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75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
clinical assessment
systematic evaluation and measurement of psychological, biological, and social factors in a person persentng with a possible psychological disorder
process of determining whether a presenting problem meets the established criteria for a specific psychological disorder
degree to which a measurement is consistent for example, over time or among different raters
degree to which a technique actually measures what is purports to measure
process of extablishing specific norms and requirements for a measurement technique to ensure it is used consistently across measurement occasions. This includes instructions for administering the measure, evaluating its findings, and comparing these with data for large numbers of people.
mental status exam
relatively coarse preliminary test of a client's judgment, orientation to time and place, and emotional and mental state; typically conducted during and initial interview.
behavioral assessment
measureing, observing, and systematically evaluating (rather than inferring) the client's thoughts, feelings, and behavior in the actual problem situation or context.
projective tests
psychoanalytically based measures that present ambiguous stimuli to clients on the assumption that their responses will reveal their unconscious conflicts. Such test are inferential and lack high reliability and validity.
personality inventories
Self-report questionnaires that assess personal traits by asking respondents to identify descritions that apply to them.
intelligence quotient(IQ)
Score on an intelligence test estimating a person's deviation from average test performance.
Neuropsychological testing
Assessment of brain and nervous system functioning by testing an individual’s performance on behavioral tasks.
False positive
Assessment error in which pathology is reported (i.e., test results are positive) when none is actually present.
False negative
assessment error in which no pathology is noted (i.e., test results are negative) when it is actually present.
sophisticated computer-aided procedures that allow non-intrusive examination of nervous system structure and function.
Psychophysiological assessment
measurement of changes in the nervous system reflecting psychological or emotion events such as anxiety, stress, and sexual arousal.
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
measure of electrical activity patterns in the brain, taken through electrodes placed on the scalp.
assignment of objects or people to categories on the basis of shared characteristics.
System of naming and classification (e.g., of specimens) in science.
Classification and naming system for medical and psychological phenomena.
In a naming system or nosology, the actual labels or names that are applied. In psychopathology, these include mood disorders or eating disorders.
Classical categorical approach
classification method founded on the assumption of clear-cut differences among disorders, each with a different known cause.
Dimensional approach
Method of categorizing characteristics on a continuum rather than on a binary, either-or, or all-or-none basis.
Prototypical approach
system for categorizing disorders using essential, defining characteristics and a range of variation on other characteristics.
The presence of two or more disorders in an individual at the same time.
Applying a name to a phenomenon or a pattern of behavior. The label may acquire negative connotations or be applied erroneously to the person rather than to his or her behaviors.
Educated guess or statement to be tested by research.
Research design
Plan of experimentation used to test a hypothesis.
Dependent variable
In an experimental research study, the phenomenon that is measured and expected to be influenced.
Independent variable
phenomenon that is manipulated by the experimenter in a research study and expected to influence the dependent variable.
Internal validity
Extent to which research study findings generalize, or apply , to people and settings not involved in the study.
ability of a hypothesis, for example, to be subjected to scientific scrutiny and to be accepted or rejected, a necessary condition for the hypothesis to be useful.
Any factor occurring in a research study that makes the results uninterpretable because its effects cannot be separated from those of the variables being studied.
Control group
Group of individuals in a research study who are similar to the experimental subjects in every way but are not exposed to the treatment received by the experimental group; their presence allows a comparison of the differential effects of the treatment.
Method for placing individuals into research groups that assures each one of an equal chance of being assigned to any group, to eliminate any systematic differences across groups.
Analog model
approach to research employing subjects who are similar to clinical clients, allowing replication of a clinical problem under controlled conditions.
Extent to which research results apply to a range of individuals not included in the study.
Statistical significance
Probability that obtaining the observd research findings merely by chance is small.
Clinical significance
Degree to which research findings have useful and meaningful applications to real problems.
Case study method
Research procedure in which a single person or small group is studied in detail. The method does not allow conclusions about cause and effect relationships, and findings can be generalized only with great caution.
