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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 3 diagnostic criteria for Mental DOs due to a GMC?
1) Evid. from hx, phys. exam, and/or lab findings that condition is direct physiol. conseq. of GMC
2) Disturbance not better explained by substance-related or primary mental DO
3) Disturbance does not occur only during course of delirium.
What type of dementia is most common?
What percentage of cases does AD account for?
What are the sxs of Stage 1 AD? (4)
Anterograde amnesia (esp. declarative memories);
Deficits in visuospatial skills (wandering);
Indifference, irritability, and sadness;
What are the sxs of Stage 2 AD? (5)
Increasing retrograde amnesia;
Flat or labile mood;
Restlessness and agitation;
Fluent aphasia, acalculia and ideomotor apraxis (inability to translate an idea into movement)
What are the sxs of Stage 3 AD? (4)
Severely deteriorated intellectual fng;
Limb rigidity;
Urinary and fecal incontinence
When does Stage 1 AD occur?
1 to 3 years
When does Stage 2 AD occur?
2 to 10 years
When does Stage 3 AD occur?
8 to 12 years
What is the average duration of AD from sx onset until death?
8 to 10 years
AD is more common in males or females?
Etiology of AD (4)
Aluminium deposits in brain tissue
Malfunctioning immune system
Low level of ACh
What kinds of genetic abnormalities occur in AD? (2)
Chromosome 21 - early-onset familial type
Chromosome 19 - later-onset type
After a stroke, when does most improvement occur?
First 6 months
What % of people with PD eventually develop dementia?
20 to 60%
Etiology of PD
Not clear, but most common form probably due to environmental factors.
When do sxs of Huntington's dz usually first appear?
Between 30 and 40 years.
What is the order of sxs in Huntington's?
Affective, cognitive, motor.
Substance Dependence is diagnosed when there are ____ sxs over _______ period.
3 symptoms during 12 mth period.
Potential for future relapse in alcoholics is reduced when person attributes episode of drinking as a mistake resulting from _______, _______, and _______ factors.
Specific, external, controllable.
Cig smokers are ____ times more likely than nonsmokers to experience myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest or stroke.
3 to 4 times.
Within 1 to 5 years after smokers quit, the risk for myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest or stroke is reduced to ________.
the same risk as those who never smoked.
What % of people trying to quit smoking maintain LT abstinence?
What % of smokers quit on their own without prof. help?
What are the 2 factors that precipitate relapse in smokers?
1) negative mood
2) presence of smoking cues
Successful smoking cessation programs have 3 elements. What are they?
1) nicotine replacemt therapy
2) multicomponent beh therapy
3) support and assistance from clinician
For a diagnosis of Substance Abuse, there has to be presence of _____ sx during a ______ period.
1 sx, 12 month
Alcohol-Related DOs are associated with ___________.
all Substance-Induced DOs except Persisting Perception DO
What is dxic criteria for Sz?
Continuous disturbance of 6 months or more with 1 month of 2 or more active-phase sxs.
What are common co-diagnoses with Sz?
Substance Dependence and Nicotine Dependence
What is the prevalence rates for Sz in males and females (according to DSM-IV-TR)?
Slightly higher for males than females
What is the modal age of onset of Sz for males?
18 to 25
What is the modal age of onset of Sz for females?
25 to 35
Which gender has more positive symptoms of Sz?
Which gender has more negative symptoms of Sz?
Over time, what happens to positive and negative sxs of Sz?
Positive sxs tend to decrease, while negative sxs tend to increase.
What is the incidence of Sz in the general population?
.5% to 1.5%
What is the concordance rate of Sz for biological sibling?
What is the concordance rate of Sz for fraternal (dizygotic) twin?
What is the concordance rate of Sz for identical (monozygotic) twin?
What is the concordance rate of Sz for child where both parents are schizophrenic?
What are the typical brain abnormalities associated with Sz? (2)
Inc'd volume of lateral and 3rd ventricles, hypofrontality;
What are the neurochemical theories in the etiology of Sz? (3)
DA hypothesis;
Elevated NE and 5-HT, low GABA and glutamate;
Prenatal factors implicated in Sz?
Born in late winter or early spring (exposure to influenza virus?)
What are the family factors implicated in Sz?
Double-bind communication
High expressed emotion
Dxic criteria for Schizophreniform DO
Disturbance present for at least 1 month but less than 6 months
What proportion of ppl with Schizophreniform DO go on to receive a diagnosis of Sz?
Dxic criteria for Delusional DO
Presence of 1 or more nonbizarre delusions that last at least 1 month
Brief psychotic DO
Sxs present for at least 1 day but less than 1 month.
Dxic criteria for Schizoaffective DO
Period of at least 2 weeks during which only psychotic sxs present.