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1708 Cards in this Set

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Which term describes the study of the body functions of living organisms in an abnormal state?
pathophysiology
All of the following processes take place in the uterus, EXCEPT?
Fertilization
Cervical spondylosis is a degenerative change in the cervical spine that causes:
narrowing of the spinal canal and pressure on the spinal cord
Common causes of bradycardia include?
Beta blocker use
Many veteran EMS providers have embraced a leadership role in primary injury prevention after?
witnessing too many episodes of needless suffering
Prior to unloading a patient from the ambulance, you should:
ensure that the patient is secured to the stretcher
Q. A size 3 or 4 LMA:
will accommodate the passage of a 6.0mm ET tube
The second impact that occurs when an adult pedestrian is struck by a motor vehicle would MOST likely result in injuries to the:
pelvis and chest
When communicating with a patient whose cultural background differs from the paramedics, it is MOST important for the paramedic to?
treat the patient with utmost respect at all times
Which of the following statements regarding selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (RRSIs) is most correct?
SSRIs have fewer anticholinergic and cardiac effects than tricyclics.
Your entire assessment of a patient should:
Appear to be a seamless process
Adipose tissue is a special type of tissue that contains large amounts of?
lipids
An endogenous ligand is?
a molecule that is produced by the body and binds to a receptor
Fall-related fractures in the elderly occur MOST often to the ___, usually in patients with underlying:
hip, osteoporosis
Gathering a patient's medical history and performing an in-depth physical examination should occur:
Once the initial assessment and correction of life threats is completed
Nerve agents block ___, an essential enzyme of the nervous system.
cholinesterase
Q. The MOST effective way to minimize the risk of hypoxia while intubating a child is to:
limit your intubation attempt to 20 seconds.
The 6-second method for calculating the rate of a cardiac rhythm?
Involves counting the number of QRS complexes in a 6-second-strip and multiplying that number by 10.
The volume of plasma in an adult with a total blood volume of 6.5 liters is approximately?
6.5x0.55 = 3.6L
What is the target heart rate for a 35 yo man with a resting heart rate of 75 bpm?
152 beats/min
When a patient takes the “up and over” pathway during a head-on collision:
the anterior part of the neck may strike the steering wheel, resulting in a fractured larynx
Women who have had a cesarean section?
Can have a normal vaginal delivery
A key part of making your practice of prehospital care successful is for you to:
Develop and cultivate your own style of assessment and an overall strategy for evaluating and providing care for the patients you will encounter in the unique and varied circumstances in the field setting
According to the START triage system, if a patient has a strong radial pulse, you should:
control bleeding and assess mental status
At 2 months of age, an infant should be able to?
track objects with his or her eyes
Delirium is MOST accurately defined as:
an acute alteration in mentation that indicates an underlying condition
Q. Patients with decompensated asthma or COPD that require positive-pressure ventilation:
may develop a pneumothorax or experience a decrease in venous return to the heart if they are ventilated too rapidly
Sudden deceleration of a motor vehicle that is traveling at 60 mph:
dissipates tremendous forces and causes major injuries
The primary component of the immune system is the?
Leukocyte
When dispatched to a residence for an injury involving a pregnant woman, you should?
Be alert for evidence of abuse
You have been attempting resuscitation of a middle-aged woman for approximately 15 minutes; however, she has not responded to any of your treatment. There is no evidence of hypothermia or drug ingestion, and the cardiac monitor shows asystole. You should?
consider terminating your resuscitative efforts
You receive a call to a skilled nursing facility for an elderly man with generalized weakness. The patients nurse tells you that he has not eaten anything in the past 18 hours. She presents you with his chart, which states that he has a history of atrial fibrillation, CHF, and hypertension. His medications include Vasotec, digoxin, and Warfarin. As you apply the cardiac monitor, your partner takes the patients vital signs, which reveal a blood pressure of 136/76 mmHg, a rapid and irregular pulse, and respirations of 22 breaths/min. The ECG reveals atrial fibrillation with a variable rate between 110 and 130 beats/min, and a 12-lead ECG tracing reveals the same. After applying supplemental oxygen, you should?
Start an IV line to keep the vein open, administer diltiazem, and transport.
Which of the following is NOT a particle that makes up an atom?
photon
* If a patient sees you as someone with whom it is safe to be, who does not pose a threat, and who honestly cares, then he or she will most likely?
be reassured that you will handle the crisis
Fluid-refractory hypotension following a barbiturate overdose is treated MOST effectively with?
Dopamine
In prehospital care, the priorities of evaluation and treatment are based on:
The degree of threat to the patient’s life
Level ___ personal protective equipment would MOST likely be worn during the transport of patients with the potential of secondary contamination.
C
Q. Which of the following statements regarding translaryngeal catheter ventilation is MOST correct?
ventilation is achieved by the use of a high-pressure jet ventilator
Resting tremor of an extremity and bradykinesia are associated with:
Parkinson’s disease
The greatest amount of kinetic energy would be created if a ___ pound driver struck a tree while traveling at ___ mph.
150, 40
Torsades de pointes?
Is a variant of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and is often caused by a prolonged Q-T interval.
Which of the following assessment parameters is MOST difficult to interpret when a pregnant woman is injured?
pulse rate
With regard to injury prevention, effective educational techniques include all of the following EXCEPT?
penalties
You arrive on the scene of a stabbing. A 23-year-old man has a knife wound approximately 10 cm inferior to the armpit. Which of the following anatomical terms best describes the location of the wound?
midaxillary
A person taking beta blockers or calcium channel blockers would MOST likely present with:
a slower than usual heart rate
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is characterized by?
enlargement or thickening of the heart muscle
Myocardial ischemia occurs when the heart muscle?
