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96 Cards in this Set

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L. Y Abramson, Metalsky, & Alloys hopelessness theory of depression distinguishes between distal versus proximal causes and sufficient versus contributory causes of depressive symptoms and proposes that a chain of distal and proximal contributory causes lead to hopelessness, which is a proximal sufficient cause of depression?
Abramson Metalsky, and Alloy identify hopelessness as a proximal b/c in the chain of events leading to depression, it is at the end of the chain; and as a sufficient cause b/c of the presence of hopelessness is sufficient to cause depressive symptoms.
The tension reduction hypothesis is based on two assumptions- alcohol reduces tension and people drink it in times of stress because tension reduction is reinforcing.
J.J. Conger argued that people drink to alleviate anxiety and are reinforced for doing so because alcohol does in fact reduce tension (reinforcement theory and the dynamics of alcoholism
GAF 21-30
is assigned when the individual is unable to function in nearly all areas or is experiencing delusion and hallucinations or has serious impairments the communication or judgement.
GAF 31-40
assigned when an individual has a major impair in several areas of functioning or impairments in reality testing or communication
GAF 41-50
A score between 41-50 is assigned when an individual has a serious impairment in functioning (e.g. has no friends) or serious symptoms (e.g., suicidal ideation).
GAF 51-60
Is appropriate when the individual has moderate impairment in functioning or moderate symptoms.
Turner syndrome
Females with this disorder have XO chromosome pattern (i.e., one X chromosome with no other functioning sex chromosome.
Anterior cingulate cortex is located in the limic cortex on the medial side of the cerebral hemispheres.
A number of studies have confirmed that exposure to painful stimuli activates the anterior cingulate cortex. However, the structure does not appear to be involved in the perception of pain but in the emotional reaction to painful stimuli.
What is the impact of culture on the relationship between EE and schizophrenia?
Especially comparing mexican americans and anglo.
Low warmth associated with increased relapse risk for Mexican-Amer pts.

High criticism associated with increased relapse risk for Anglo Americans.
How do patients with schizophrenia from developing and industrialized countries differ?
Those from developing countries more likely to have an acute onset, shorter course, and remission of sx.
What types of memory does Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome affect?
Semantic and episodic.
What are early signs of HIV related dementia?
poor concentration, forgetfulness, difficulty walking and social w/drawal.
Cx for Chronic Motor or vocal tics?
presence of a single or multiple motor or vocal tic

onset prior to age 18
When comparing prolonged exposure, stress inoculation training and comnination which has the best maintenence of treatment effects?
Prolonged exposure has the best long term effects on PTSD sx and depressive sx.
What percentage of cases of MR are attributable to prenatal factors?
50-75% to genetic abnormalities, congenital infections or other prenatal factors.
Types of memory deficits common to Alzheimer's pts.
declaritive memory
recall and recognition problems
Types of memory deficits common to depressed pts.
Impaired recall
Impaired procedural memory
Define Primary gain as it relates to conversion d/o.
symbolic expression of underlying conflict in a physical sx. The goal is keeping the conflict out of awareness.
What disorders are most associated with suicide in adolescents?
depression
Conduct sed/o
antisocial personality d/o and substance abu
What disorders are most associated with suicide in adolescents?
depression
Conduct sed/o
antisocial personality d/o and substance abu
What is the lifetime prevalence of Bipolar 1 d/o?
.4 - 1.6%
What is Hallucination Persisting Perception Disorder? What causes it?
Onset of sx is within one month after drug use and individual does not recognize that the sx are substance induced.

If a person is having hallucinations in this situation they probably took a type of hallucinagin. Mescaline is a type of hallucinogen.
When compared to depression, anxiety involves?
higher level of arousal and a higher level of positive affect.
Someone with antisocial personality d/o would score high on what scales of the big 5 personality factors?
High on neuroticism and low score on agreeableness, low score conscientiousness
What factors will someone with OCPD score high and low on?
high score on neuroticism, low score on some parts of agreeableness, and high on conscientiousness
What factors of the big 5 would someone with Narcissistic PD obtain a high or low score on?
high score on neuroticism, low score on agreeableness, and high score on some conscientiousness.
What factors of the big 5 would someone with Schizoid PD obtain a high or low score on?
Low score on some parts of neuroticism, high score on agreeableness (compliance)and a low score on conscientiousness (achievemetn striving)
Obsessive Compulsive Personality DO is characterized by what?
Preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism and control. D/O does not require the presence of obsessions or compulsions.
What percentage of motehers exhibit "postpartum blues" a mild condition of mood swings and sleep disturbances?
50-80%. While 10-15% of new mothers develop postpartum major depression.
What are sx of panic do in children?
shortness of breath, chest pain, tachycardia and school refusal/
Stage 1 of AIDS dementia complex can best be described as:
Unequivocal evidence of functional, intellectual, or motor impairment but is able to perform all but the most demanding aspects of activities of daily living and can walk without assistance.
Stage 0.5 of AIDS dementia complex can best be described as:
charcterized minimal or equivocal signs of impairment with no deficits in work activities of daily living
Stage 2 of AIDS dementia complex can best be described as:
cannot work or perform demanding activities of daily living and may require assistance when walking
Stage 3 of AIDS dementia complex can best be described as:
significant intellectual impairments and cannot walk unassisted.
What types of memory deficits occur in the early stages of the d/o?
Episodic memory is most obvious but there are also deficits in semantic memory.
Are individuals with diabetes at greater risk for Alzheimer's?
Those individuals with diabetes have double the risk for alzheimers. For those that get insulin treatment the risk is 4 times as great.
What symptom is common among elderly depressed patients?
They report memory loss. But the memory loss usually is not as bad as they percieved to be.
Normal childhood dysfluency d/o
stutering before age 2.5.
Stuttering
A disturbance in fluency inappropriate for one's age.
What proportion of smokers relapse within 3 months of quitting?
2/3 according to Carmody, 1993.
What is a common sx of GAD in children that is not seen in adults?
Children tend to worry excessively about their competence or the quality of their performance. Such worry is often related to school work.
What is the difference between an illusion and a hallucination?
Illusion is a misrepresentation of reality. So someone may see squirrl in the office but it is really a coffee cup. Misperception.

