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64 Cards in this Set

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what is agenesis?aplasion?
failure of an organ to develop

example: born with one kidney
what is hypoplasia?
partial development of an organ which results in fxnal deficiency

ex. congenital hypoplastic left ventricle
what is atrophy?
shrinkage of a tissue or organ that has formed and matured normally

ex. skeletal muscle due to disuse, testes in elderly males
what is hypertrophy?
enlargement of a tissue or organ due to enlargement of individual cells and tissue consists of permanent nondividing cells

ex. hypertrophy of left ventricle in response to increased workload
what is hyperplasia?

what is this often caused by?
enlargement of a tissue or organ due to increase in cell number

hormonal stimulation
is hyperplasia neoplastic growth?

how is it the same or different
NO

neoplastic growth is an abnormal mass of tissue growing autonomously

ex prostatic hyperplasia due to aging in men

ex. adrenal cortical hyperplasia due to hormonal stimulation from pituitary tumor
what is metaplasia?

what is this in response to?

give an example
a change of 1 cell type into another type

chronically irritating or injurious stimulus

"barrett's esophagus"
what is barretts' esophagus?

what can it lead to eventually?
stratified squamous epithelium of lower esophagus coverts to columnar epithelium due to chronic injury assoc with gastro-esoph acid reflux

leads to cancer
what is dysplasia?

what does this result in?

how are cell nuclei affected
disordered growth typically occuring in epithelial cells

variation of cell size and shape, as well as loss of architectural orientation

may be darker and larger than normal
what is an example of dysplasia?

what will this lead to if it is severe enough
dysplasia of cervical epithelial cells

development of cervical cancer unless gynecologic intervention
how is a benign tumor named?

what is a mesenchymal tumor?
cell or tissue of origin+oma

tumors derived from supportive tissue ex. connective tissue;adipose tissue;cartilage;smooth and striated muscle bone
what is proper name of tumor of fibroblastic origin?

what is proper name of a tumor of smooth muscle origin?
fibroma

leiomyoma
what are benign epithelial tumors?

what do they form?

what is an example?
adenomas

a glandular pattern histologically or derived from a gland

pituitary adenoma
what are papilloma?
tumor producing microscopically or macroscopically visible "finger like" or warty projections from an epithelial surface
what are two origins of malignant tumors?
1. mesenchymal
2. epithelial
where do mesenchymal tumors originate from?

what are they called?

what are examples?
originate from supportive tissue

called sarcomas

ex. fibrosarcoma=fibroblastic tissue
leimysarcoma=from smooth muscle
what are epithelial malignant tumors called?

what are two types?
carcinomas

1. carcinoma with glandular growth pattern:adenocarcinoma
2. carcinoma with squamous cell differentiation:squamous cell carcinoma
what are examples of carcinomas? (where do they arise from )
ex. adenocarcinoma of the colon=malignant tumor originated from colonic glandular cells

ex. bronchogenic squamous cell carcinoma is a malignant tumor arising from bronchial epithelial cells
for each mesenchymal tissue name the benign tumor type and malignant tumor type:

1.fibroblastic
2.lipid
3.smooth muscle
Benign Malignant
fibroma fibrosarcoma
lipoma liposarcoma
leiomyoma leiomyosarcoma
what is the method of naming epithelia squamous type cancers?
benign malignant
squamous organ sqamous organ+
+adenoma adenocarcinoma
is there a benign type of lymphocyte tumor?

what is the malignant name?
no benign

lymphoma
what is benign melanocyte tumor name?

malignant?
nevus=benign

melanoma=malignant
what is benign name for glial cell cancer?

malignant?
no benign type

glioma
what is carcinogenensis?
a multistep process resulting in formation of cancers because damage to multiple normal regulatory genes
how do damaged genes come about in carcinogenesis?
-inherited
-chemical carcinogens
-UV and ionizing radiation
-microbial organisms
what are 4 categories of genes that are altered by carcinogenesis
1.protooncogenes
2.tumor supressor genes
3.genes promoting repair of damaged DNA
4. genes promoting self destruction of cells with damaged DNA
what do protooncogenes promote?

what happens to mutated genes of this type?
regulated cell growth

convert to oncogenes which encode oncoproteins
what are oncoproteins


what are important examples of oncoproteins
promote continued growth in an uncontrolled manner

ex. RAS oncogenes and MYC oncogenes
what are RAS oncogenes?

what are MYC oncogenes
mutations result in continuous transmission of growth promoting signals to cell nuclei

excessive expression causes sustained production of PR's which promote cell lysing
how often do RAS oncogenes occur in human tumors?
15-20%
what do tumor suppressor genes inhibit?