Is deprived of oxygen because of a blocked coronary artery.
Q. Approximately how far should you insert a 5.0mm ET tube in a 4-year-old child?
15 cm (diameter x 3)
The dome-shaped top of the uterus is called the?
fundus
The permissible exposure limit (PEL) of a given chemical is the:
maximum concentration of a chemical that a person may be exposed to under OSHA regulations
When chlorine gas comes in contact with the body’s mucous membranes, it forms?
Hydrochloric acid
Which of the following injuries would MOST likely require transport to a level 1 trauma center?
Two or more proximal long bone fractures
Which of the following is NOT a part of your overall job as a paramedic?
Always remember that your overall job as a paramedic is to quickly identify your patient’s problem(s), set your care priorities, develop a patient care plan, and quickly and efficiently execute the patient care plan.
Which of the following statements regarding ethics in the workplace is MOST correct?
off-duty misconduct on the part of the paramedic may lessen the public's confidence of EMS in general
Specialized cell division that occurs only in the reproduction of mature sperm and ova is called?
meiosis
A decreased number of pacemaker cells in the sinoatrial node would MOST likely contribute to a decline in cardiac output secondary to:
bradycardia
Atrial kick is MOST accurately defined as?
20% of ventricular filling caused by atrial contraction.
Complications in a pregnant woman with cystic fibrosis are usually the result of?
reduced pulmonary function
Muscle cramps and paresthesias in a malnourished patient with alcoholism are most likely the result of?
hypocalcemia
Q. Wheezing is resolved with medications that:
relax the smooth muscle of the bronchiole
Signs and symptoms of marijuana use include all of the following, EXCEPT?
Decreased appetite
The most significant fall occurs from a height greater than:
15 feet
When determining whether a patient is sick, your MOST effective tool is often:
A quick visual assessment based on the chief complaint, respiration's, pulse, mental status, and skin signs and color.
You are dispatched to a residence for a 50-year-old woman with respiratory distress. While you are assessing the patient, she tells you that she began experiencing flu-like symptoms 4 days ago, shortly after delivering mail on the rural mail route for which she is responsible. Due to her illness, she has been unable to return to work. Her blood pressure is 90/50 mmHg, pulse rate is 120 beats/min, and respirations are 26 breaths/min and labored. Auscultation of her breath sounds reveals the presence of coarse crackles. This patient has MOST likely been exposed to:
anthrax
You arrive at the scene of an injured person. As you and your partner approach the patient, you see that he is bleeding profusely from a large laceration to his neck. As you are about to begin care, a man walks up and states, "I cut him!" You should?
retreat from the scene to a safe area and immediately notify law enforcement
The spleen is located in which abdominal compartment?
left upper quadrant (LUQ)
___ is the process in which individual units or different organizations make independent decisions about the next appropriate action.
freelancing
A person wishes to be an organ donor. He or she must?
have witnessed informed consent, usually in writing
Approximately one third of the body’s platelets:
are stored in the spleen.
During an explosion, secondary blast injuries occur when:
the patient is struck by flying debris, such as shrapnel
Hypertensive emergencies in the geriatric population:
require a controlled decline in blood pressure that often cannot be achieved in the prehospital setting.
Q. An elderly woman with COPD presents with peripheral edema. The patient is conscious but agitated. She is breathing with slight difficulty but has adequate tidal volume. During your assessment, you note that her jugular veins engorge when you apply pressure to her right upper abdominal quadrant. She tells you that she takes a “water pill” and Vasotec for high blood pressure. You should:
suspect acute right heart failure and administer oxygen
Regardless of what a patient asks, the paramedic should?
immediately acknowledge what the patient asked
Which of the following clinical findings is LEAST suggestive of a peripheral vascular disorder?
An S3 sound during auscultation of the heart.
Which of the following medications would MOST likely be used in the prehospital setting to treat some women with severe premenstrual syndrome?
glucose and fentanyl
You are in the BEST position to decide what, if any, care needs to be provided at the scene versus en route to the hospital once you:
Have qualified whether your patient is sick or not sick, and then you must quantify how sick the patient is.
A fracture to the humerus is best described as having what anatomical location in relationship to the elbow?
proximal
A do not resuscitate (DNR) order is MOST accurately defined as a?
written order designed to tell health care providers when resuscitation is or is not appropriate
Elderly patients experience a slower physiologic response to hypoxemia and hypercarbia because of:
decreased sensitivity to changes in arterial blood content
Q. Digital intubation is absolutely contraindicated if the patient:
is unconscious but breathing
Which of the following general statements regarding trauma is MOST correct?
Blunt trauma is difficult to diagnose by paramedics in the field and is often more lethal than penetrating trauma
Which of the following statements regarding growth spurts in adolescents is most correct?
boys generally experience this stage of growth later in life than girls do
Which of the following statements regarding the use of vasopressin in cardiac arrest is MOST correct?
A one-time dose of 40 units of vasopressin may be given to replace the first or second dose of epinephrine.
