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76 Cards in this Set

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abnormal - 3 criteria
1. psychological dysfunction
2. personal distress
3. atypical or not culturally expected
psychological dysfunction
- breakdown in cognitive, emotional, or behavioral functioning
- inability to pursue social, occupational, and inter- & intrapersonal goals
DSM
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Hippocrates (in the somatogenesis phase)
classified mental disorders into 3 catagories
1. Mania
2. Melancholia
3. Phrenitis (brain fever)
Hippocrates: Humoral Theory was...
Normal brain function related to four bodily fluids or humors
1. Phlegm
2. Black Bile
3. Blood
4. Yellow Bile
Phlegm
sluggish and dull
black bile
melancholia/depression
blood
changeable temperament
yellow bile
anxiety/irritability
treatment
regulate the environment
rest, good nutrition, exercise
bloodletting
purging
Emil Kraeplin
classified mental disorders on the basis of clusters of symptoms, called "syndromes."
2 major mental illness groups
1. Dementia praecox (SZ) - chemical imbalance
2. manic-depressive psychosis (BP) - metabolic irregularity
Louis Pasteur's Theory
Germ Theory of Disease
general paresis
aka - syphilis:
symptoms: delusions of persecution and delusions of grandeur
Josef Breuer
cathartic method
he found hysteria due to repressed memories and emotions and used hypnotic techniques to help
Franz Gall - Phrenology
thought the brain is the "organ of the mind" and that brain areas have localized, specific functions
phrenology
personality traits, character and criminality could be determined by feeling the bumps and fissures on the head.
theory abandoned by early 20th century
Manfred Sakel - Insulin Shock Therapy
convulsions caused by overdose of insulin helped treat SZ
Ladislaus von Meduna - Chemical Shock
"biological antagonism" between epiepsy and SZ
Intravenous injections of metrazol
Cerletti and Bini - electroconvulsive Shock Therapy
electric shock applied to electrodes attached to head
-improvements in acute-onset SZ
ECT benefits
retrograde amnesia
very effective in treating disorders
decreased in the 60's and 70's due to effective medicine and misuse of ECT
psychosurgery (frontal lobotomies)
lesions of the frontal lobes: prefrontal areas amputated from the rest of the brain
Gottlieb Burckhart (psychosurgery)
removed portions of the cerebral cortex from SZ brains. patients became more "peaceful"
insulin Shock therapy
dangerous biological treatment involving the administration of large doses of insulin to induce seizures
Egas Moniz (psychosurgery)
first brain surgery to treat mental illness in Portugal in 1935. decreased the emotioinal distress, anguish, obsessions & compulsion's of his patients. IQ unaffected but changed person to childish, irresponsible & failure to carry out plans
(psychosurgery) Freedman's "ice-pick" lobotomy
sedation was two quick shocks to the head. then role back eyelid; insert ice pick, when certain depth is reached, move ice pick back and forth in sweeping motion
ice pick
advocated for individuals who were not seriously ill. Outcomes: death, paralysis, childlike, devoid of personality.and discontinued after Thorazine.
NOW: Multidimensionial Integrative Approach
approach to the study of psychopathology which holds the psychological disorders are always the products of multiple interacting causal factors
NOW: Multidimensionial Integrative Approach
5 FACTORS
biological, behavioral, cognitive, environmental and developmental
Biological perspective - hypothesis:
faulty biology causes a mental disorder.
Biological perspective -
2 primary biological contributions
- genetics
-neurochemisty
psychosurgery (frontal lobotomies)
lesions of the frontal lobes: prefrontal areas amputated from the rest of the brain
Gottlieb Burckhart (psychosurgery)
removed portions of the cerebral cortex from SZ brains. patients became more "peaceful"
insulin Shock therapy
dangerous biological treatment involving the administration of large doses of insulin to induce seizures
Egas Moniz (psychosurgery)
first brain surgery to treat mental illness in Portugal in 1935. decreased the emotioinal distress, anguish, obsessions & compulsion's of his patients. IQ unaffected but changed person to childish, irresponsible & failure to carry out plans
(psychosurgery) Freedman's "ice-pick" lobotomy
sedation was two quick shocks to the head. then role back eyelid; insert ice pick, when certain depth is reached, move ice pick back and forth in sweeping motion
ice pick
advocated for individuals who were not seriously ill. Outcomes: death, paralysis, childlike, devoid of personality.and discontinued after Thorazine.
