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134 Cards in this Set

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part of the unitary disease model of alcolohism suggesting that a person develops alchoholism after going through a series of mutually exclusive, invariable phases
stage theory
the view that people learn from models to expect that drinking will have positive consequences for them, including being socially stimulating and hoping them forget aversive events or unpleasant memories, is called..
cognitive expectancy theory
circumstances that may lead a former substance abuser to begin drinking or taking drugs again are called
high risk situation
a set of symptoms, usually opposite in nature to the effects of the drug itself, that result when prolonged use of substance has altered the body to such an extent that it is affected when the substance is not taken
withdrawal
the need for increased dosages of psychtropic medications to experience the same effects is called
tolerance
the debate over whether treatment for alchohlism should be total cessation of drinking or moderately controlled drinking
abstinence vs. controlled drinking
a combination of behavioral skills taught to clients who are trying to gain self-control over thier drinking
prevention training
the term used in psychodynamic theories to describe individuals who are prone to alchohlism because their need for oral gratification was not satisfied early in life
oral dependent personality
a set of behaviors including lethargy, an inability to derive pleasure, unpleasant mood, impaired judgement, lack of interest in conventional goals, and perhaps some deterioration of attention and memory which may result from long-term use of cannabis is called
cannabis antimotivational syndrome
drugs, including alchol, that excercise temporary and non specific depressant effects on the central nervous system are called
sediative- hypnotic anxioltic agents
a physiological need for a drug, characterized by tolerance and withdrawal
addiction
a synthetic drug administered orally, the actions of which are similar to those of the opiods, used in some programs to treate opiate dependence is called
methadone
the likelihood that a person will respond maladaptively to a situation is called
vulnearbility
a person's reaction to an initial relapse into drug use is called
abstinence violation
the view that alcohol and other drugs are used excessively because the user perceives that they will have positive effects and that those effects are desired to repair defects of character or to achieve subjective sensations
percieved effects theory
a type of study in which four groups are used in an effort to seperate the pharmacological from the expectancy effects of drugs is called
balanced placebo design
a learning theory view that people learn to use alcohol and other drugs because such use realives tension, whether from anxiety, depression, fear, or social avoidance, is called
tension reduction hypothesis
the percentage of first time users who persist in the use of a drug is called
continuation
subgroups of alchohl users are called
alchoholic subtypes
a system that predicts adolescent alcohol and other drug use that relies on the sheer number of risks involves is called multiple risk factor model
multiple risk factor model
a therapy for substance abusers and thier families that includes designing specific strategies the families can use to solve problems and changing the relationships amoung individual pairs within the family is called
structural strategic family therapy
use of a psychoactive substance characterized behaviorally by a subjective compulsion to use the drug and by a progressive comprimise of activities that are not drug related and physically by tolerance and withdrawal is called
addiction
reappearance of substance abuse following a period of remission is called
relapse
a model of addiction suggesting that alcoholics differ from normal persons in terms of psychological predisposition and an "allergic" sensitivity to alcohol which lead to a craving for alcohol and loss of control regarding alcohol is called the
unitary disease model
interventions to reduce the likelihood of substance abuse are called
prevention
individuals recieving treatment for substance abuse who are required by courts to recieve the treatment are called
coerced clients
a state of health in which a previously active disorder or illness has receded or disappeared entirely is called
remission
a collection of symptoms- including low weight and small size at birth, some facial and limb irregularities, and mental and motor retardation- exhibited by some children born of women who drank heavily while pregnant is called
fetal alcohol syndrome
a class of alcoholism in parents characterized by beginning to drink in early adulthood and showing health effects in middle ages is called
type 1 alcoholism
an individual's beliefs about the effects a drug will have, which can sometimes exert greater control over psychological and behavioral functioning than the pharacological effects of the drug itself, are called
expectancies
a class of alcoholism in parents characterized by few medical problems but severe social, interpersonal, and occupational disruptions of life in which their sons are far more likely than sons of normal parents to become alcoholic is called
type 2 alcoholism
the return to and maintenance of a healthy state following relapse is called
remission
feelings of dissatisfaction with one's biological identity
gender dysphoria
a technique used in sex therapy to improve both physical exploration and communication, in which partners progress through various types of touching to learn more about what gives pleasure to eachother, is called
sensate focus
a paraphilia characterized by the desire to watch unsuspecting people, usually strangers, who are nude, undressing, or engaging in sexual activity, is called
voyeurism
early experiences of wishing to be (or believing one truly is) the opposite sex is called
childhood gender identity disorder
low or absent desire for sexual activities or lack of sexual fantasies is called
hypoactive sexual desire
the legal definitoin of sexual activity perpertrated by an older person on a child is called
child molestation
in sex dysfuntions, the adoption of a role as a critical observer of oneself rather than a participant, which grows out of performance anxiery and can impair further erectile disorder, is called the
spectator role