Which of the following would be of LEAST value when trying to determine the type of hazardous material a commercial tanker truck is carrying?
waybill
With hyperbaric oxygen therapy, carbon monoxide is typically eliminated from the body within:
15 to 20 minutes
You are assessing a 36-year-old woman who is in the 33rd week of her pregnancy. The patient complains of bright red vaginal bleeding, but denies abdominal pain or cramping. She tells you that she felt her baby move about 5 or 10 minutes ago. Fetal heart tones are audible at a rate of 130 beats/min. Gentle palpation of her abdomen reveals that it is soft and nontender. Which of your assessment findings is MOST suggestive of placenta previa?
absence of abdominal pain
You will MOST likely make your field diagnosis of a patient based on the:
Patients history and chief complaint.
The division of one cell into two genetically identical and equal daughter cells is called?
mitosis
* Touching a conscious elderly patient in a nursing home without his or her permission?
is nonverbally communicating, "You are not important enough or mentally competent enough to be asked for permission."
A 22-year-old man experienced an acid chemical burn to his left forearm. He complains of intense pain and tingling in his fingers. He is conscious and alert, and denies any other symptoms. You should:
begin immediate irrigation with water
In contrast to stress incontinence, urge incontinence is triggered by:
cold fluids
Mittelschmerz is MOST accurately defined as?
unilateral abdominal pain and cramping that occurs during the ovulatory process
Normally, the S-T segment should be?
At the level of the isoelectric line.
Q. Apneustic breathing is characterized by:
short, brisk inhalations with a long pause before exhalation
The motor oil level of the ambulance:
should be checked prior to starting the engine
The paramedic must make a field diagnosis in order to:
Get the info needed to make the best decisions for your patient.
When returning your unit to service following a call, the responsibility of ensuring that the unit is restocked and ready for another call rests with?
everyone on the EMS team
Which of the following will be of MOST benefit in helping the paramedic predict the type of injuries that a patient experienced?
Mechanism of injury
What is the movement of solutes from an area of higher concentration to one of lower concentration called?
diffusion
Decreased elasticity of the lungs and calcification of the costochondral cartilage results in:
an increase in residual lung volume
Gestational diabetes is caused by?
increased insulin production and decreased cellular sensitivity to insulin
In sinus bradycardia, the?
Pacemaker site is the SA node.
Lithium is MOST commonly used to treat patients with:
bipolar disorder
Which term describes the part of an extremity that is nearer to the trunk?
proximal
Q. Patients with pneumonia often experience a coughing fit when they roll from one side to the other because:
pnuemonia often occurs in the lung bases, typically on only one side
The preferred initial method for disentangling a patient who is trapped between the seat and steering wheel involves:
trying to slide the seat back on its track
The shock wave velocity from an explosion is slower and its duration is longer if a person is:
farther from the explosion
What instructions or guidance would an emergency medical dispatcher (EMD) MOST likely provide to a caller?
controlling bleeding and performing CPR
Which of the following statements regarding renal function in older adults is most correct?
aging kidneys respond less efficiently to hemodynamic stress
Which of the following statements regarding the patient assessment process is correct?
(all correct) Ask questions relevant to the patients chief complaint. Think of the assessment as a “fluid process”. As the patient interview unfolds, you need to be able to change the sequence of your questioning as the situation or patients condition dictates.
You respond to a call for a 3-year-old in the care of a babysitter, who reports that the child fell from the top of a sliding board. Upon arrival you find the child lying on the ground in a supine position and not moving. You immediately start to hold in-line stabilization and check the ABC's. As you position your hands, you notice the child's head is tucked forward with the chin forward touching the chest. Which one of the following terms best describes this position?
hyperflexion
A properly worn motorcycle helmet will:
not protect the cervical spine
Although the technicalities of EMS DNR orders vary from state to state, the all?
are designed to tell EMS providers when resuscitation is or is not appropriate
Broadly speaking, the finance section chief is responsible for:
documenting all expenditures at an incident and seeking reimbursement
Epinephrine is used to treat patients in anaphylactic shock because of its effects of?
Bronchodilation and vasoconstriction.
In contrast to infants, toddlers?
have a slower respiratory rate
On most runs, the two MOST important pieces of patient history information that you need to obtain initially are the:
Patient’s Name and Chief Complaint
Q. Intubation of a patient with severe asthma:
is often a last resort because asthmatics are difficult to ventilate and are prone to pneumothoraces
Red blood cell production is stimulated by a protein secreted by the:
kidneys
Which of the following conditions is characterized by a lack of progesterone and increased androgen levels, and can lead to hypertension and cardiac problems?
polycystic ovaries
Which of the following is NOT a predisposing risk factor for trauma in the elderly?
Decreased body water
You are called to a nursing home for the elderly patient who is suspected of having pneumonia and requires transport to the hospital. While you are obtaining the patient history, the nurse tells you that the patient exhibits myoclonus due to Parkinsonism. What is the sign that you expect to see when doing your assessment?
persistent muscle spasms
* Conveying calm, unmistakable, genuine concern for someone you've never met before is the most essential challenge as a/an?
therapeutic communicator
After determining that the scene is safe, the FIRST step in approaching a patient is to:
Introduce yourself and to explain that you are a paramedic
An electrical impulse is slightly delayed at the AV node so that the?
Atria can empty into the ventricles.
During normal menstruation, approximately ___ to ___ mL of blood is discharged from the vagina?
