoms
Alzheimer's Dementia often results in problemss in the executive functions such as
a. aphasia and agnosia
b. apraxia and disorientation
c. planning and organizaing
d. recalling and recognizing
c. planning and organizing
Traditional Western approaches to individual psychotherapy can best be described as
a. linear and reductionist
b. non-linear and holistic
c. relativistic and abstract
d. elitist and futile
a. linear adn reductionist - tendency to explain complex phenomena in terms of relatively simple principles
Johnny, age 10, teaches his brother Justin, age 5, how to ride a skateboard. This interaction can best be described as:
a. parallel process
b. complementary communication
c. elaborative rehearsal
d. symmetrical communication
b. Complementary communication - inequality, one taking a dominant role
_____ is a phenomenon in clinical supervision where the therapist in training behaves toward the supervising therapist in ways that mirror how the client is behaving toward the therapist in training.
parallel process
The most important factor found to exist as a criterion for initial attraction between people who have just met is:
physical attractiveness
If four tests are combined into a test battery, the predictive validity of the battery would be maximized if the correlations among the four test were
a. at least as high as the correlation of each one with its highest correlated skill
b. as low as possible, preferably close to .00.
b. to contribute a unique bit of added info, the tests themselves should not correlate
Standardized ratings of adaptive behavior, such as the Adaptive Bx Scale and the Vineland, are completed by caretakers, teachers, trained observers, etc., and measure:
a. abilities and competencies
b. competencies but not necessarily abilities
b. competencies, but not necessarily abilities - what the person actually does in an average environment.....
A psycho undertaking a research project in a high security prison on the effects of certain food addives on bx. The prison pop is surveyed, informed, and volunteers are sought. The volunteers are again explained the purpose of the study and asked to give written consent..... the subjects are informed that, once they begin the study, they are expected to remain until the first eval.... told they shouldn't agree to participate unless they are reasonable sure they can complete the initial phase of the study. According to APA's Ethical Principles, such a study:
shouldn't be undertaken as the subjects are not allowed to freely withdraw
An elevated F score on the MMPI (F is greater than 70 and K is very low) indicates that the
a. person is answering in a socially desirable manner
b. person is likely being careless or deliberately malingering
b. person is likely being careless or deliberately malingering
The F scale on the MMPI indicates:
if the person is answering in a deviant way or isperhaps actually deviant
The higher the F, the more the answers suggest:
the person is attempting to appear odd, disturbed, etc.
Of the following relationships, the one which, according to empirical research, is stronger is:
a. job enlargement and job satisfaction
b. job turnover and job dissatisfaction
c. job satisfaction and productivity
b. job turnover and job dissatisfaction
The basic requirements of a token economy are:
a. target behaviors, choice of tokens, primary reinforcers
b. target behaviors, choice of reinforcers, rate of exchange
b. target behaviors, choice of reinforcers, rate of exchange
In computing test reliability, to control for practice effects one would use a(n):
1. split-half reliability coefficient
2. alternative forms reliability coefficient
3. test-retest reliability coefficient
a. 1 and 3 only
b. 1 and 2 only
c. 2 and 3 only
b. 1 and 2 only - the clue here is the practice effect.... so we do not use test-retest.
A primary tenet of rational-emotive therapy is that:
a. a belief determines behavior
b. self-attributions determine behavior
a. a belief determines behavior
Compared to the Stanford-Binet, the WAIS tends to:
a. underestimate the IQ score of higher functioning individuals
b. overestimate the IQ scores of lower functioning individuals and underestimate the IQ scores of higher-functioning individuals
c. overestimate the IQ scores of lower functioning individuals and underestimate the scores of higher functioning individuals
For extremes of the IQ continuu, the ______ is a better measure to use.
Stanford-Binet
The ______ will more accurately reflect the person's functioning at either the very top or very bottom of the range.
Stanford-Binet
Cognitive behavior therapy, compared to operant bx treatments, has been found to be:
a. less effective across most dx categories
b. superior with more intelligent clients
c. approx equally effective with all types of disorders
c. approx equally effective with all types of disorders
Except for _____, Specific Phobias, and sometimes some physiological problems, such as enuresis, psychological tx tend to be about ____ in their efficacy.