what are important examples
inhibit cell growth

ex. NF-1, NF-2, RB, APC, p16
what are important examples of genes promoting repair of damaged DNA
BRCA-1 and BRCA-2
why genes promoting self destruction important?

what is an important example?

how often is this gene damaged in human tumors?
necessary to prevent damage from becoming continued in dividing cells and permanent

ex. p53

this is the most common gene damaged in human tumors, 50%
what is chemical carcinogenesis?
a two step process:

1. initiation followed by
2. promotion
what is chemical initiation?
chemicals cause permanent damage to DNA
what is a chemical initiator caused by the comubstion of tobacco?

what type of cancer does it cause?
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

bladder and lung cancer
what is the most powerful carcinogen known
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
what type of drugs can cause cancer?

what food preservatives can cause cancer? what type?
certain anti-cancer drugs

nitrosamines and amides, gastric cancer
what causes lung cancer?

what is another name for this cancer?

what is a toxin produced by a fungus?
asbestos

mesothelioma

aflatoxin
where does aflatoxin come from?

what type of cancer does it cause
improperly stored gain in parts of africa and china

primarily liver cancer
what are liver eznymes often necessarY for?

what is carcinogenic potential of an initiating agent often determined by?
activate initiators

by balance between metabolic activation and inactivation
what is promotion of chemical carcinogens?
sustained or enhanced proliferation of cells damaged by initiating agents
what does promotion result in?
increased risk of successive mutations leading to cancer
are cell changes caused by a promter reversible?

what two cases will cause a tumor not to form?
YES, reversible

1.promoting agent is applied BEFORE initiating agent
2. if TIME between multiple applications of the promoter is SUFFICIENTLY EXTENDED
what is associated with increased risk of colon cancer?

what can cause endometrial cancer?

what can alcohol abuse increase risk for?
high dietary fat

exogenous estrogen given w/o progesterone continues the proliferation of uterin lining

cancer of mouth, pharynx and larynx
what is a microbial agent that can cause cervical cancer?
the human papilloma virus
what virus causes certain B cell lymphomas?

what other kind of cancer can it cause
epstein Barr virus

nasopharyngeal carcinoma
how does the epstein barr virus cause cancer?

what is a self limited infectious disease that occurs instead of cancer
infects B lymphocytes and "immortalizes them" and patients with NORMAL IMMUNE FXN result in in cancer

mononucleosis
what virus is the primary cause of liver cancer?

how does it do this?
hep B virus

stimulates continuous regenerative attemps and proliferation of liver cells while a p53 pro interferes with its fxn
what bacteria causes chronic gastric infection?

what type of cancer can this lead to?
helicobacter pylori

gastric carcinomas and gastric lymphomas
what is the treatment of helicobacter pylori
antibiotics to cause regression of gastric lymphomas in most cases
what are the two types of radiation that cause cancer?
1.UV sunlight
2. ionizing radiation
what type of UV ray causes cancer?

what types of cancer does it cause?
UVB

-squamous cell carcinoma
-basal cell carcinoma
-melanoma
what two types of ionizing radiation cause cancer
1.electromagentic-xrays, gamma rays

2. particulate-beta particles, alpha particles, protons and neutrons
what is an example of an ionizing radiation causing leukemia?

what other cancers developed later

what was average time from exposure to development of cancer?
atomic bomb survivors

cancer of thyroid gland, breast and colon and lung

7 years
what is an example of an ionizing radiation caused thyroid cancer in children
nuclear p ower plant accident in chernobyl in 1986
what is an example of ionizing radiation causing lung cancer
miners of radioactive elements
what % of caucasians have a genetic defect that result in an increased risk of lung cancer?

how much do they have to smoke?
10%

very light smokers will still develop cancer
what are tumor suppressor proteins?

what are 4 PRO's that can be an inherited alteration?
genes that normally suppress cell growth

1.Rb PRO
2.NF1 and 2
3.p16
4.APC
what will an alteration of NF1 and 2 cause?

what will an alteration of p16 cause
neurofibromatosis

malignant melanoma
what will an alteration of Rb pro cause?

APC?
retinoblastoma and osteosarcoma

familial adenomastosis polyposis syndrome that leads to colon cancer by age 50
what gene mutation causes breast cancer and ovarian cancer?

what are these genes normal fxn
BRCA1 and BRCA2

repair of damaged DNA
what is another condition of the skin that occurs from an alteration of a gene that repairs damaged DNA
xeroderma pigmentosum
what is am example of a gene that normally prevents propagation of DNA mutations by causing mutated cells to self destruct?

what types of cancers result from an inherited alteration
p53

multiple carcinomas and sarcomas