25, 65
Lap belts that are worn alone and high by a pregnant woman:
allow enough forward flexion and subsequent compression to rupture the uterus
Q. Which of the following is NOT performed before, during, or after insertion of a nasogastric (NG) tube in a conscious patient?
keeping the patients head in a flexed position during insertion of the tube
The BEST example the paramedic can set with regard to injury prevention is?
taking care of himself or herself and serving as a role model for others
Which of the following cardiac dysrhythmias is associated with the HIGHEST risk of stroke?
Atrial fibrillation
Which of the following is NOT a common sign of lead poisoning?
Hypotension
Which of the following is NOT a pre-incident indicator of terrorism?
there is a report of a loud explosion
Q. The cricothyroid membrane is the ideal site for making a surgical opening into the trachea because:
no important structures lie between the skin covering the cricothyroid membrane and the airway
Requesting a hazardous materials (Haz-Mat) team as early as possible to a scene involving a weapon of mass destruction is MOST important because:
it takes time for the Haz-Mat team to assemble their personnel and equipment
Risk factors for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) include all of the following, EXCEPT?
monogamy
The social assessment component of the GEMS diamond includes:
determining if activities of daily living are being provided by another person
You arrive on the scene of an assisted living facility and find a 65-year-old woman who tells you that she is having severe abdominal pain. While obtaining the SAMPLE history she reports having been at her doctor's office earlier in the week and reports that he suspects gall stones. While doing a physical assessment you have rebound tenderness in the quadrant where the gall bladder is located. Which of the following best describes that anatomical location of the abdomen?
right upper quadrant (RUQ)
A cardiac patient with respiratory distress should be assumed to be experiencing?
Heart failure with pulmonary edema.
Asking the patient about the date, time, location, and events surrounding the current situation will enable you to:
Determine if the patient is (A&Ox4) Alert to Person, Place, Time and Event
During the attempted resuscitation of a 79 yo man in cardiac arrest, a young man arrives at the scene and asks you to cease resuscitative efforts. He further tells you that the pt has entrusted him to make all of his medical decisions. You should?
continue full resuscitative efforts and ask the man if the pt has a living will and if he has documentation naming him as the person authorized to make decisions
Eye-to-eye contact with a patient communicates?
honesty and concern
Hematologic manifestations of lead poisoning include:
anemia
If a person survives the initial trauma from a shotgun wound at a close range:
contaminants that were driven into the wound can cause a severe infection
* When cells are hypoxic for more than a few seconds?
they produce substances that may damage other local or distant body systems
A 55-year-old man complains of severe pain between his shoulder blades, which he describes as “ripping” in nature. He tells you that the pain began suddenly and has been intense and unrelenting since its onset. His medical history includes HTN; however, he admits to being noncompliant with his antihypertensive medication. Which of the following assessment findings would MOST likely reinforce your suspicion regarding the cause of his pain?
Difference in blood pressure between the two arms.
During third trimester vaginal bleeding?
the mother may lose as much as 40% of her blood volume before significant signs of hypovolemia occur
Older men often experience difficulty urinating because of:
urethral pressure from an enlarged prostate
People who call 911 at the moment of a loved one's death MOST often needed?
information and support
Q. Intrapulmonary shunting occurs when:
nonfunctional alveoli inhibit pulmonary gas exchange
The recommended dose and method for administering naloxone to a patient who overdosed on a narcotic and is unresponsive and hypoventilating is:
2 mg injected slowly until the patient’s respirations improve
When a patient presents with two seemingly unrelated complaints, it is MOST important for the paramedic to determine:
If the two complaints are related. If they are not related, which one will take priority.
When a person falls from a significant height and lands on his or her feet, axial loading results in:
compression or burst fractures to the lumbar spine
Which of the following medications would be the LEAST likely to cause hypotension?
toradol
Which projection from the neuron conducts electrical impulses away from the cell body?
axon
A vertical plane that is parallel to the median plane is called?
sagittal
A critical incident is MOST accurately defined as?
an incident that overwhelms the ability of an EMS worker or system to cope with the experience, either at the scene or later
A helicopter landing zone should be:
100 feet by 100 feet in size, and on a surface that is firm, level, and free of debris
An elderly person is more likely to sustain serious injury following trauma due to:
brittle, demineralized bone
Following a head-on collision of a motorcycle and a truck, the motorcyclist would MOST likely experience initial injury to the:
femurs and tibias
Prehospital treatment for a patient who overdosed on aspirin would MOST likely include:
sodium bicarbonate
Q. What function do the nasal turbinates serve?
warming and humidifying inhaled air
The history of present illness is MOST accurately defined as:
A clear sequence and chronologic account of the patient’s sign and symptoms, that is, what happened and when.
There is evidence that a 21-year-old woman was given Rohypnol before being raped. She presents with alcohol on her breath, drowsiness, and memory loss. Her blood pressure is 98/68 mmHg, pulse is 58 beats/min and weak, and her respirations are decreased and shallow. You attempt to administer high-flow oxygen, but she resists. What should you do now?
consider administering naloxone in case she was also given a narcotic drug.
When analyzing a cardiac rhythm strip in lead II, you should routinely evaluate all of the following components, EXCEPT?
S-T segment.
When touching a patient as a form of reassurance, the paramedic should?
touch the patient on a neutral part of his or her body
_________ anatomy is anatomy associated with a particular body region.
topographic
A 25-year-old woman was involved in a motor vehicle accident in which she struck the rear end of another car at a low rate of speed. When you arrive at the scene and exit the ambulance, you immediately hear the patient screaming, “My baby, my baby!” After calming the patient down, she tells you that she is 10 weeks pregnant and that she is afraid that the car accident injured her child. She confirms that she was properly restrained at the time of impact. She is conscious and alert, denies abdominal pain, and has stable vital signs. She refuses spinal motion restriction precautions, but does consent to EMS transport. You should?
administer supplemental oxygen, establish a large-bore IV line and set the rate to keep the vein open, provide emotional support, and transport her to an appropriate hospital.