Agoraphobia; equal
According to research on sex-role determinants, the characteristic that is most related to genetics as opposed to socialization is:
a. sociability
b. dependency
c. aggression
aggression
Hallucinations experienced by Schizos are primarily:
a. visual
b. auditory
c. tactile
d. somatic
b. auditory
The friend of a psycho is the owner of a small publishing firm. The friend offers the psycho substantial compensation, if she would lend her name to endorsements for his publications, and at times advise and consult on book acquisitions and marketing plans. The psycho:
c. could accept this only if the pubs are in her area of competency and endorsements are honest
According to Brady, the best tx for reducing a phobic anxiety reaction is one that entails:
a. actual in-vivo exposure to the anxiety-producing stimulus
b. systematic desensitization and imagined exposure to the stimulus
a. actual in-vivo exposure to the anxiety-producing stimulus - the more realistic the tx sit, the better the result with phobias and fears
By the time the images get up to the cortex, the information from _____ has already ______.
both eyes; converged
If the visual cortex of the right hemisphere is removed, you would not be able to see:
anything in the opposite visual field - i.e., the left field
In the classical conditioning paradigm, backward conditioning has been found to be:
ineffective - when the UCS precedes the CS - giving Spot the food and then sounding the buzzer - what do you expect? Do you really think Spot would pay any attention to the buzzer once he had his Alpo?
For classical conditioning to be effective, the _____ must precede the _____.
CS; UCS
The WISC subtests that are most sensitive to perceptual-motor problems are:
a. block design and object assembly
b. digit span and coding
a. block design and object assembly - direct measure of perceptual and motor skills.
In the WISC, ____ and _____ subtests are the most direct measures of perceptual and motor skills.
block design; object assembly
The parents of a boy have asked u for a psycho eval of him. He has been accused of breaking into a house and the parents want the report to be sent to the judge who is to hear the case. You whould
a. aa. ask them to have their lawyer request the report
b. wait until you have informed consent before doing the test and sending the report
b. wait until u have informed consent before doing the test and sending the report - parents should give informed consent to the eval.... should be informed of what the eval involves, what the possible consequences of releasing it to the court are, etc.
The best control for practice effects in an experiment is:
a. counterbalancing
b. random selection
c. double-blind
a. counterbalancing - presenting their tx in diff orders
A ______ design controls for the possible practice effect of receiving a set order of treatments.
counter-balanced
Erikson's final developmental stage is:
a. generativity vs. stagation
b. ego integrity vs. despair
b. - I did the best I could vs. I regret what I did
When applied to teaching children, gestal psycho would emphasize
a. repetition
b. rote learning
c. learning patterns
d. learning patterns
A psycho is working for a company that changes health care providers due to cost-effectiveness. The new provider has a policy that compromises the employee's future limits to confidentiality. The psycho should:
a. refuse to follow procedure and leave immediately
b. outline her points of dissatisfaction and send to the new provider
c. make clear with each client the company's new limits to confidentiality
c. make clear with each client the company's new limits to confidentiality
A 16yo boy who was previously a good student has been acting out, has problems concentrating, and has not been sleeping. What is your dx?
a. Conduct DO
b. Bipolar 1, most REcent Episode Manic
b. Bipolar 1, most Recent Episode Manic
If a person has a T-score of 70 in a normal distribution with 200 people, what does the 70 mean?
a. 70th percentile
b. better than 97%
d. better than 97% (oith percentile)
A T-score of 70 is _____ standard deviations above the mean (when the mean is 50; and the standard deviation is 10):
two
When any score is two standard deviations above the mean, ____ of the distribution is below that score.
98%
Who has the highest suicide rate?
a. people aged 24-44
b. people aged 55-64
c. people over 65
d. teens
c. people over 65
The highest rates of suicide attempts occus between the ages of ___ and ___.
24-44
The greatest increase in suicide rates in recent years has been among _____ and _____.
teenagers and young adults
A former patient and yourself meet at at a shopping mall 26 mos after she has completed therapy with you. Which is the most unethical choice?
you pursue a romantic relationship with her - for at least two years... only under the most unusual circumstances if at all. bears the burden that there has been no exploitation
In order to increase the chances that Mary Ann is altruistic it would help if she has
a. has younger siblings
b. comes from a large extended family
c. is inherently wealthy
a. has younger siblings
An AA student comes to therapy complaining of relatinship probs. He is very angry at his dissertation advisor for not recognizing his brillance. He feels his disseration will affect the field of psycho as significantly as Freud's earlier research. He also feels the other students are uncreative and boring. What's the dx?
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Loss of declarative memory is associated with:
a. Alzheimer's Dementia
b. Parkinson's Disease
a. Alzheimer's Dementia
includes both episodic memory and semantic memory (red is a color).
declarative memory
If u want 2 keep a borderline pt involved with group therapy, what would be the best technique?
offer individual tx in addition to group tx.
