• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/144

Click to flip

144 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
biopsychosocial model
interaction in which biological, psychological and sociocultural factors play a role in the development of the individual
diathesis-stress model
people are born with a diathesis (predisposition) that places them at risk for developing a psychological disorder but stress needs to set it off
trephining
drilling holes into the skull
prehistoric times
abnormal behavior caused by posession
ancient greece and rome
emergence of scientific model
hippocrates
believed in imbalances in black bile, yellow bile, phlegm, blood caused disorders
galen
studied anatomy and believed in hippocrate's imbalances
middle ages and renaissance
re-emergence of spiritual explainations, development of asylums, witch hunts
1700's U.S, Europe
reform movement
chiarugi
set standards of care, minimal use of restraints, respect and dignity
pinel
influenced by pussin, began process of reform
tuke
believed in humanitarianism, known as moral treatment
rush
published first psychiatric textbook, rekindled scientific approach, spoke out for changes
dix
proposed legislature that and demanded state-funded public hospitals
greisinger
focused on the role of the brain rather than spirit possession, wrote on pathology and treatment
Kraepelin
improved the diagnosis of psychological disorders
psychoanalytic model
abnormal behavior is explained through the unconscious workings of the mind
medical model
view that abnormal behaviors result from physical problems
Braid
introduced the term hypnotism, mesmerized (heightened state of suggestibility)
mesmer
used hypnotic techniques, believed in magnitism
Liebault
used hypnotic sleep as a substitute for drugs, treated nervous and psychological disorders
Bernheim
used hypnosis to treat nervous and psychological disorders
Charcot
believed that hypnotizability was a symptom and hypnosis was creating a physical change in the nervous system
hysteria
a disorder in which psychological problems become expressed in physical form
national comorbididy study
54% of adults with one psychological disorder have another psychological disorder
incidence
is the frequency of new cases within a given time period
prevalence
number of people who have ever had the disorder at a given time or over a specified period
adoption study
researchers look at children whose biological parents have diagnosed psychological disorders but whose adoptive parents do not
cross-fostering study
researchers look at children who are adopted by parents with psychological disorders but whose biological parents don't
biological markers
study of measurable characteristics whose family patterns parallel the pattern of a disorder's inheritance
genetic mapping
mapping the entire sequence of genes to study diseases thought to be genetic
mental health parity
requires equal insurance coverage for physical and mental illnesses
prevalence of psychological disorders in the US
32% lifetime prevalence
mental disorder
a clinically signigicant behavioral or psychological syndrom or patter that occurs in an individual and that is associated with present distress or diability with a significantly increased risk of suffering death, pain, disability or an important loss of freedom
medical model of DSM
assumes that disorders are diseases
atheoretical orientation
descriptive and classifying rather than explanatory
multiaxial system
classified into relevant areas of functioning
axis 1
major clinical disorders or clinical syndroms
axis 2
personality disorders and mental retardation
axis 3
general medical conditions
axis 4
psychosocial and environmental stressors
axis 5
global assessment of functioning
differential diagnosis
ruling out all other diagnosis
case formulation
an analysis of the client's development and the factors that might have influenced his or her current psychological status
cultural formulation
formulation that takes into account the client's degree of identification with the culture of origin, the culture's beliefs about psychological disorders, the ways in which certain events are interpreted within the culture and the cultural suppors available to the client
milieau therapy
believing that the environment is a major component of the treatment, need a new setting and a team of pofessionals
evidence based practice in psychology
clinicians should base thier treatments on state-of-the-art treatment while taking into account particular features of the client
ADIS IV
anxiety disorders interview schedule
SCID - I
structured clinical interview for DSM axis I disorders
SCID - II
structured clinical interview for DSM axis II disorders
CIDI
composite international diagnostic interview
IPDE
International personality disorder examination
SADS
schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia
reliability
consistency of test scores
validity
extent to which a test measures what it is designed to measure
Stanford-Binet
IQ test measuring based on age and mental age
wechslet intelligence scales
divided into verbal and performance
MMPI
minnesota multiphasic personality inventory, self report particular thought, feelings and behaviors
NEO
measures personality through self report on five dimensions/traits
projective test
technique in which the test-taker is presented with an ambiguous item or task and is asked to repsond by providing meaning
behavioral assessment
measurement techniques based on a recording of the individuals behavior
environmental assessment scales
individual rates key dimensions hypothesized to influence behavior
GSR
galvanic skin response, sensitive indicator of emotional responses based on electrical changes in the skin
EEG
electroencephalogram, measures electrical activity in the brain, indicating level of arousal
CT
xrays of various angles of the body, provides cross sections of the brain
MRI
xray constructs picture of the brain using water content
PET
positron emission tomography, injection of radioactive material to show blood flood, oxygen and level of brain chemicals
ECG
recording of the heart through skin response
EMG
records activity of the skeletal muscles
neuropsychological assessment
