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40 Cards in this Set

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techniques used to assess for appendicitis:
McBurney's point, Rovsing's sign, obturator sign, rebound tenderness, cutaneous hypersensitiviy, Iliopsas muscle test.
technique used to assess for chelecystitis:
Murphy's sign.
technique used to assess for abdominal mass:
Ballottement.
techniques used to assess for ascites:
Puddle sign, fluid wave, shifting dullness.
Borborygmi is a:
loud, audible, girgling bowel sounds
Cullen's sign is a:
bluish dicoloration encircling the umbilicus and indicative of blood in the peritoneal cavity.
Hematemesis is:
vomiting of blood.
venus hum is:
a continuous medium-pitched sound originating in the inferior vena cava and associated with obstructed portal circulation.
What is the sequence for examination of the abdomen?
RLQ,RUQ,LUQ,LLQ.
Differentiation of abdominal pain:(3)
Visceral pain, Parietal pain, Referred pain
The 7 F's of distention are:
FAT!,FLUID!,FLATUS!,FECES!,FETUS!,FATAL GROWTH!,FIBROID TUMOR!
strategies to increase pt's comfort during examination:
greet pt, comfortable environment, gentle lighting, ask pt to urinate before exam, draping, assess tender areas last, unhurried approach,warm hands and stethoscope.
What is the predominate sound heard with percussion of the abdomen, and why?
girgling sounds because of the movement of air and fluid through the GI tract.
Normal liver span is...
6-12cm.
Possible causes of abdominal distention:
Inflammation, nerve innervation, gas.
when should you avoid palpation of an area?
If you auscultate a bruit,suspect Abdominal Aorta Aneurysm (AAA), or an enlarged spleen.
What are 5 advanced techniques used to assess for appendicitis?
1)Iliopsas muscle test,2)Obturator muscle test,3)Rovsing's sing,4)Rebound tenderness,5)Cutaneous hypersensitivity.
Iliopsas muscle test:
pt experiences pain in the RLQ
Obturator muscle test:
pt experiences pain in the hypogastric area.
Rovsing's Sign:
pt experiences abdominal pain in the RLQ and is +!
Rebound tenderness:
pt complains of pain at pressure site direct rebound tenderness (DRT) or referred rebound tenderness(RRT).
Risk factors for liver cancer include:
Cirrhosis, Hepatitis B, Smoking, Alcohol use, Arsenic or Vinyl Chloride Exposure, Primary Malignancy.
What changes happen in the abdomen with aging??
Gastric acid secretion decreases, mucosal lining of GI tract is less elastic, changes in gastric motility, GI complaints of gas or epigastric discomfort, prolonged gastric irritation form gastric acid or meds (Rxs).
Causes to be considered when pt complains of changes in bowel habits:
dietary intake, Meds(Rx), loss of sphincter tone, lack of exercise, gastric or colonic malignancies.
What factors put elderly pts at risk for functional incontinence??
Immobility, dementia, inaccessible toilet, inappropriate lighting, physical restraints.
The abdomen is located between the________and the______.
diaphragm, symphysis pubis.
the RLQ contains...
Appendix,kidneys.
the RUQ contains...
Liver, GB, duodenum, kidneys,
the LUQ contains...
stomach, spleen, kidneys, descending colon.
the LLQ contains...
Sigmoid colon, descending colon.
caput medusae:
engorged or dilated veins.
what is striae??
strectch marks.
Linea alba:
tendinous tissue that extends from the sternum to the symphysis pubis in the middle of the abdomen.
Etiologies of Abdominal Pain:
RUQ
Biliary stone, cholecystitis, cholelithiasis, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, hepatic abscess, hepatitis, hepatomegaly, pancreatitis, pneumonia.
Etiologies of Abdominal Pain:
LUQ
gastric ulcer, gastritis, myocardial infarction, pneumonia, splenic enlargement, splenic rupture.
Etiologies of Abdominal Pain:
LLQ
Diverticulitis, ectopic pregnancy(ruptured), endometriosis, hernia(strangulated), IBS, Mittelschmerz, ovarian cyst, PID, renal caculi, salpingitis,ulcerative colitis.
Etiologies of Abdominal Pain:
RLQ
Appendicitis, Crohn's disease, diverticulitis, PID, IBS, endometriosis, salpingitis, Mittelschmerz, ovarian cyst, renal calculi.
Etiologies of Abdominal Pain:
DIFFUSE
Gastroenteritis, peritonitis.
Etiologies of Abdominal Pain:
PERIUMBILICAL
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm(AAA!), early appendicitis, diverticulitis, intestinal obstruction, IBS, pancreatitis, peptic ulcer, recurrent abdominal pain(children), volvulus.
Etiologies of Abdominal Pain:
EPIGASTRIUM
AAA, appendicitis(early), biliary stone, cholecystitis, diverticulitis, GERD, hiatal hernia.