An object relations family therapist such as Framo would be most interested in which of the following during the third phase of therapy?
a. addressing the marriage's quid pro quo
b. working through the multiple transferences
b. working through the multiple transferences
_____ refers to the expectations that spouses have about one another - communication techniques/family therapy.
quid pro quo
Object relations therapists don't usually see family members ____.
individually
Murray Bowen used _____ as part of therapy to examine multi-generational patterns.
genograms
As a succ licensed psycho, u r supervising your lst intern. U need to:
Inform your intern that he needs to let his clients know he is in supervision
Your client is terminating your psycho service by mutual agreement after two years. She's going to be married the following May and would like you to be one of her wedding attendants. U should
decline, explaining that this would be a multiple relationship... if u become her friend, u will no longer b able to offer her services
What effect do neurotransmitters have on postsynaptic cells?
a. an excitatory effect
b. an inhibitory effect
c. either an excitatory or inhibitory effect
c. either an excitatory or inhibitory effect
Some neurotransmitters act as ______ that increase or decrease the sensitivity of neurons to the efefects of other neurotransmitters.
neuromodulators
A dx of Mental Retardation is dependent upon cogn functioning of two standard deviations below the mean and
a. deficits in adaptive functioning
b. lack of social skills
a. deficits in adaptive functioning
impressive aphasia is to Wernicke's area as what type of aphasia is to Broca's area?
a. expressive
b. global
c. sensory
a. expressive
Both _____ and ______ are alternative names for Broca's aphasia.
expressive aphasia and motor aphasia
_______ aphasia is due to damage to several regions of the brain including the cortex and basal ganglia.
global aphasia
_____ and _______ and ______ are all alternative names for Wernicke's aphasia.
Sensory; Receptive; Impressive
You are working with a couple in marital tx and are conducting the initial interview. U realize that although the husband doesn't remember u, the two of you once dated. You should
refer the couple to another therapist
The EPPP would be considered to be highest in
a. face validity
b,. predictive validity
c. differentiation of falst positives
a. face validity
_____ validity would measure how well the EPPP predicts your ability to be a competent psycho.
predictive
____ refer to predictive decision making and are the predictions of success that turn out to be incorrect because the person fails to meet the criteria.
false positives
______ occurs when in the process of validating a test the predictor scores influence the individual's criterion status.
criteria contamination
A Caucasian male wantint to qualify for MENSA comes to u for testing. He remembers rec an IQ score of 184 on an IQ test as a child. He would like to be retested and have the results sent to the org. You administer the WAIS and he receives an IQ of 115. He demands that u destroy the results and refer him to someone else. U should:
keep the test results in your file, but agree not to send the report
Your client has moved out of state. She has called and left you a voice mail requesting that u send her records to a new therapist. She leaves her new therapist's no and address but not your own. You have a current written relase from her and note that she has one outstanding balance of $200. You should
a. contact the therapist and try to get the client's no.
b. send all records
c. send a summary along with invoice
a. contact therapist and try to get number.
You have been court-ordered to eval a prisoner who is being tried for murder. U explain the purpose of the eval and complete it. As u are packing up your testing materials, the prisoner smirks and says" I agreed to this but didn't sign anything. You are out of luck, doctor."
Go ahead and complete the report, but leave out the prisoner's comments - because court-ordered, not actually req to obtain informed consent. "In sits where the right of confidentiality is limited, the psycho makes every effort to maintain confidentiality with regard to any info that does not bear directly upon the legal purpose of the eval.
In a factor analysis, an eigenvalue corresponds to:
a. the no of latent variables
b. the strength of the relationship between factors
c. the explained variance of one of the factors
d. the explained variance of one of the factors
When a factor analysis produces a series of factors it is useful to determine how much of the variance is accounted for by each factor. An ___ is based on the factor loadings of all the variables in the factor analysis to a particular factor.
eigenvalue
When factor loadings are high, the eigenvalue will be:
large
A large eigenvalue would mean that a particular factor accounts for ______ among the variables.
a large proportion of the variance
The neurotransmitter associated with Alzheimer's Dementia is
a. serotonin
b. dopamine
c. acetylcholine
d. epineprine
c. acetylcholine ACH
Acetylcholine and _____ are two _____ that have been found to be linked to Alzheimer's Disease.
Acetylcholine and L-glutamate