Hallucination is a sensory perception in the absense of an external stimulus, things with no basis in reality.
Define: Derealization
derealization is an alteration in the sense of self- the sense that one is detached from one’s mind or body.
Butzlaff and Hooley 1998 meta-analysis found what with regard to EE and relapase for mood d/o, eating d/o and scz found what? More specifically, in which group was EE most predictive of relapse?
Mean ES were as follows:
Eating d/o = .51
Mood d/o = .39
Scz = .31
Which ethnic group has suicide and homicide rates higher than the national rates?
Homicide and suicide rates in native Americans are higher than National rates.

Homicide and suicide rates are particularly high for males between 10-34 years of age.
Characterize the second stage of HIV infection?
HIV infection second stage is characterized by a strong immune system response swollen glands but few other sx.
HIV stages are:
1. Primary infection
2. Clinically asymptomatic: lasts 8-10 years and involves few clinical sx.
3. Symptomatic
What neurotransmitter has been implicated in Bulimia?
Serotonin
SSRI's have been shown to be effective in treating
Define: Habituation
occurs when as the result of drug use a person desires it but suffers no adverse effects from discontinuing it. habituatoin is the substitute for "habit forming"
Of the following ethnic groups (Whites, African Americans and Hispanics) how do Native Americans compare in terms of rates of alcohol use in the past month(those over age 12)?
According to a report by DHHS in 2000 the % of individuals 12 and over reporting alcohol use in the past month was lower for Native Americans than Whites and Hispanics and only slightly higher than the percentage for African Americans. However, for those 12-17 Native Americans had the highest rate of drinking but only 1 % point higher than for white.
Which type of medications are related to side effects among individuals with Tourette's D/O?
Haloperidol or other dopamine blocking receptos can be problematic bc of the number of side effects. 50% of people with TD develop intolerable side effects.
Narcolepsy is characterized by?
REM sleep at the onset of sleep and often involve cataplexy.
Gerstmann's syndrome is characterized by:
finger agnosia, acalculia, right-left disorientation, dysgraphia
Ganser syndrome:
Seen in patients under examination for commitment and prisoners awaiting trial. responding to simple questions with absurd, approximate, or inappropriate answers/
What is a primary factor that distinquishes Aspergers and Scz?
Stereotyped bx
What proportion of smokers relapse within 3 months of quitting?
2/3 according to Carmody, 1993.
What is a common sx of GAD in children that is not seen in adults?
Children tend to worry excessively about their competence or the quality of their performance. Such worry is often related to school work.
What is the difference between an illusion and a hallucination?
Illusion is a misrepresentation of reality. So someone may see squirrl in the office but it is really a coffee cup. Misperception.

Hallucination is a sensory perception in the absense of an external stimulus, things with no basis in reality.
Define: Derealization
derealization is an alteration in the sense of self- the sense that one is detached from one’s mind or body.
Butzlaff and Hooley 1998 meta-analysis found what with regard to EE and relapase for mood d/o, eating d/o and scz found what? More specifically, in which group was EE most predictive of relapse?
Mean ES were as follows:
Eating d/o = .51
Mood d/o = .39
Scz = .31
Withdrawal Delirium is associated with which medications?
anxiolitics, alcohol, sedatives, and hypnotics.
What is one thing that distinquishes PTSD from Acute Stress d/o?
Duration of sx. Duration of ASD is 4 weeks or under.
Do Anglo-Americans or African-Americans have higher suicide rates?
Anglo americans have higher suicide rates than African -Americans in all age groups. About 2x the rate.
What structure of the brain is implicated in OCD?
According to Baxter et al., (1992) Caudate Nucleus-converts sensory input into cognition and action and is thought to be overactive in individuals with OCD (increase in serotonin levels help).
What is individual factor is associated with the success of interventions for smoking cessation?
Level of dependence will influence response to treatment.