gathering information about a client's brain functioning on the basis of psychological tests
psychodynamics
interaction of the three personality structures below observable behavior
id
aggressive instincts, follows pleasure principle, immediate gratificatoin
primary process thinking
id's loosely associated, idiosyncratic and distrorted cognitive representation of the world, instincts are represented by images
ego
gives judgement, memory, perception and decision making
reality principle
a motivational force that leads the individual to confront the constraints of the external world
secondary process thinking
logical and rational problem solving of the ego
libido
the energy of the id that pressures for gratification
secondary process thinking
logical and rational problem solving of the ego
libido
the energy of the id that pressures for gratification
superego
controls the ego's pursuit of the id's desires
superego
controls the ego's pursuit of the id's desires
oral stage
(0-18 mo) stimulation through mouth and lips
anal stage
(18mo- 3yrs) stimulation of the anal in expulsion and retention
oral stage
(0-18 mo) stimulation through mouth and lips
anal stage
(18mo- 3yrs) stimulation of the anal in expulsion and retention
phallic stage
(3-5yrs) genital area is focus of sexual feelings, want to have sex with opposite sex parent, kill same sex
phallic stage
(3-5yrs) genital area is focus of sexual feelings, want to have sex with opposite sex parent, kill same sex
latency
(5-12yrs) imitates behavior of adults, little psychological interest
latency
(5-12yrs) imitates behavior of adults, little psychological interest
genital stage`
(12-adult) resurfacing of sexual energy
genital stage`
(12-adult) resurfacing of sexual energy
Jung
believed that archetypes (common experiences) lie at the center of the unconscious, ex. hero, evil
Jung
believed that archetypes (common experiences) lie at the center of the unconscious, ex. hero, evil
Adler and Horney
emphasis on the ego and self-concept, motivated to maintain consistent and favorable view of themselves
Adler and Horney
emphasis on the ego and self-concept, motivated to maintain consistent and favorable view of themselves
Erikson
people develop based on 8 crisis which are handled either healthy or not
humanistic perspective
belief that human motivation is based on an inherent tendency to strive for self-fulfillment and meaning in life
Carl Rogers
person-centered theory, focuses on uniqueness of each individual and achieving max potential
client-centered
roger's approach that everyone is innately good
maslow's hierarchy of needs
must fulfill bare physical needs, safety, love/belonging, self-esteem then self-actualization
treatment under humanistic
unconditional positive regard, reflection and clarification, motivational interviewing
family perspective
abnormality is caused by disturbances in the patterns of interactions and relationships that exist within the family
intergenerational
parent's experiences affect their children, parents with dysfunctions pass them on
structural
in normal families everyone has a distinct role and problems arise when people become too close or too distant
strategic
resolution of family problems, particularly power relationships in family
experiential
dysfunction comes from interference with personal growth
self-efficacy training
people will preform better when they think they can do well
social learning theory
how people develop psychological disorders through their relationships with others
social cognition
the factors that influence the way people perceive themselves and others
counterconditioning
replacing an undesired response with an accepted response
assertiveness training
client is taught to express justified anger rather than be anxious or intimidated
contingency management
behavioral therapy, rewarding good behavior, not rewarding bad
cognitive restructuring
clinician helps the client alter the way he views the world, himself and the future
panic control therapy
cognitive restructuring, exposure to bodily cues and breathing retaining
acceptance and commitment therapy
accept the full range of their subjective experiences as they commit themselves to tasks aimed at achieving behavior change that will lead to an imporved quality of life, accept rather than avoid
technical eclecticism
match a specific intervention to each client and presenting problem
theoretical integration
formulating a psychotherapeutic approach that brings divergent models together on a consistent basis in one's clinical work
common factors approach
the clinician develops a strategy by studying the core ingredients that various therapies share and choosing the components that have been demonstrated over time to be the most effective
fear
an innate, almost biologically based alarm system to a dangerous situation
anxiety
future-oriented and global, a state in which the individual is inordinately apprehensive, tense and uneasy about the prospect of something happening
panic disorder prevalence
with agor. 1.1% without 1.6%
onset of panic disorder
late adolescence
specific phobias
fear that is irrational and disruptive
prevalence of specific phobias
13%
onset of specific phobias
childhood and adolescence
social phobia
interrupts life lasts longer than 6 months across different situations
onset of social phobia
midteens
prevalence
3-13%
GAD
generalized anxiety disorder, at least 6 mo. worry about nothing specific, more common in women
GAD prevalence
3-5%
onset of GAD
early but can onset later
OCD
most have poor insight, recognize irrationality
onset OCD
men: 6-25,, women 20-29
OCD prevalence
2.5%
treatment of OCD
linked to brain structures, SSRI, CBT
acute stress disorder
symptoms lasting one month or less, numbing, decreased awareness, depersonalization, derealization, dissociative amniesia, flashback
prevalence of acute SD
estimated 14-30%
PTSD
lasts more than a month, all acute symptoms and a foreshortened future, intrusions and avoidance
prevalence of PTSD
8%
neuron
nerve cell, transmits information between body and brain
synapse
points of communication between neurons
genome
complete set of instructions for building cells
phenotype
physical expression of the genes
gene
functional unit of dna carrying a specific set of instructions