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25 Cards in this Set

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multidimensional integrative approach
approach to the study of psychopathology, which holds that psychological disorders are always the products of multiple interacting causal factors
genes
Long deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules, the basic physical units of heredity that appear as locations on chromosomes
diatheses-stress model
Hypothese that both an inherited tendency (a vulnerability) and specific stressful conditions are required to produce a disorder.
vulnerability
suceptibility or tendency to develop a disorder
reciprocal gene-environment model
Hypothesis that people with a genetic predisposition for a disorder may also have a genetic tendency to create enviornmental risk factors that promote the disorder.
neuroscience
Study of the nervous system and its role in behavior, throughts, and emotions.
neuron
Individual nerve cell responsible for transmitting information
synaptic cleft
space between nerve cells where chemical transmitters act to move impulses from one neuron to the next
neurotransmitters
chemicals that cross the synaptic cleft between nerve cells to transmit impulses from one neuron to the next. Their relative excess or deficiency is involved in several psychological disorders
hormone
chemical messenger produced by the endocrine glands
brain circuits
neurotransmitter currents or neural pathways in the brain
reuptake
action by which a neurotransmitter is quickly drawn back into the discharging neuron after being released into a synaptic cleft
agonist
chemical substance that effectively increases the activity of a neurotransmitter by imitating its effects
antagonist
chemical substance that produces effects opposite thos of a particular neurotransmitter
serotonin
neurotransmitter involved in information processing, coordination of movement, inhibition, and restraint; it also assists in the regulation of eating, sexual, and aggressive behaviors, all of which may be involved in different psychological disorders. Its interaction with dopamine is implicated in schizophrenia.
cognitive science
Field of study that examines ho humans and other animals acquire, process, store, and retrieve information
learned helplessness
Seligman's theory that people become anxious and depressed when they make an attribution that they have no control over the stress in their lives (whether in reality they do or not).
modeling
learning through observation and imitation of the behavior of other individuals and the consequences of that behavior.
prepared learning
Certain associations can be learned more readily than others because this ability has been adaptive for evolution
implicit memory
condition of memory in which a person cannot recall past events even though he or she acts in response to them
fight or flight response
biological reaction to alarming stressors that musters the body's resources (e.g., blood flow, respiration) to resist or flee the threat.
emotion
pattern of action elicited by an external even and a feeling state, accompanied by a characteristic physiological response
mood
enduring period of emotionality
affect
conscious, subjective aspect of an emotion that accompanies an action at a given time.
equifinality
developmental psychopathology principle that a behavior or disorder may have several different causes