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70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Major Depressive Episode requires ____ symptoms be present for at least ______ .
5 symptoms, 2 weeks
For dx of Manic Episode, ____ symptoms must be present for at least ______.
3 symptoms, 1 week.
Dx of hypomanic episode requires ____ sxs that last at least _____.
3 symptoms, 4 days
Mixed Episode symptoms must last at least _____.
1 week
What percentage of women experience sxs severe enough to warrant a dx of Major Depressive DO or other Mood DO following birth of a child?
10 to 20%
What proportion of women dvp depressive psychosis that may include delusions about the newborn following the birth of a child?
1 in 500 to 1 in 1,000
What is the rate of depression in women and men?
Beg in adolescence, it is twice as common in females as males. Prior to that time, it is about equal.
What is the average age of onset of MDD?
In what % of cases do depressive sxs remain for mths to years?
20 to 30%
In what % of cases does a person experience more than 1 depressive episode?
What are the neurotransmitter abnormalities implicated in depression? (3)
Catecholamine hypothesis (low NE);
Indolamine hypothesis (low 5HT);
Permissive theory (low 5HT interacts with NE and DA)
What are the hormonal disturbances implicated in depression?
Elevated levels of cortisol
What are the brain abnormalities implicated in depression?
Lack of new cell growth in left subgenual prefrontal cortex and hippocampus
What are the behavioral and cognitive-behavioral theories implicated in depression? (3)
Learned helpless model;
Recent change to model;
Rehm's self-control model
What is the learned helplessness model?
Prior exposure to uncontrollable negative events coupled with attribution of negative events to internal, stable, global factors
What is the latest update to the learned helplessness model?
De-emphasizes role of attributions, emphasizes role of helplessness
What is the self-control model?
Combo of self-monitoring, self-evaluation, self-reinforcement
In a large-scale NIMH study comparing cognitive therapy, interpersonal therapy and imipramine, what % of pts receiving cognitive therapy remained sx-free 18 months later?
In a large-scale NIMH study comparing cognitive therapy, interpersonal therapy and imipramine, what % of pts receiving IPT remained sx-free 18 months later?
In a large-scale NIMH study comparing cognitive therapy, interpersonal therapy and imipramine, what % of pts receiving imipramine remained sx-free 18 months later?
In a large-scale NIMH study comparing cognitive therapy, interpersonal therapy and imipramine, what % of pts in the placebo group remained sx-free 18 months later?
Dxic criteria for Dysthymic DO
Chronically depressed mood present most of the time for at least 2 yrs in adults or 1 yr in children and adolescents;
Must never be a period of more than 2 months where person is sx-free.
Which is more effective - cog therapy, imipramine or IPT for depression?
Equally effective.
Which is more effective for preventing relapse of depression - cog therapy, imipramine or IPT?
Cog is slightly better.
Is Bipolar I DO more common in males or females?
Equally common.
Is Bipolar II DO more common in males or females?
More common in females.
What is the average age for the first episode of mania?
Early 20s
Etiology of Bipolar DOs? (2)
Genetic factors;
Stressful life events
What is the concordance rate of Bipolar DO for monozygotic twins?
What is the concordance rate of Bipolar DO for dizygotic twins?
Lithium is effective in ____% of cases of "classic" bipolar DO.
60 to 90%
Dxic criteria for Cyclothymic DO
Duration of symptoms for at least 2 years for adults or 1 year for children and adolescents.
In the US, where does suicide rank in causes of death?
8th leading cause of death.
What % of people who commit suicide have made at least 1 previous attempt?
60 to 80%
What % of suicidal people give a definite warning of their intention?
What age group has highest rates of suicide attempts?
24 to 44
What age group has highest rates of completed suicides?
55 to 64
What age group has experienced greatest increase in suicide rates in the last 15 to 20 years?
10 to 19, w/ largest being for those between 10 and 14
What proportion of males commit suicide compared to females?
4 to 5 times as many
What proportion of females attempt suicide compared to males?
3 times as many
Which race has highest suicide rates?
Whites except in adolescence where Native American tribes are higher.
Which marital status has highest rates of suicide?
Divorced, separated, widowed, followed by single.
Which marital status has lowest rates of suicide?
When is risk for suicide greatest following divorce?
1st year and continues to be elevated for another 4 years.
What % of suicidal individuals have a hx of severe depression?
50 to 80%
What are the top 3 most common psychiatric illnesses among people who commit suicide?
Mood DOs
Physical illness is a contributing factor in ___% of all suicides.
Dxic criteria for Panic DO (2)
2 or more unexpected panic attacks (1 of them followed by concern about another);
4 symptoms
How quickly does a panic attack usually peak?
10 minutes
Is Panic DO more common in females or males?
What % of agoraphobics are female?
Up to 75%
What is the age of onset for Panic DO?
Most often in adolescence or during the mid-30s.
What is the overall effectiveness of "in vivo exposure with response prevention" as tx for Agoraphobia and panic attacks?
60 to 70%
What is the risk for relapse when drug tx is used for Panic DO?
30 to 70% within months of discontinuing the drug.
When is the onset of Specific Phobia usually?
During childhood or in mid-20s
Etiology of Specific Phobias (2)
Mowrer's 2 factor theory (avoidance conditioning);
Vicarious learning
Dxic criteria for OCD
Take more than 1 hour per day
Is OCD more common in males or females?
Equally common
What is the average age of onset of OCD in males and females?
Age of onset earlier for males among children and adolscents so OCD more prevalent in males.
Etiology of OCD (2)
Low levels of 5HT;
Overactive right caudate nucleus
What % of people who comply with combined tx of tricyclic (clomipramine) or SSRI and exposure with response prevention for OCD experience reduction in sxs?
Dxic criteria for PTSD
Sxs present for at least 1 month;
Sxs usually begin w/in 3 months after event (though can be delayed)
Dxic criteria for Acute Stress DO (3)
Sxs must have onset within 4 weeks of trauma;
sxs must last for at least 2 days but no longer than 4 weeks;
3 or more dissociative sxs
Dxic criteria for GAD
Sxs relatively constant for at least 6 months;
3 sxs
Tx for agoraphobia and panic DO (3)
In vivo exposure with response prevention;
Panic control therapy;
Imipramine, SSRIs, benzos, anticonvulsants
Tx for specific phobia (3)
In vivo exposure;
In vivo desensitization and participant modeling;
Cognitive self-control
Tx for social phobia (5)
Cog-beh group therapy;
Phenelzin (MAOI);
SSRIs, SNRI (Venlafaxine);
Tx for OCD (2)
Combo of exposure with response prevention and clomipramine or an SSRI;
thought stopping
Tx for PTSD - acute stage
Debriefing approach;
Brief prevention program - exposure in imagination, relaxation, cog restructuring
Tx for PTSD - chronic (3)
Combo in vivo or imaginal exposure with stress inoculation of anxiety mgmt;
Tricyclic antidepressants;