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74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
ABA*
The science in which tactics derived from the principles of behavior are applied to improve socially significant behavior and experimentation is used to identify the variables responsible for the improvement of behavior
Behaviorism*
The philosophy of a science of behavior
Determinism*
The assumption that the universe is a lawful and orderly place in which phenomena occur in relation to other events and not in a willy-nilly accidental fashion
Empiricism*
The objective observation of the phenomena of interest- independent of individual prejudices, tastes and private opinions of the scientist
EAB*
A natural science approach to the study of behavior as a subject matter in its own right founded by Skinner
Experiment*
A carefully controlled comparison of some measure of the phenomenon of interest (DV) under 2 or more different conditions in which only 1 factor at a time (IV) differs from one condition to another
Funcional Relation*
Describes the occurrence of the phenomena under study as a function of the operation of one or more controlled variables in the experiment- A change in one event can by produced by manipulating another event
Mentalism*
An approach to explaining behavior that assumes that a mental, or "inner" dimension exists that differs from a behavioral dimension and that the phenomena in this dimension either cause or mediate behavior
Parsimony*
The practice of ruling out simple, logical explanations, experimentally or conceptually, before considering more complex or abstract explanations
Philosophic Doubt*
An attitude that the truthfulness and validity of all scientific theory and knowledge should be continually questioned
Replication*
Repeating an experiment or conditions within an experiment to determine the reliability and increase internal validity
Science*
A systematic approach to understanding of natural phenomena using description, prediction, and control
Applied*
Investigates socially significant behaviors with immediate importance to the subject
Behavioral*
entails precise measurement of the actual behavior in need of improvement and documents that it was the subjects behavior that changed
Analytic*
demonstrates experimental control over the occurrence and nonoccurrence of the behavior- a functional relation exists
Conceptually Systematic*
behavior change interventions are derived from basic principles of behavior
Technological*
the written description of all procedures used in the study is sufficiently complete and detailed to enable others to REPLICATE it
Effective*
Improves behavior sufficiently to produce practical results for the participant/client
Generality*
produces behavior changes that last over time, appear in other environments, or spread to other behaviors
List the attitudes of science
*Determinism
*Empiricism
*Experimentation
*Replication
*Parsimony
*Philosophic Doubt
List 4 domains of behavior analytic science and practice
*Behaviorism
*EAB
*ABA
*Practice guided by behavior analysis
----see page 21 Cooper
7 Dimensions of ABA
Applied
Behavioral
Analytic
Conceptually Systematic
Technological
Effective
Generality
Explanatory Fiction
A fictitious or hypothetical variable that often takes the form of another name for the observed phenomenon it claims to explain ex. "intelligence" "cognitive awareness"
Methodological Behaviorism
A philosophical position that views behavioral events that cannot be publicly observed as outside the realm of science
Private events
The term skinner used for things such as thoughts and feelings
Radical Behaviorism
A form of behaviorism that attempts to understand all human behavior including private events, in terms of controlling variables in the history of the person and the species
Automaticity of Reinforcement*
Refers to the fact that behavior is modified by its consequences irrespective of the persons awareness; a person does not have to recognize or verbalize the relation between behavior and a reinforcing consequence for the reinforcement to work
Aversive stimulus*
An unpleasant stimulus
Behavior*
An organisms interaction with its environment that is characterized by detectable displacement in space through time of some part of the organism and results in a measurable change in at least one aspect of the environment
Conditioned Punisher*
A previously neutral stimulus change that functions as a punisher because of prior pairing with one or more other punishers
Unconditioned Punisher*
A stimulus change that decreases the frequency of any behavior that immediately precedes it irrespective of the organisms learning history with the stimulus
Conditioned Reinforcer*
A stimulus change that functions as a reinforcer because of prior pairing with one or more other reinforcers
Unconditioned Reinforcer*
A stimulus change that increases the frequency of any behavior that immediately precedes it irrespective of the organisms learning history with the stimulus
Neutral Stimulus*
A stimulus change that does not elicit respondent behavior
Conditioned Stimulus*
The stimulus component of a conditioned reflex; a formerly neutral stimulus change that elicits respondent behavior only after it has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus or another CS
Unconditioned Stimulus*
A stimulus change that elicits respondent behavior without any prior learning- reflex
Deprivation*
The state of an organism with respect to how much time has elapsed since it has consumed or contacted a particular type of reinforcer; procedure for increasing the effectiveness of a reinforcer
