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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
syndrome
a group of symptoms that appear together and are assumed to represent a specific type of disorder
Ways of defining abnormal behavior
personal distress, statistical deviance, social non-conformity
Harmful dysfunction
a concept used in one approach to the definition of mental disorder. A condition can be considered a mental disorder if it causes some harm to the person and if the condition results from the inability of some mental mechanism to perform its natural function.
Epidemiology
the scientific study of the frequency and distribution of disorders within a population
Incidence
the number of new cases of a disorder that appear in a population during a specific period of time
Prevalence
the total number of active cases, both old and new, that are present in a population during a specific period of time
Lifetime Prevalence
the total proportion of people in a given population who have been affected by the disorder at some point during their lives
Comorbidity
the simultaneous manifestation of more than one disorder
Etiology
the causes or origins of a behavior
Paradigm
a set of shared assumptions that includes both the substance of a theory and beliefs about how scientists should collect data and test the theory
Four paradigms
biological, humanistic, psychodynamic, cognitive behavioral
Biological Paradigm
looks for biological abnormalities that might cause abnormal behavior
Psychodynamic Paradigm
asserts that abnormal behavior is caused by unconscious conflicts stemming from early childhood experiences (Freud)
Cognitive behavioral paradigm
views abnormal behavior-and normal behavior-as the result of different forms of learning
Humanistic Paradigm
argues that the very essence of humanity is free will, the belief that human behavior is a voluntary choice, not a product of internal or external events (also assumes that human nature is inherently good); behavior is not caused by internal or external events
Holism
the whole is more than the sum of its parts (a central tenet of systems theory)
Reductionism
the scientific perspective that the whole is the sum of its parts, and that the task of scientists is to divide the world into its smaller and smaller components
Genotype
an individual’s actual genetic structure, most of which cannot be observed directly at this time
Phenotype
the observed expression of a given genotype or genetic structure, for example, eye color
Probands
the index case, or person with the disorder
MZ & DZ twin studies
twin studies can provide strong evidence about genetic and environmental contributions to a disorder
Monozygotic twins vs. Dizygotic twins
twins are identical and share 100% of their genes and DZ twins are fraternal and share 50% of their genes
Concordance
concordant when both twins have or don’t have the disorder and discordant when one does and the other doesn’t
Diathesis stress model
suggests that mental disorders develop only when a stress is added on top of a predisposition; neither the diathesis nor the stress is enough to cause it
Diathesis
predisposition toward developing a disorder
Reciprocal causality
the concept of causality as bidirectional (or circular). Interaction is a process of mutual influence, not separable causes and effects.
Systems theory
an innovation in the philosophy of conceptualizing and conducting science that emphasizes interdependence, cybernetics, and especially holism-the idea that the hole is more than the sum of its parts.
Equifinality
a concept from systems theory that states that the same outcome (e.g. a psychological disorder) may have different causes. That is, there may be not one cause but multiple pathways that lead to a given outcome (disorder).
Multifinality
the same event can lead to different outcomes
Classical conditioning
learning through association
Operant conditioning
asserts that behavior is a function of its consequences (behavior increases if it’s rewarded or decreases if it’s punished)
Risk factors
events or circumstances that are correlated with an increased likelihood or risk of a disorder and potentially contribute to causing the disorder
Behavior genetics
studies genetic influences on the evolution and development of normal and abnormal behavior; study various human characteristics in an attempt to demonstrate that the behavior has a more or less genetic origin
Classification
subdividing or organizing a set of related objects
Categorical approach
they have it or they don’t/they are or they’re not
Dimensional approach
focuses on the amount of a particular characteristic an object possesses
Threshold
combines categorical and dimensional
Reliability
consistency of measurements, including diagnostic decisions
Inter-rater reliability
refers to agreement of raters about observations
Validity
meaning or importance of a classification system
Types of Validity
etiological, predictive, concurrent
Etiological Validity
concerned with causes of the disorder; concerned with the specific factors that are regularly and perhaps uniquely associated with a particular disorder
Concurrent Validity
concerned with the present time and with correlations between the disorder and other symptoms, circumstances and test procedures
Predictive Validity
concerned with the future and with the stability of the problem over time (will it be persistent?)
etic perspective
emphasis on universals among human beings from a position outside the culture of interest (outsider)
emic perspective
examines culture from within a culture, using culture-specific criteria
Problem Suppression-Facilitation Model
-culture suppresses (via punishment) some behaviors and models (via reinforcement and modeling) other behaviors
Adult-Distress-Threshold Model
culture determines adult thresholds for different types of child problems
family incidence studies
do disorders run in families?
proband
the index person in a family
shortcoming of twin studies
assume that pairs of MZ twins are not treated any more alike than are pairs of DZ twins
Reciprocal gene-environment model
genes might influence the environment that people seek out. environmental factors may bring out a genetic predisposition. the two are not independent
3 properties of the DSM IV
1)depends on observations and descriptions, rather than causes 2)categorical 3)multiaxial
Axis 1
clinical disorders:characterized by episodic periods of psychological turmoil
Axis 2
personality disorders and mental retardation: stable, longstanding problems
Axis 3
general medical conditions
Axis 4
psychosocial and environmental problems
Axis 5
global assessment of functioning (GAF)
When is gaf score assessed?
1)highest in last year
2)at intake
3)current