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117 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Schizophrenia does not involve...
split or multiple personalities
"Schizo", "phrenia"
splintering, mind
What is schizophrenia
it involves splintering or fragmenting of mental processes (e.g. - thought, perception, emotion, social functioning, etc.) so that they are no longer coordinated
Result of schizophrenia
psychosis - loss of touch with reality
symptoms of schizophrenia
1.) thought content 2.)thought form 3.)attention and perception 4.) affect, motivation, social functioning
thought content
what the patient is thinking (delusions of persecution, grandeur, thought control)
thought form
how the patient is thinking (loosening of associations, incoherence, neologisms - make up words only they know)
Attention and Perception
"over-attention", hallucinations
Affect, Motivation, and Social Functioning
blunted effect, anhedonia, social withdrawal, avolition
Positive Symptoms
Excessive activation or inadequate inhibition of behavior or mental process (delusions, hallucinations, thought disorder)
Negative Symptoms
deficits in behavior or mental processes (flat affect, anhedonia, avolition, apathy, social withdrawal)
5 subtypes of schizophrenia
paranoid, disorganized, catatonic, undifferentiated, residual
paranoid schizophrenia
delusions of persecution or grandeur & auditory hallucinations
disorganized schizophrenia
Inappropriate affect (e.g. silliness), incoherence; if delusions or hallucinations are present, content is not well organized
catatonic schizophrenia
highly excited or frozen motor behavior
Undifferentiated schizophrenia
psychotic symptoms; does not meet criteria for other subtypes
Residual schizophrenia
Absence of prominent symptoms, but continued impairment in affect, motivation, and social functioning; milder forms of odd thinking or perceptual experiences may be present
Psychotic symptoms may also be present in...
mania and depression, drug abuse, and organic brain syndromes (dementia)
Psychotic symptoms that occur in mania or depression are...
never occurring outside a mood episode, are usually mood-congruent
age of schizophrenia onset in males
late adolescence to early 20s
age of schizophrenia onset for females
Onset pattern of schizophrenia
rapid vs insidious
course of illness for schizophrenia
chronic vs. episodic
Long-term outcome of schizophrenia
burnout hypothesis, rule of thirds
Percentage of 1st and 2nd degree relatives compared to general population at risk for schizophrenia
1st degree: 7-10%, 2nd degree: 2-3%, general population: 1%
twin studies concordance rate between MZ and DZ twins for schizophrenia
MZ: 50% DZ: 10%
What percentage of schizophrenia comes from genetics?
limitations of family and twin studies
- share same environment
- twins look alike and may dress alike
- MZ twins often share the same placenta
2 environmental causes for schizophrenia
pregnancy or birth complications (maternal viral infection, fetal hypoxia-oxygen level temporarily cut off), disturbed family interactions (Tienari study)
Current Theory of Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia results if one has a certain critical number of the predisposing genes and (at least in some cases) particular environmental stressors
How do genes affect behavior indirectly?
By producing proteins involved in CNS structure and function
Original version of Dopamine (DA) Hypothesis
Excessive DA activity causes schizophrenia
Clinical efficacy of neuroleptic drugs
- many patients improve (about 50-70%)
-Efficacy related to effectiveness of blocking DA
-most patients require maintenance medication
What type of dopamine receptors do neuroleptics block?
D2 type
DA agonists (amphetamines, L-dopa, cocaine) can produce...
psychotic states
Problems with DA hypothesis
-timing of peak D2 receptor blockade does to correspond to peak antipsychotic efficacy, not all patients respond to antipsychotics (only 30-50%), n0o evidence of an intrinsic abnormality in DA system, DA can affect and be affected by many neurotransmitter systems
Current Theory of DA Hypothesis
Schizophrenia is caused by decreased connections between neurons, affecting the relative balance of dopamine, glutamate, and other neurotransmitter systems
Symptoms of depression
inability to experience pleasure, mood disturbance, low self esteem, feelings of guilt and worthlessness, low energy, psycho motor retardation, lack of motivation, poor concentration, focus on self, social isolation, appetite and social disturbances, suicidal thought, many cases: anxiety, irritability & substance abuse
Types of Mood Disorders
unipolar and bipolar
unipolar disorders
major depressive disorder - at least one major depressive episode, and dysthymic disorder - chronic, mild depression
Bipolar disorders
Mania - euphoria, heightened creativity and sexuality, and hypomanic symptoms - excessive elation, increased sociability, sense of humor, talkativeness, irritability, impulsiveness
hypomanic episode may progress to:
open expressions of anger, inflated self-esteem, pressured speech, poor judgement
possible symptoms in final manic stage
grandiose delusions, reckless and dangerous behavior, flight of ideas
Bipolar I disordr
at least one manic episode
Bipolar II disorder
at least one major depressive episode and at least one hypomanic episode ( no full blown manic)
Cyclothymic Disorder
A chronic, but less sevre, form of bipolar disorder- lasts at least 2 years
Prevalence of unipolar depression in men and women
2.6% of men, 7% of women
prevalence of bipolar disorder
socio-cultural factors of mood disorders
gender and SES
cell body
central region of the neuron containing the cell's nucleus
the cell structure that conducts the nerve impulse
axon terminals (presynaptic terminal)
the end region of the axon, site of synaptic contact with another cell
synaptic vesicles
where neurotransmitters are stored in the axon terminals
point of contact between two neurons
receive synaptic inputs from other neurons; they form the post-synaptic side of the synapse
specialized protein molecules on dendrites that detect neurotransmitters in the synapse.
