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99 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Emotion: a state of arousal defined by subjective states of feeling
Affect: a pattern of observable behavior that are associated with subjective feelings
mood: durational emotional response (can change a persons perspective on life
Is deptression a mood or a disorder?
it can be both
What is Mania?
the flipside of depression
what are the 2 primary categories of mood disorders?
unipolar depression, bipolar
how can you determine if a person is sad or depressed? (5 things)
1. it's across all situations and over time
2. out of proportion to circumstances
3. impairment socially
4. additional symptoms
5. it's a "strange" sadness
what are 2 emotional symptoms both depression and manic episodes have?
anger/irritability and anxiety
what are some cognitive symptoms of depression?
trouble concentrating slowed thinking, easily distracted, difficulty making decisions
what are some cognitive symptoms of mania?
grandiosity, fast thinking, discracted easily
define somatic symptoms?
symptoms affecting physiological or bodily functions
what are some somatic symptoms of depression?
tiredness, sleep problems, change in appitite, los of sex drie
what are some somatic symptoms of manic episodes/
lots of energy, no need to sleep
what is psychomotor retardation?
slowed movement
what is the most likely co-morbid syndrome with a mood disorder?
Anxiety disorders
who is emil kraepelin?
a grenman physician who divided mental illness into 2 categories: dementia praecox and manic-depressive psychosis
why is depression a controversial topic for the DSM?
not all people have the same symptoms and there are broad varieties of depress
what are the 2 unipolar disorders?
major depressive disorder and dysthymia
what major criteria must a patient meet to have MDD?
at leas one major depressive episode and NO manic episodes
In what 2 ways does dysthymia differen from depression?
Severity (less) and Duration (longer)
what must a person have to qualify for dysthymia?
2 years of symptoms, sad more days than not, and 2 additional symptoms
what is hypomania?
mania but not severe enough to be called full blown mania
what is Bipolar 1?
a person who has exhibiited at least 1 manic episode and usually experiences MDD episodes
what is bipolar 2?
a person who has had 1 major depressive episode, 1 hypomanic episode, and no mania
what is the difference b/n mania and hypomania?
duration (4 days for hypomania vs. a week for mania) and Severity (hypo doesn't interfere with life, mania does)
what is cyclothymia?
a less severe form of bipolar that spans over 2 years and includes hypomania and some depression
what is pseudologia fantastica?
fantastic lying
what is factitious disorder?
when someone feigns sickness to assume a sick role. there are no external factors driving it.
what is munchausens/facticious disorder by prox?
making someone else sick to be the "caregiver"
how can you tell if someone is a victim of factitious disorder by proxy?
if the person gets better when they are away from the "caregiver"
whats the difference b/n somataform disorder, factitious disorder, and malingering?
somatoform wants attention and is preoccupied with the illness, factitious is to assume a sick role, and maligering is for external gain
what is the individual specificity response?
people react to the same stressor differently
what is homeostasis?
normal everyday physiology of a person's body
what is allostasis?
adapting to a new environment
what is allostatic load?
when you have too much stress and it takes a toll on the body
what is the SAM system?
the sympathoadrenalmedullary system of arousal to stress, the "fight or flight" system
what is the HPA system?
the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal system that arouses from stress over time. it produces glucocorticoids.
what did Galen believe caused depression?
black bile
why are depression and heart disease comorbid?
1 there is heightened sympathetic arousal (higher bp)
2. inflamation(artheriosclerosis)
3. heightened cortisol causes more platelets causes more clotting
4. depressed people don't exercise
why do people with mental illnesses die earlier?
1. medical issues
2. poverty/stress
3. health care system
why do you get depressed when you quit smoking?
1. cigarettes enhance seratonine, dopamine and norepinephrine. it also breaks down MAO
How many people with be affected with depression?
50%, 1/10 americans will have depression
why are younger people getting depression?
1. stress
2. breakdown of family structions
3. age of narcissim
4. pollutants
5. social isolation
what triggers bipolar?
stress, not enough sleep, caffiene, substances, genetics
when is the first bipolar episod for someone (typically)?
22-25 years old
why do you need therapy in addiition to meds with bipolar?