An 82-year-old man presents with confusion that has worsened progressively over the past 2 weeks. Because of his confusion and the fact that he is hearing impaired, you obtain the majority of your medical history information from his daughter. She tells you that her father has high blood pressure but refuses to take medication for it. She also tells you that she thinks he fell about 3 weeks ago, although he denies falling. The patient’s blood pressure is 168/98 mmHg, his pulse rate is 60 beats/min and occasionally irregular, and his respirations are 22 breaths/min and regular. This patient MOST likely:
is experiencing a subdural hematoma
EMS providers can be MOST effective in helping reduce the incidence of suicide, domestic violence, and child abuse by?
noting risk factors at the scene and reporting data
From an anatomic and physiologic perspective, inhaled toxins:
quickly reach the alveoli and rapidly gain access to the circulatory system.
If a level 1 trauma center is 30 miles away, and a level 2 trauma center is 10 miles away, it would be MOST appropriate to transport the patient with a severe traumatic brain injury:
via air transport to the level 1 trauma center
Q. You are transporting an intubated patient and note that the digital capnometry reading has quicky fallen below 30 mmHg. You should:
take immediate measures to confirm proper placement of the ET tube
Teething is commonly accompanied by?
fever
The MOST important initial pieces of equipment to bring to the side of an unconscious patient are the?
Defibrillator and airway management equipment.
Where would you MOST likely find a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) that provides information about a hazardous material?
A permanent manufacturing or storage facility
Which of the following questions would be of LEAST pertinence when trying to determine a patient's current health status?
“ You will also need to ask about any accidents or injuries the patient had within the last month or so and about any operations or hospitalizations within the last 6 months or so.
The major source of energy for all chemical reactions of the body is/are?
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
General principles for backing up an ambulance include:
stopping the vehicle if you lose sight of your spotter
If a patient is unable to tell you who he or she is, where he or she is, and what day of the week it is?
you should suspect decreased blood flow to the brain
If a pregnant woman is injured and bleeding severly?
blood flow will be diverted away from the uterus
If an EMS agency's call volume is too heavy to allow response within an appropriate time frame?
mutual aid resources are not legally required to assist
In contrast to chronic leukemia, acute leukemia occurs when:
bone marrow is replaced with abnormal lymphoblasts.
Q. The anterior portion of the palate is formed by the:
maxilla and palatine bones
The heart hypertrophies with age, MOST likely in response to:
a chronically increased afterload caused by arteriosclerotic blood vessels
The peak magnitude of the pressure wave experienced by a person:
lessens as the person is farther away from the center of the explosion
Which of the following questions will allow you to gain insight quickly when performing a check of a patient's body systems?
“Has your doctor ever told you that you have a heart, lung or brain problem?”
Which of the following statements regarding second-degree heart block is MOST correct?
Second-degree heart block occurs when an impulse reaching the AV node is occasionally prevented from proceeding to the ventricles and causing a QRS complex.
Movement of a body part away from the midline is called?
abduction
A patient who ingested a significant amount of ethylene glycol 6 hours ago would MOST likely present with:
slurred speech and ataxia
If the windshield of a wrecked vehicle is cracked or broken:
the front seat occupant has a cervical injury until proven otherwise
Infants are referred to as belly breathers because?
they rely mostly on their diaphragm to breathe
Q. In contrast to the right lung, the left lung:
has two lobes
Regardless of a paramedic's circadian rhythms, he or she should?
not overlook the need for rest
Reiter syndrome?
is a rare complication associated with untreated Chlamydia and is characterized by arthritis and skin lesions
The interaction of two hazardous materials that produces a much greater impact than either chemical alone is called:
synergism
The mitral valve:
is located on the higher-pressure side of the heart.
Which of the following statements regarding Alzheimer’s disease is NOT correct?
Age alone is thought to be the underlying cause of Alzheimer’s disease
Your patient will MOST likely develop a good first impression of you if you:
Your appearance should be professional and your demeanor positive and friendly.
Which of the following is NOT a type of muscle?
stratified
A closed, or contained, mass casualty incident is a situation that:
is not expected to produce more patients than initially present
Adverse drug reactions in elderly people are the result of:
changes in drug metabolism due to diminished hepatic function
Burnout is a consequence of?
chronic, unrelieved stress
Crack is a combination of:
cocaine, baking soda, and water
Q. When placing a dislodged tracheostomy tube, it is MOST important that you:
take appropriate BSI precautions
Relative to younger adults, older adults generally have a harder time breathing because the?
natural elasticity of the lungs decreases
The MOST common site of deceleration injury in the chest is the:
aorta
What is the R-on-T phenomenon?
A PVC that occurs when the ventricles are not fully repolarized.
Which of the following statements regarding an ectopic pregnancy is MOST correct?
in ectopic pregnancy, a fertilized egg implants somewhere other than the uterus
Working to ensure a patient's privacy, confidentiality, and comfort level will:
Will go a long way toward establishing positive patient rapport and encourage more honest, open communication.