increased worry about personal sexual performance by a male who experienced erectile disorder in the past; paired with the spectator role is called
performance anxiety
a form of sexual molestation involving sexual contact between family members is called
incest
a female sex hormone, the levels of which affect the development and maintenance of secondary sex characteristics in women, is called
estrogen
hormones such as testoterone, whcih are related in males to sexual desire and motivation are called
androgens
involuntary muscle spasms of the outer portion of the vagina that interfere with entry of the penis is called
vaginismus
a term applied to therapies that use a variety of techniques and commonly include extensive assessment, communications skills training, and cognitive-behavioral and behavioral components is called
multimodal
a stage of sexual response cycle during which sexual tension mounts to a peak, usually leading to orgasm is called the
plateau phase
genital pain during or after intercourse in either males or females is called
dyspareunia
the likelihood that after release from prison an offenfer is later convicted of another crime is called
recidivism
a more severe and infrequent form of sexual desire disorder, involving extreme aversion to sexual contact and total avoidance of sexual activity is called
sexual aversion disorder
a stage of the sexual response cycle during which various areas of the body, including sexual organs, experience vasocongestion (swelling) and muscle tension, heart rate, and blood pressure increase is called the
excitement phase
drugs that suppress testosterone and thus reduce the sex drive are called
antiandrogen medications
a female sex hgormone that varies in level throughout the menstrual cycle is called
progesterone
a form of seuxal masochism that involves sexual arousal by oxygen deprication is called
hypoxyphilia
the first stage of sexual response cylce; a state of interest in or motivation for sexual activity is called the
desire phase
the displaying of genitals to an involuntary observer is called
exhibitionism
another term for a person with gender identity disorder
transexual
the rejection of traditional masculine or feminine roles is called
gender non conformity
difficulties experienced by females in attainting or maintainging sexual arousal is called
female arousal disorder
brief, behaviorally oriented treatments with techniques aimed specifically at sexual problems and typically treated in the context of a couple relationship
sex therapy
intense sexual urges involving non sexual items or a part of the body is called
fetishism
a fetish in men involving the wearing of women's clothing as a means of increasing sexual pleasure
transvestic fetishism
a female's inability to sustain sexual arousal or achieve orgams
female orgasmic disorder
the general term for problems in sexual interest or performance that cause distress to individuals or difficulties in their relationships is called
sexual dysfunctions
a condition in which a person persistently experiences discomfort with his or her biological sex and expresses profound identification with the other
gender identity disorder
sexually arousing urges and fantasies involving acts that cause physical or psychological suffering to another person is called
sexual sadism
inhibited male orgasm is called
male erectile disorder
recurrent, intense sexual urges and fantasies about an atypical choice that may be acted on or cause marked distress for at least six months
paraphilia
difficulties experienced by males in attaining or sustaining adequate erection until completion of sexual activity is called
male erectile disorder
recurrent intense sexually arousing fantasies and urges involving being humiliate, beaten, bound, or otherwise made to suffer is called
sexual masochism
a cause of treatment that includes careful psychological screening and counseling, hormonal treatment, and sex change surgery, all aimed at enabling an individual to alter lifestyle and physical characteristics to match gender identify
sexual reassignment treatment
a stage of the sexual response cycle characterized by involuntary muscle spasms and the release of tension is called
orgasm phase
surgically implanted artificial means of achieving erections are called
penile prosthesis
recurrent instense sexual urges and fantasies about sexual activity with a child by persons at least 16 years old and at least 5 years older than the child
pedophilia
a male's reaching orgasm so quickly that his own enjoyment or that of his partner is reduced is called
premature ejaculation
a personality disorder marked by difficulties in interpersonal relationships as well as by abnormalities of thought, behavior, and appearance that are similar to, but not severe enouhg to be considered, schizophrenia
schizotypal personality disorder
as personality disorder marked by pervasive suspicion of others and distrust of thier motives is called
paranoid personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by a history of callousness, desregard for social conventions and others' rights and feelings, and illegal conduct
antisocial personality disorder (APD)
a trait indicated by a person's being sociable, talkative, and outgoing is called being
uninhibited
a personality disorder marked by aloofness from relationships and emotional coldness is
schizoid personality disorder
a trait indicated by a person's being shy, quit, and timid is called
inhibited
a personality disorder characterized by social discomfort- timidity and fear of negative evaluation
avoidant personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by pervasive patterns of dependent and submissive behavior, leaving the person seemingly unable to make even everyfay decisions for himself or herself
dependent personality disorder
behavior tendencies believed to be biologically based and present from birth; disposition is called
temperment
a personality disorder characterized by pervasive instability of mood, chaotic relationships, and uncertain self image is called
borderline personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by traits such as excessive emotionality, flamboyance, and attention seeking is called
histronic personality disorder
a childhood or adolescent problem, consisting of a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior that involves violation of basic rights of others is
conduct disorder
a continuum from low or none to extreme on which personality traits may be scaled; a proposed alternative view of personality disorders is called
dimensions