NOW: Multidimensionial Integrative Approach
approach to the study of psychopathology which holds the psychological disorders are always the products of multiple interacting causal factors
NOW: Multidimensionial Integrative Approach
5 FACTORS
biological, behavioral, cognitive, environmental and developmental
Biological perspective - hypothesis:
faulty biology causes a mental disorder.
Biological perspective -
2 primary biological contributions
- genetics
-neurochemisty
Behavioral Genetics: (def)
study of individual differences in behavior that are attributable in part to differences in genetic makeup.
behavioral genetics: 3 differences
-genotype
-phenotype
-heritability
genotype
specific genetic makeup of an individual. it is what is INHERITED
phenotype
observable characteristics or behaviors of an individual. (the syndrome) a predispostion for a disorder may be inherited, not the disorder itself
syndrome
classification of clinical disorders
identical twins (MZ)
monozygotic twins who share identical genotypes share common characteristics such as a disorder
(twin method) concordance rates
similarity of a diagnosis or traits within a pair of twins
(twin method) random mating
if people choose mates with characteristics similar to themselves, then DZ twins could share more than 50% of their genes. however two-fold increase in genetic overlap in MZ vs. DZ should outweigh any complications.
Diathesis-stress model
hypothesis that both an inherited tendency (a vulnerability) and specific stressful conditions are required to produce a disorder. but vulnerability doesn't guarantee development of the disorder
panic attacks
abrupt experience of intense fear or discomfort accompanied by a number of physical symptoms, such as dizziness or heart palpitations
Reciprocal gene-environment model
hypothesis that people with a genetic predispostion for disorder may also have a genetic tendency to create environmental risk factors that promote the disorder
neurochemistry
psychopathology caused by a breakdown in 1 or more biochemical processes
neurotransmitters
chemicals released from axon terminals by neuron firing
neurochemistry
-Agonists
mimic NT effects
block reuptake (Prozac)
- Antagonists
-inhibit or block NT production
-occupy receptor sites
inverse agonists
produce effects opposite to those produced by the NT
-increase production of competing biochemical substances that deactivate the NT
Reductionism
the complex and emotional processes involved in mental disorders can NOT be reduced to simple biology
Behaviorism
abnormal behavior is learned the same way as "typical" behavior - through interactions with the environment
classical (respondent) conditioning - Ivan Pavlov
repeatedly pairing a neutral stimulus with a response until the neutral stimulus elicits that response by itself
extinction
elimination of the CR by repeated presentation of the CS without the UCS
"Neurotic Paradox"
fear increases over successive non-reinforced presentations of the CS
Law of Effect
thorndike.
interested in the effect that consequences have on behavior.
def. behavior followed by pleasant consequences increases in frequency and vice versa
Principle of Reinforcement
= Law of Effect
Operant (Instrumental) Conditioning
fundamental behavioral learning process in which responses are modified by there consequences
Systematic Desensitization
behavioral therapy technique to deminish excessive fears, involving gradual exposure to the feared stimulus paired with a positive coping experience, usually relaxation. (based on classical conditioning)
counter conditioning (reciprocal inhibition) Therapy
relearning by eliciting a new response in the presence of a feared stimulus.
technique: pair feared stimulus with pleasurable (incompatible) responses/behaviors
underlying assumption
learning is mediated by cognitive representations
cognition
the mental processes of thinking, perceiving, judging, reasoning, and planning
schema
a mental structure for organizing information about the world and integrating new information with old
rational emotive therapy (albert Ellis)
treatment approach that seeks to identify and eliminate irrational beliefs that may cause maladaptive emotions and behavior
cognitive therapy
treatment approach that involves identifying and altering negative thinking styles related to psychological disorders such as depression and anxiety and replacing them with more positive beliefs and attitudes--and, ultimately, more adaptive behavior and coping styles
cognitive-behavioral therapy
group of treatment procedures aimed at identifying and modifying faulty thought processes, attitudes and attributions, and problem behaviors; often used synonymously with cognitive therapy
Dysfunctional beliefs (aaron beck's cognitive theory)
general attitudes that develop early in life and make one vulnerable to psychopathology
diathesis stress model
hypothesis that both an inherited tendency (a vulnerability) and specific stressful conditions are required to produce a disorder
rational emotive therapy (Ellis) cognitive-behavioral
treatment approach that seeks to identify and eliminate irrational beliefs that may cause maladaptive emotions and behavior.