Degree to which two variables are associated
Positive correlation
Association between two variables in which one increases as the other increases.
Correlation coefficient
Computed statistic reflecting the strength and direction of any association between two variables. It can range from +1.00 through 0 (indicating no association) to –1.00, with the absolute value indicating the strength and the sign reflecting the direction.
Negative correlation
Association between two variables in which one increases as the other decreases.
Possibility that, when two variables, A and B, are correlated, variable A causes variable B or B causes A.
Psychopathology research method examining the prevalence, distribution, and consequences of disorder in populations.
Research method that can establish causation by manipulating the variables in question and controlling for alternative explanations of any observed effects.
Placebo effect
Behavior change resulting from the person’s expectation of change rather than from the experimental manipulation.
Placebo control group
In an outcome experiment, a control group that does not receive the experimental manipulation but is given a similar procedure with an identitical expectation of change, allowing the researcher to assess any placebo effect.
Double-blind control
Procedure in outcome studies that prevents bias by ensuring that neither the subjects nor the providers of the experimental treatment know who is receiving treatment and who is receiving placebo.
Comparative treatment research
Outcome research that contrasts two or more treatment methods to determine which is most effective.
Single-case experimental design
Research tactic in which an independent variable is manipulated for a single individual, allowing cause-and-effect conclusions but with limited generalizability.
Degree of change in a phenomenon over time.
The direction of change of a behavior or behaviors (e.g., increasing or decreasing).
Degree of behavior change with different interventions (e.g., high or low).
Withdrawal design
Removing a treatment to note whether it has been effective. In single-case experimental designs, a behavior is measured (baseline), an independent variable is introduced (intervention), and then the intervention is withdrawn. Because the behavior continues to be measured throughout (repeated measurement), any effects of the intervention can be noted. Also called reversal design.
Measured rate of a behavior before introduction of an intervention that allows comparison and assessment of the effects of the intervention.
Multiple Baseline
Single-case experimental research design in which measures are taken on two or more behaviors or on a single behavior in two or more situations. A particular intervention is introduced for each at different times. If behavior change is coincident with each introduction, this is strong evidence that the intervention caused the change.
Observable characteristics or behaviors of an individual
Specific genetic makeup of an individual
Human genome project
Ongoing scientific attempt to develop a comprehensive map of all human genes
Family Studies
Genetic studies that examine patterns of traits and behaviors among relatives
In genetics research, the individual displaying the trait or characteristics being studied. Also known as index case
Adoption studies
In genetics research, studies of first degree relatives reared in different families and environments. If they share common characteristics, such as a disorder, this finding suggests that those characteristics have a genetic component.
Twin studies
In genetics research, comparisons of twins with unrelated or less closely related individuals. If twins, particularly monozygotic twins who share identical genotypes, share common characteristics such as a disorder; even if they were reared in different environments, this is strong evidence of genetic involvement in those characteristics.
Genetic linkage studies
Studies that seek to match the inheritance pattern of a disorder to that of a genetic marker; this helps researchers establish the location of the gene responsible for the disorder.
Association studies
Research strategies for comparing genetic markers in groups of people with and without a particular disorder.
Genetic marker
Inherited characteristic for which the chromosomal location of the responsible gene is known.
Cross-sectional design
Methodology to examine a characteristic by comparing different individuals of different ages.
Participants in each age group of a cross-sectional research study.
Cohort effect
Observation that people of different age groups also differ in their values and experiences.
Retrospective information
Literally “the view back,” data collected by examining records or recollections of the past. It is limited by the accuracy, validity, and thoroughness of the sources.
Longitudinal design
Systematic study of changes in the same individual or group examined over time.
Cross-generational effect
Limit to the generalizability of longitudinal research because the group under study may differ from others in culture and experience.
Sequential design
Combination fot he cross-sectional and longitudinal research methods involving repeated study of different cohorts over time.
Informed consent
Ethical requirement whereby research subjects agree to participate in a research study only after they receive full disclosure about the nature of the study and their role in it.