What is the movement of a substance against a concentration or gradient such as the cell membrane called?
active transport
* A paramedic who looks the part of professional?
inspires confidence in his or her patients
Cardiac dysrhythmias in older people are LESS commonly the result of:
poorly controlled anxiety
In contrast to a type II ambulance, a type III ambulance:
is a specialty van that usually has a modular ambulance body
Q. A patient who is coughing up thick pulmonary secretions should NOT take:
an antitussive
The external female genitalia are collectively reffered to as the?
pudendum
The paramedic should always address a patient:
Ask the patient his/her name and how he/she would like to be addressed.
Unlike decoration injuries, crush and compression injuries occur:
at the time of impact
Which of the following is an example of a protocol?
standing orders
You receive a call to a residence for a 44-year-old man who is “ill.” The patient, who receives dialysis treatments three times a week, tells you that he has missed his last two treatments because he was not feeling well. As your partner takes the patient’s vital signs, you apply the ECG, which reveals a sinus rhythm with tall T waves. The 12-lead ECG reveals a sinus rhythm with inverted complexes in lead aVR. On the basis of your clinical findings, you should be MOST suspicious that the patient is:
hyperkalemic
You should be MOST suspicious that a patient has systemic iron toxicity if he or she presents with:
hematemesis
The term caudad means?
lower, towards the feet
A classic sign of atrial flutter is:
the presence of sawtooth F waves.
According to the Haddon matrix, which of the following is an example of a pre-event strategy used to prevent injury in a child who is riding in a motor vehicle?
reducing driving during high-risk times
Physiologic age-related decreases in skin elasticity are the result of:
decreased collagen and elastin production
Q. A patient with quiet tachypnea is MOST likely experiencing:
shock
The headache commonly experienced by a women during their menstrual cycle is caused by?
hormonal release
The most effective way to reinforce your interest in and concern for your patient is to?
use a calm and steady tone of reassurance
The primary determinants of the extent of trauma a patient sustains are the:
amount of energy in the object and the mechanism by which the object is delivered to the body
The toxic chemical in castor beans is:
ricin
Using casual nicknames can be especially problematic when:
Cultural differences exist between you and the patient.
You receive a call to a residence in a rural area of your jurisdiction for a patient with an acute COPD exacerbation. Upon arriving at the scene, you knock on the door and identify yourself. The patient, an elderly-sounding man, tells you that you took too long to get to him, and that he has a shotgun. You should:
immediately retreat to the ambulance and notify law enforcement
When too much water enters a cell and the cell swells and bursts, this process is called?
lysis
* The ___ reflex happens when an infant is startled and opens his or her arms wide?
moro
At a minimum, a level 2 trauma center should:
be able to initiate definitive care for all injured patients
Elderly people are more susceptible to intracranial bleeding because of:
enlargement of the subdural space
EMS providers who read off a list of questions to the patient to fill in all the blanks on the run report:
Tend to make little or no eye contact.
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) commonly affects all of the following organs, EXCEPT the?
urinary bladder
Q. One of the hallmarks of a pulmonary embolism is:
cyanosis that does not resolve with oxygen therapy
The EMS network begins?
with citizen involvement
The severity with which a hazardous material interferes with the body’s internal processes is LEAST affected by the:
part of the body exposed
Vasoconstriction occurs following stimulation of:
alpha receptors.
Which of the following is NOT a main component of the hematologic system:
pancreas
Which of the following statements regarding belt noise is MOST correct?
it is the squealing sound related to a load on one of the belt-operated appliances.
The area located posterior to the partial peritoneum that contains the kidneys is called the?
retroperitoneal space
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is MOST commonly used to:
facilitate sexual assault
Hypotension and orthostatic vital sign changes would MOST likely occur in elderly people who take:
diuretics
If nonencapsulated bacteria enter the body?
macrophages begin to destroy them immediately
Q. Neuromuscular blocking agents:
convert a breathing patient with a marginal airway into an apneic patient with no airway
The MOST effective injury prevention program is one that is?
broad and ongoing
When applying the precordial leads, lead I should be placed in the:
fourth intercostal space at the right sternal border.
When summoning an air transport service to transport a critically injured patient, it is MOST important to:
activate the service as soon as possible
When transferring a geriatric patient from a hospital to an extended care facility, it is MOST important to:
Review the patient’s transfer paperwork.
Which of the following questions is the MOST important to ask when obtaining a patient’s gynecologic history?
“When was your last menstrual period?”
A pt has requested to be transported to a specific hospital; however, the hospital does not have the proper resources to meet the patient's needs. You should?
determine if there is a more appropriate medical facility within a reasonable distance
Anemia would result from all of the following conditions, EXCEPT:
an increase in iron
Controlling a patient's fear involves?
using your own sense of competence and professional calm
Q. Several cycles of basic life support maneuvers have failed to relieve a severe airway obstruction in an unconscious 44-year-old woman. You should:
perform direct laryngoscopy and attempt to remove the obstruction with Magill forceps
Structural protection afforded to a motorcycle rider during a crash comes from:
protective gear worn by the rider
Systemic effects following exposure to a hazardous material:
may be delayed for hours or even years
The inferior wall of the left ventricle is supplied by the:
right coronary artery.
The MOST important thing you can do to facilitate the exchange of information between you and your patient is to:
Pay Attention!