Discriminated Operant*
An operant that occurs more frequently under some antecedent conditions than under others (SD)
Discriminative Stimulus*
(SD) a stimulus in the presence of which responses have been reinforced and in the absence of which the same type of responses have occurred and not been reinforced
Extinction*
The discontinuing of a reinforcement of a previously reinforced behavior- responses no longer produce reinforcement
Habituation*
A decrease in responsiveness to repeated presentations of a stimulus- a stimulus is elicited over and over again until a response no longer occurs
History of Reinforcement*
refers to all of a persons learning experiences and more specifically to past conditioning
Motivating Operation*
An environmental variable that alters the reinforcing or punishing effectiveness of a stimulus and alters the current frequency of all behavior that has been reinforced or punished by that stimulus
Negative Reinforcement*
Occurs when a behavior is followed immediately by the removal of a stimulus that increases the future frequency of the behavior in similar conditions
Positive Reinforcement*
Occurs when a behavior is followed immediately by the presentation of a stimulus that increases the future frequency of the behavior in similar conditions
Operant Behavior*
Behavior that is selected, maintained, and brought under stimulus control as a function of its consequences; each person's repertoire of operant behavior is a product of his history of interactions with the environment
Operant Conditioning*
The basic process by which operant learning occurs; consequences result in an increased or decreased frequency of the same type of behavior under similar motivational and environmental conditions in the future
Positive Punishment*
A behavior is followed immediately by the presentation of a stimulus that decreases the future frequency of the behavior
Negative Punishment*
A response behavior is followed immediately by the removal of a stimulus that decreases the future frequency of similar responses under similar conditions
Reflex*
A stimulus-response relation consisting of an antecedent stimulus and the respondent behavior it elicits
Reinforcer*
A stimulus change that increases the future frequency of behavior that immediately precedes it
Respondent Conditioning*
A stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure in which a NS is presented with an US until the NS becomes a conditioned stimuli that elicits the conditioned response
Respondent Extinction*
The repeated presentation of a CS in the absence of the US; The CS gradually loses its ability to elicit the CR until the conditioned reflex no longer appears in the individuals repertoire
Response*
A single instance or occurrence of a specific class or type of behavior- an action of an organisms effector
Response Class*
A group of responses of varying topography, all of which produce the same effect on the environment
Satiation*
A decrease in the frequency of operant behavior presumed to be the result of continued contact with or consumption of a reinforcer that has followed the behavior; a procedure for reducing the effectiveness of a reinforcer
Stimulus Class*
A group of stimuli that share specified common elements along formal temporal or functional dimensions
Stimulus Control*
A situation in which the frequency, latency, duration, or amplitude of a behavior is altered by the presence or absence of an antecedent stimulus
Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing*
A procedure in which two stimuli are presented at the same time, usually repeatedly for a number of trials, which often results in one stimulus acquiring the function of the other stimulus
Antecedent
An environmental condition or stimulus change existing or occurring prior to a behavior of interest
Behavior Change Tactic
A method for changing behavior derived from one or more principles of behavior (ex. DRO)
Conditioned Reflex
A learned stimulus-response functional relation consisting of an antecedent stimulus and the response it elicits
Conditioned Stimulus
The stimulus component of a conditioned reflex; a formerly neutral stimulus change that elicits respondent behavior only after it has been paired with an US or another CS
Consequence
A stimulus change that follows a behavior of interest
Contingency
Refers to dependent and or temporal relations between operant behavior and its controlling variables
Contingent
Describes reinforcement (or punishment) that is delivered only after the target behavior has occurred
Environment
The conglomerate of real circumstances in which the organisms or referenced part of the organism exists; behavior cannot occur in the absence of environment
Ontogeny
the history of the development of an individual organism during its lifetime
Phylogeny
The history of the natural evolution of a species
Principle of Behavior
an empirical generalization inferred from many experiments demonstrating the same functional relation
Repertoire
All of the behaviors a person can do
Respondent Behavior
The response component of a reflex; behavior that is elicited or induced by antecedent stimuli
Selection by Consequence
A principle of operant conditioning- all forms of behavior are selected shaped and maintained by their consequences
Three-Term Contingency
the basic unit of analysis in the analysis of operant behavior- the temporal relations among an antecedent stimulus behavior and consequence