Biogenic amines
neurochemicals that facilitate neural transmission
the 4 biogenic amines
catecholamines, epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine
tricylic Antidepressants
block the process of reuptake of catecholamines
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
Inhibit reuptake of serotonin, an inhibitory neurotransmitter (ex: prozac, zoloft, paxil)
2 ways to deactivate a neurotransmitter in the synapse:
reuptake and chemical breakdown by enzymes
Monoamineoxisade (MAO)
breaks down monoamines chemically and renders them inactive
drug treatment for Bipolar Disorder
lithium carbonate and anticonvulsant medication
neuroendocrine systems
link the brain, hormones, and certain organs
Underlying idea of the Cognitive Behavioral Model
Emotions are a result of cognitions and by changing cognitions, you can change emotions
Who states that 'Depression is a disorder of thinking as much as of mood'
Aaron Beck
The Negative Cognitive Triad
negative thinking of: the self, the world, the future
depressed schemas
a general way of thinking that guides perceptions and interpretations of events; underlying negative beliefs
The Negative Cognitive Triad and depressed schemas combine to create:
Automatic Negative thoughts and illogical thinking
goal of cognitive behavioral theory
Change automatic negative thoughts and illogical thinking associated with depression
Assumption of Cognitive Behavioral Theory
By changing relevant beliefs, change in the emotional reaction should follow
CBT technique - Scheduling of Activities
increase time for social activites as a way to facilitate pleasurable activities and enhance positive emotions
3 column technique
3 questions - A. What is the evidence for and against the belief? B. What are the alternative interpretations? C. What are the real implications, if the belief is correct?
Electro convulsive therapy (ECT)
muscle convulsions, often affective on severely unipolar depressed when other options fail, overused in 40s and 50s, modern technology reduce side effects
diathesis =
genetic vulnerability
early hypothesis for onset of schizophrenia
dysfunctional family environments cause schizophrenia
family factors for onset of schizophrenia
schizophrenogenic mother, double bind communication (words different from tone)m communication deviance, Tienari study, expressed emotion, critical comments, hostile remarks, emotional overinvolvement
Traditional antipsychotic medications
blocks about 70% of D2 receptors, primarily effects positive symptoms, improves 50-60%
Side effects of anti psychotic medications on schizophrenia
1.)extrapyramidal symptoms - effecting motor symptoms, severe muscle stiffness
2.)tardive dyskinesia - uncontrollable lip smacking, tongue protrusions - developed by 25%
Atypical psychotic medicines
may block fewer than 40-50% D2 receptors while also blocking other subtypes of receptors, effective in positive symptoms as well as some negative, less side effects
others treatments for schizophrenia besides medication
supportive therapy, skills training, family education
3 approaches to abnormal behavior
Statistical, Ideal State Model, and Legal Model
Statistical Approach
behavior practiced by the majority is a sign of mental health, behavior that deviates is abnormal
Ideal State Model
construct an objective criteria of good or ideal mental health, deviations of the ideal state are interpreted as indicators of underlying pathology,
Legal Model
legal definitions of sanity are based on the ability to distinguish right from wrong and understand the consequences of the charges for the crime
Thomas Szasz
author of "Myth of Mental Illness"
2 criteria according to Wakefield that a mental disorder must have
condition is harmful and condition reflects dysfunction
problem suppression facilitation model
culture helps to shape child's behavior
Adult distress threshold model
culture helps to shape adult's attitudes towards child behavior
juvenile delinquency
Legal term used for children and adolescents who display chronic antisocial behavior
cognitive behavior factor for aggression
aggressive boys tend to ascribe hostile motives to other children when cues about the other child's intentions are ambiguous
goals of cohersion
to decrease an undesired parent behavior and increase a desired parent behavior
differential attention
natural social reinforcer - use hugs to give attention to positive behavior
4 behavioral treatment interventions
differential attention, rewarding prosocial behavior, time out, token systems
Conduct Disorder
aggression, destruction of property, deceitfulness, theft, serious rule violations, often in adolescents
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
negative, hostile, defiant behavior, minor rule violations, often in school aged children
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorder
hyperactive, attention deficit, impulsiveness
ADHD treatment
psycho stimulants such as ritilin
side effects of psychostimulants
decreased appetite, increased heart rate, sleep difficulties, motor tics in small percentages of cases, slowed physical growth
developmental norms
behavior typical for children at a given age
Do psychologist prefer private therapy with child or family therapy
family therapy
Index offenses
crimes against people or property that are illegal at any age
Status Offenses
acts that are illegal only because of the youth's status as a minor
what percentage of the 63 million children in the US suffer from a mental disorder
6 Family predictors of behavioral problems
low income, overcrowding in the home, maternal depression, paternal antisocial behavior, conflict between parents, removal of child from home
inborn behavioral characteristics including activity level, emotionality, and sociability
Authoritative Parenting
most loving and firm, best for child rearing well-adjusted children
Authoritarian Parenting
lacks warmth, the discipline is often strict, harsh, and autocratic
Indulgent parenting
affectionate but lacks in discipline
Neglectful Parenting
Parent not concerned with child's emotional needs or need for discipline - often seen in children with Conduct Disorder
occurs when parent positively reinforces a child's misbehavior by giving into the child's demands. The child negatively reinforces the parents by ending his or her obnoxious behavior as the parents capitulate
ignoring the child's misbehavior, pushing it, or rewarding positive actions
ultimate goal of socialization
behavioral family therapy
treatment based on learning theory principles that teaches parents to be very clear and specific about expectations of their children's behavior, to closely monitor their actions, reward positive behavior, and ignore or mildly punish misbehavior
Multisystematic therapy
intervention with conduct disorders that combines family treatment with coordinated interventions in other important contexts such as peer groups, schools, and neighborhoods
repeat offending
Achievement Place
A residential group home that operated according to highly structured behavior therapy principles