Some males do better with nicotine replacement therapy. Females tend to do better with clonidine.
What is the most effective combinations of treatments for smoking cessation?
Nicotine replacement therapy demonstrates the most effective long term effects when paired with support from a mental health professional and skills training that focuses on ways for avoiding and dealing with relapse.
How does the Abramson et al revision of the learned helplessness theory (1989) differ from the original?
Abramson revision suggests that there is a "hopelessness depression." It demphasizes the role of attributions and focuses on feelings of hopelessness.
How do older adults express depression differently than younger adults?
They are more likely to say that they feel anxious and hopeless and report memory problems. They are less likely to term it in terms of feeling depressed or sad.
How long does it take for clomipramine to be effective?
about 5 wks
Addictive habit patterns can be changed through the application of self-management and self-control procedures is an underlying assumption of what model?
Marlatt and Gordon's relapse prevention model. Relapse prevention is based on acquiring skills needed to decrease relapse risk.
What are the essential features of schizophreniform d/o?
Duration of sx is less than 6 months.

presence of characteristic psychotic sx (delusions, hallucinations, incoherence, loosening of associations, flat affect) impaired functioning.
Characterize brief psychotic d/o.
sudden onset of at least one psychotic sx which lasts under one month.
Characterize Schziotypal personality d/o.
Social and interpersonal deficits and cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities. Usually have few friends, are uncomfortable around people. May say they want closer relationships but demonstrate behaviors that indicate that they prefer to stay alone.
What is a hallmark sxs of Antisocial personality disorder?
Individual must be at least 18 y.o. and a hx of antisocial bx since 15. Pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of rights of others since age 15 with at least some sx of conduct disorder prior to age 15.
What are the early sx of Alz?
Early sx of Alz include forgetfulness, denial of memory impairment, mood and personality changes e.g. irritability, and a loss of interest in usual activities. On the WAIS-III individuals with Alz typically obtain the lowest factor scores on processing speed and perceptual organization. A PET scan is not likely to indicate any abnormalities in the early stage.


Retaining new info but denying any trouble with memory
What is the hallmark sx of Male Erectile d/o?
persistant inability to attain or maintain an erection until completion of sexual activity an adequate erection
What are the distinguising features of Antisocial personality disorder?
Lack of empathy, inflated self-apprasial, and superficial charm are features that have been commonly included in traditional concepts of APD
What are the benefits of unilateral ECT (done on nondominant side)?
Fewer negative side effects. Associated with fewer memory problems, esp when administered in brief pulses.
Df: Hypnagogic Hallucinations
false perceptions that occur when falling asleep.
Can Tourette's symptoms be voluntarily suppressed?
Yes, at least temporarily
What is the distinguishing characteristic between agoraphobia and social phobia?
Social Phobia the individual views their fears as unreasonnable.
What are some hallmark characteristics of Avoidant personality d/o?
Sensitivity to criticism, avoidance of social activities, embarrassment, and distress at the inability to form close relationships.
What are good prognostic indicators for Scz?
Acute onset of symptoms
When is the use of NOS appropriate?
symptoms are below the diagnostic threshold for a specific disorder.

There is uncertainty as to whether the sx are the result of a general medical condition, is substance abuse or primary.

insufficient time to gather complete data to a particular diagnosis.
What is the primary target of advocacy consultation?
Social change: an explicit value orientation that targets social change in the direction of power equalization.
What is the best use of hypnosis for those with dissociative disorder?
A way to identify the event that precipitated a dissociative disorder.
What factors are related to sexual activity in the elderly?
physical health
Availabilty of a partner and past sexual activity.

Sexual activity in mid life and earlier is a good predictor of sexual activty in later life. Especially in males.
What is the source of greatest stress for psychotherapists?
Lack of therapeutic success.

73.7% of respondants stated that a major source of stress is lack of therapeutic success.

11.1% isolation

22.2% overwork

13% general passive nature of his/her work.
What is a key feature of Feminist therapy?
Promotion of an egalitarian approach.

Therefore if you are feminist therapist you should acknowledge the power differential in the therapeutic relationship. The goal is to make the relationship egalitarian.
Gestalt principles?
Awareness of thoughts, emotions, behaviors is sufficient to cause desired changes.
What are the goals of gestalt therapy?
helping the client to recognize and satisfy needs and accept polarities that exist within his/her persionality. What is the key to achieving these goals? awareness.

Focus is on the here and now.
What characterizes a psychosomatic family?
According to Minuchin, diffuse, weak boundries characterize psychosomatic families (those families with a chronically ill child.
How did minuchin view stress within the context of therapy?
Therapeutic change is precipitated by stress. Therefore, the therapist may induce stress to promote change. However, the system must be prepared to deal with it.
Gestalt principles?
Awareness of thoughts, emotions, behaviors is sufficient to cause desired changes.
What are the goals of gestalt therapy?
helping the client to recognize and satisfy needs and accept polarities that exist within his/her persionality. What is the key to achieving these goals? awareness.

Focus is on the here and now.
What characterizes a psychosomatic family?
According to Minuchin, diffuse, weak boundries characterize psychosomatic families (those families with a chronically ill child.
How did minuchin view stress within the context of therapy?
Therapeutic change is precipitated by stress. Therefore, the therapist may induce stress to promote change. However, the system must be prepared to deal with it.