a disorder marked by an overall pervasive preoccupation with perfectionism, orderliness, and control over the self and others to the point of rigidity and inefficiency is called
obseseive-compulsive personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by grandiosity- an inflated sense of self-importance, accompanied by the expectation of being treated as special and being entitled to favorable treatment or exemption from the rules others must follow- is called
narcissistic personality disorder
a continuing pattern of percieving and relating to the world, usually present since childhoof or adolesence, that is maladaptive across a variety of contexts and results in notable impairment or distress
personality disorder
a treatment program for young juvenile offenders that has cognitive, school, and family focus
multisystemic treatment (mst)
behavioral excesses or poorly controlled behaviors that are bothersome to others are called
disruptive behavior disorders
failure to respond to punishment
deficient avoidance learning
lawful and unlawful acts of distruction
violence
childhood sexual assault
sexual molestation
beliefs and expectations about other persons' availability, trustworthiness, and caring, which can be positive or negative are called
interpersonal schemas
tendency to be numb, unresponsive, or even callous is called
emotional desenzitization
difficulty in delaying or supressing an immediate urge or response when a careful or controlled response might produce more desireable or appropriate results
poor impulse control
a model that emphasizes the interaction of biological and psychological factors in the development of antisocial conduct and violent behavior is the
bisocial model
a person who lacks the ability to inhibit reposnses in the face of possible punishment is called
disinhibited
aggressiveness that erupts suddenly is called
impulsive aggressiveness
women who have been physically beaten by their domestic partners
battered women
the type of rapist motivated by the experience of sexual pleasure from pain, suffering, and humiliation of women is called
sadistic rapists
a hormone associated with the male characteristics that has been studied in regard to a possible role in aggresiveness and sexual behaviors is called
testosterone
a marriage between persons with similiar psychological disorders or who both have some psychological disorder is called
assortative mating
a kind of personality with prominent traits of selfishness, deceitfulness, and callousness that can be reflected- althouht not necessarily demonstrated- in various illegal ways
psychopathy
acquitions of behaviors and attitudes from watching others is called
observational learning
a framework holding that the quality of the parent-infant bond guides fundamental aspects of the child's social, intellectual, and self-esteem development by shaping how the child views the self and other people
attachment theory
desire for exciting, stimulating, or even dangerous experiences, hypothesized to be related to antisocial behavior is called
sensation seeking
sexual assault that involves sexual penetration in the contect of physical coercion or the threat of harm is called
rape
a legal rather than a mental health concept, which refers to violations of the law owing to any cause is called
criminality
body signs of awareness such as heart and respiration rate and electrodermal activity are called
psychophysiological arousal
inprisonment as punishment got a crime is called
incarceration
the use of psychological pressure or physical force to engange in sexual contact with a child in which the assailant is at least several years older than the child is called
childhood sexual assault
the use of psychological pressure or phsyical force to engage in unwanted sexual contact that involves gentital touching or intercourse is called
sexual assault
the infliction of damage sufficient to cause injury and even death, as well as psychological scars is called
physical abuse
the failure to provide proper care for children or to meet their nutritional, emotional, medical, and physical needs is called
neglect
violence that occurs in the home between intimates
domestic violence
efforts to public agencies to provide counseling and community and school programs as alternatives to incarceration for youths found guilty of crimnical or antisocial behavior are called
juvenile diversion programs
the tendency to believe erroneously that negative events are caused by other people who intend harm is called
hostile attributional programs
abesnt or low levels of physical reactions to fearful or aversive conditions cause by other poeple who intend harm
deficient emotional arousal
a characteristic of ADHD, the tendency to take action suddenly, without considering the consequences
impulsivity
the innapropriate elimination of feces in the absence of a physical disorder; fecal parallel to enurnesis
encopresis
a condition manifested in a pattern of negativistic, hostile, and defiant behavior that has lasted a minimun of six months
oppositional defiant disorder
psychological difficulties that are considered inner-directed, core symtoms associated with overcontrolled behaviors
internalizing disorders
a treatment applied to the families of children with conduct disorder in which parents are taught skills for better managing their children with the aim of undermining detrimental family interactions
action-oriented family therapy
maladaptive behavior patterns in children, across several situations, that create problems for others
externalizing disorders
another term for bulimia
binge-purge syndrome
another term for externalizing disorders
behavioral disorders
a tic disorder that involves multiple motor tics, usually involving the head and that consists of one or more verbal tics
tourette's disorder
applied to a child with a conduct disorder to describe antisocial behaviors that are confrontive, such as fighting, arguing, and temper tantrums
overt behaviors
an eating disorder characterized by an intense dear of becoming obese, a distorted self-perception of body image, refusal to maintain normal body weight, and in females, cessation of menstruation
anorexia nervosa
a choldhood or adolescent problem consisting of a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior that involves violation of the basic rights of others and of the major age appropriate social norms
conduct disorder
the tendency to believe erroneously that negative events are caused by other people who intend harm is called
hostile attributional biases