Therapeutic doses of certain drugs may reach toxic levels in older people due to deterioration of the:
liver
Which of the following statements regarding the umbilical cord is MOST correct?
the umbilical vein carries oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetus
You are assigned to a paramedic unit and receive a call to an elderly housing unit for the report of a 76-year-old man who fell. You find the man on the floor of his room, in pain, and you immediately notice that his right foot and knee are pointing outward. You do an assessment and obtain vital signs before calling medical control for an order to give pain medication. Which of the following terms should you use when describing the position of the leg to medical control?
externally rotated
Aging is a linear process, which means that:
the rate at which we lose functions does not increase with age
Common signs of left-sided heart failure include all of the following, EXCEPT:
hypotension.
Mass casualty equipment and supplies needed for airway control include all of the following, EXCEPT:
large-bore IV catheters for thoracic decompression
Professional skepticism is?
a useful tool and facilitates sound clinical decision making
Q. End-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) detection is a reliable method for confirming proper ET tube placement because:
carbon dioxide is not present in the esophagus
The MOST appropriate initial question to ask a patient who complains of chest pain is:
Can you describe the pain?
What type of injuries would MOST likely occur if a passenger is wearing his or her lap belt above the pelvic bone during a frontal impact?
Abdominal and lumbar spine
Which of the following interventions generally is preferred for a patient who overdosed on a barbiturate more than 1 hour ago?
Activated charcoal
Which of the following is NOT a critical point addressed by the "White Paper" written in 1966, that was entitled "Accidental Death and Disability: The Neglected Disease of Modern Society"?
ensuring that paramedics responded to every call
You are caring for a 44-year-old woman who was sexually assaulted by several men. She is conscious but very quiet. Your partner, a female paramedic, quickly examines her and finds no immediate life threatening injuries. The patient tells you that all she wants to do is go home and take a shower. After multiple attempts to convince the patient to consent to transport, you are unsuccessful. Your MOST appropriate action should be to?
ask the patient if there is a friend you can call with whom she can stay.
What is the movement of water out of plasma across the capillary membrane into interstitial space called?
filtration
A metallic taste in the mouth, explosive diarrhea, and a skin rash are MOST indicative of:
arsenic poisoning
Barotrauma secondary to bag-mask ventilations in an infant means that your ventilations?
were too forceful
Common signs and symptoms of gardnerella vaginitis include?
a “fishy” vaginal odor, itching, irritation, and vaginal discharge
In a patient with left heart failure and pulmonary edema:
increased pressure in the left atrium and pulmonary veins forces serum out of the pulmonary capillaries and into the alveoli.
Patient autonomy is MOST accurately defined as the?
patient's right to direct his or her own care and to decide how end-of-life care should be provided
Q. When auscultating the lungs of a patient with pulmonary edema, you will MOST likely hear:
crackles in the bases of the lungs at the end of inspiration
Reflection is a powerful tool for getting a good patient history because:
Two reasons: 1) Reflection usually does not break the flow of your patient’s thoughts. It helps you both stay focused. 2 )The information you will obtain is not biased by “leading the patient”.
Routine pre-hospital treatment for a patient with internal hemorrhage and shock includes all of the following, EXCEPT:
analgesia if the systolic BP is greater than 70 mmHg
When transporting one stable and one critical patient in the same ambulance, you should:
load the most critical patient last so he or she can be unloaded first.
Which of the following statements regarding aging is MOST correct?
Health care providers may attribute genuine disease symptoms to age, resulting in inadequate care
Which of the following types of epithelium consists of single layer of cells of varying heights?
pseudostratified
* Hyperkalemia is most accurately defined as?
an elevated SERUM potassium level
During shock, norepinephrine release causes:
the body to shunt blood from areas of lesser need to areas of greater need
During your initial assessment of a patient with a hematologic disorder, your priority should be to:
note any signs and symptoms that may be immediately life threatening.
If a paramedic is self-motivated, he or she should NOT?
require maximum supervision at work
Postmenopausal women?
are more susceptible to atherosclerosis and osteoporosis
Q. The ___ are pyramid-like structures that form the posterior attachment of the vocal cords.
arytenoid cartilages
The objective of dash displacement is to:
lift the dash up and move it forward
The proper compression-to-ventilation ratio for two-rescuer adult CPR when an oropharyngeal airway is in place is:
30:2
When a patient tells you that he or she takes a “water pill,” it is MOST important for you to:
Clarify what they mean.
Which of the following is an extrinsic cause of falls in the elderly?
An uneven sidewalk
What is the name of the mechanisms within a cell that carry out the functions needed for the human body to function?
organelles
An acetone breath odor is common following exposure to all of the following toxins, EXCEPT:
camphor
An empathetic attitude:
“Putting yourself in his or her shoes”. Empathy can help you set your patient on a path to healing ~ no matter what the diagnosis.
If your only protection from gunfire in a residence is behind a frame wall, you should:
stand near the door or window frame, which usually contain more wood than other areas of the wall.
In addition to meeting the metabolic needs of the developing fetus, the mother’s blood supply increases significantly in order to perfuse her own organs, especially the?
uterus and kidneys
Q. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by:
changes in pulmonary structure and function that are progressive and irreversible
The appropriate dosing regimen for epinephrine in cardiac arrest is:
1 mg of a 1:10,000 solution every 3 to 5 min
To be credible, an injury prevention intervention?
should have quantitatively measured results
Typical signs and symptoms of Meniere disease include all of the following, EXCEPT:
otorrhea
What aggregates in a clump and forms much of the foundation of a blood clot during the process of coagulation:
platelets
Which of the following psychosocial changes is common during adolescence?
fixation on public image and fear of embarrassment
The covering of the lungs is called the?
visceral pleura
During the irreversible (terminal) phase of shock:
the body attempts to shunt blood from the liver, kidneys, and lungs to keep the heart and brain perfused
HTN is present when the blood pressure:
is consistently greater than 140/90 mmHg while at rest.