1. educate yourself on symptoms 2. reduce stress3. help impaired relationships 4. help with debilitating depression
what is ahedonia?
lack of pleasure
what is ahedonia?
lack of plasure
what is atypical depression?
sleep too much and eat too much
what is a "developmentally limited" illness?
only occurs during the ages 18-25
what is a "rapid cycler"?
someone who has bipolar and has more than 4 cycles of high/low over 12 months
what is mixed state?
bipolar with both manic and depressive features
what is bipolar III?
what is bipolar IV?
when a depressed patient is given anti depressants and it triggers mania
what is Bipolar V?
when a patient has a family history of bipolar, and comes in for depression, they are given mood stabilizers instead of antidepressents
what is Bipolar VI?
just mania
what is Labile?
fluxuation in moods
what is treatment resistant depression or refractory depression?
depression that doesn't respond to treatment
what is double depression?
when you have dysthymia and MDD
what is hyper somnia?
when you sleep too much
what is agitated depression?
when you are irritable, move alot, and have lots of energy
what is retarded depression?
when you have psychomotor impairments
what is endogenous depression?
when the depression just occurs, there is no need for a stressor to trigger the depression
what is reactive depression?
when you have depression in reaction to a stressor (death or loss)
what are the 5 types of pharmicological treatment for bipolar?
moodstabilizers (lithium)
how does lithium work?
it increases GABA and decreases Glutamate
what are some problems with lithium?
30-40% of people don't respond to it, it can be toxic, cause mental confusion, and it works slowly
what are 3 examples of an anticonvulsant used for bipolar?
carbamazapine, valproic acid, lamictal
why might you want to use anti-convulsants for bipolar?
they work more quickly.
what are some biopsychosocial reasons for women to have depression more than men?
bio: hormones, body changes, infertility issues, birth control issues
psycho: cognitive styles, more victims of rape/assault/abuse, marriage is going wrong
Social: body image from media, poverty
who are the most likely people to commit suicide?
older white men
what are the gender differences in suicde attempts? completions?
women 2-3x more likely to attempt
men 2-3x more likely to succed
why are men more likely to succeed in suicde?
methods have more lethality (guns vs. poison)
Describe the differences of suicide and parasuicide in:
situation: S=unendurable pain PS=intense but sporadic varied pain
purpose: S=End the pain PS=alert someone, get someone invovled
emotion: S=hopeless PS=distressed
thought: S=highly constricted, means to an end PS=planning
what is the best predictor of a successful suicide?
previous attempts
what is a lightbulb suicide?
when someone appears to be getting better then completes suicide
why are people who are poets, writers and artists more likely to have mood disorders?
they have lots of ideas, energy, emotions and they have a shifting experience to draw upon
How much has BP increased? What are 4 reasons for this increase?
we are more sensitive to bp
the DSM allows more diagnosis
drug companies encourage diagnosis
the symptamatology has changed
How are trantrums different between pedicatric BP and ADD?
Sleep issues?
BP=more intense/prolonged than ADD
BP= more difficult to fall assleep than ADD
BP= more intense nightmares
BP=purposeful agression, ADD= random agression
what is depletion?
when someone becomes lethargic, has no interest in life, is irritable, etc.
what is SAD?
when someone becomes depressed during the winter months, most likely connected to the circadian rhythm
How can you treat SAD?
10000 lux light, eating carps for the tryptophan
how does tryptophan work?
it allows seratonin to cross the blood brain barrier.
what are STEPS to consider when perscriping depression meds?
what is the first anti-depression med tried?
what do MAOIs do?
inhibit MAO (which breaks down seratonin, dopamine and norepinephrine
what are the problems with MAOIs?
food that conains tyramine can build up and could lead to death.
what are SSRIs?
Selective Seratonin Reuptake Inhibitors. give you more seratonin.
2 examples of SSRIs?
Paxil and Prozac
what are the 2 biggest problems with Paxil and Prozac?
insomnia and GI distress
what are SNRIs?
1 example?
seratintin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors.
what is wellbutrin?
an SNRI that gives more norepeniephrine and dopamine. Largest problem is with insomnia
Name two tricyclics
Elavil and Tofranil
what is the main goal with perscriptions?
to find the maximum effect with the fewest side effects.
describe the HPA system
stress->hypothalamus->pituitary secretes ACTH->adrenal gland is stimulated by ACTH-> releases cortisol
what brain structures are affected in depression?
PFC (dorsolateral) decreased activity, PFC orbital and Ventromedial increased activity, anterierior cingulate cortex decreased activation ( attention and emotion connection), amygdala has problems
what are the 4 types of suicide?
egotistic, altruistic, anomic, fatalistic
what is egotistic suicide?
when they feel the world would be better off without them, depression is a culprit
what is altruistic suicide?
when the culture says they must commit suicide
what is an Anomic suicide?
occurs after a sudden breakdown in social order (economic trouble for example)
what is a fatalistic suicie?
when a person's living situation becomes unbearable (such as a slave)