If your department has its own technical rescue team:
technical rescue protocols should be established
Q. Which of the following findings is MOST clinically significant in a 30-year-old woman with difficulty breathing and a history of asthma?
Prior ICU admission for her asthma
The effort to rehabilitate a person who has survived an injury is called?
tertiary injury prevention
The emotional state of craving a drug to maintain a feeling of well-being is defined as:
psychological dependence
What event occurs during the third stage of labor?
placental delivery
When asking a patient if he or she uses illegal drugs, you will MOST likely get accurate information if you:
Remain professional and nonjudgmental.
You arrive at the scene of a bar fight. The scene has been made safe. A police officer meets you and tells you that he believes the victim was stabbed in the neck and the carotid artery may have been hit. Which triangle in the neck was most likely punctured?
anterior
When assessing an older person, you should remember that it is common for him or her to:
respond slowly to questions
Which of the following is not an example of an open-ended question?
"Does the pain radiate to your arm or jaw?"
Movement of an extremity toward the midline is called?
adduction
After falls, ___ is/are the second leading cause of accidental death among the elderly people.
motor vehicle accidents
Formed elements of the blood account for approximately ___% of the total blood volume.
45%
If a patient refuses to give you information, you should:
Infer what could be causing the distress and then ask the patient if you are right (i.e, “So, if I understand you correctly...”)
If you suspect internal bleeding during the initial assessment, you should:
keep the patient warm and administer oxygen
In contrast to the lesions associated with other skin disorders, the lesions associated with smallpox:
are identical in size and shape
Q. Open cricothyrotomy is generally contraindicated in all of the following situations, EXCEPT:
any patient who is younger than 16 years of age
The MOST common cause of amenorrhea is?
pregnancy
Which of the following statements regarding protocols is MOST correct?
protocols are usually developed in conjunction with national standards
You and an EMT-B are performing CPR on an elderly woman in cardiac arrest as your paramedic partner prepares to intubate her. After the patient has been intubated and proper ET tube placement has been confirmed, you should:
perform asynchronous CPR while ventilating the patient at a rate of 8 to 10 breaths/min.
You will distance yourself from your patient as a person if you?
use complicated medical terminology
_____ connect(s) muscles to bones?
tendons
A 39-year-old man in asystole has been unresponsive to CPR and 2 doses of epinephrine. The patient is intubated and an intraosseous catheter is in place. What intervention should you perform next?
Administer 1 mg of atropine.
Anaerobic metabolism:
is less efficient than aerobic metabolism and leads to systemic acidosis
Before asking a patient how he or she is feeling, you must FIRST:
Ask for facts first, then follow up. Establish a rapport before asking how they are feeling.
If a woman’s prepregnancy resting heart rate is 70 bpm, you would expect her heart rate to range between ___ and ___ at term.
85, 90
Many ___ believe that touching the head may put their soul in jeopardy.
Asians
Q. Which of the following is NOT a contraindication for nasotracheal intubation?
spinal injury
The poisonous part of the apricot plant is the ___, which contains:
seed, cyanide
Which of the following situations would be LEAST likely to require a critical incident stress debriefing (CISD)?
death of a 91 yo pt with lung CA
Which of the following statements regarding radiation is MOST correct?
it is impossible to recognize the type of radiation emitted from a given source
You are dispatched to an assisted living center for an 80-year-old woman who is vomiting bright red blood. Upon your arrival, you find the patient sitting in a chair. She is conscious and alert, but is markedly pale and diaphoretic. Her medical history is significant for hypertension, congestive heart failure, type 2 diabetes, hypothyroidism, and osteoarthritis. Her medications include Toprol, lisinopril, Glucophage, Synthroid, and ibuprofen. Her blood pressure is 76/56 mmHg, pulse is 76 beats/min and weak, and respirations are 24 breaths/min and shallow. Which of the following statements regarding this scenario is MOST correct?
This patient, who is in shock, probably has a bleeding peptic ulcer secondary to ibuprofen use, and the lack of compensatory tachycardia is likely the result of the beta blocker she is taking.
A man is lying on his back with his legs elevated approximately 12 inches and his head down. What is this position called?
Trendelenburg's
* Which of the following questions would MOST like reveal a hidden medical condition when communicating with a patient who has a severe headache?
"What happened the last time you felt this way?"
A hypertensive emergency is MOST accurately defined as:
An acute elevation in blood pressure with signs of end-organ damage
Anemia resulting from an autoimmune disorder occurs when:
red blood cells are destroyed by the body’s own antibodies.
If you discover that a seemingly ordinary EMS call is actually a hazardous materials incident, you should:
immediately notify the dispatcher and request the appropriate resources
Q. When administering a nebulized bronchodilator, the oxygen flow rate should be set to at least ___ liters per minute.
6
The MOST effective way to deal with stress is to?
identify the stress triggers and take action to minimize their effects
The MOST significant factor that determines how well the body compensates for blood loss is:
the period of time over which the blood is lost
When examining the placenta, you should suspect fetal anemia if?
the maternal side of the placenta is pale
Which of the following questions would be MOST appropriate to ask when attempting to determine the quality of a patient's pain?
Does the pain come and go, or is it constant?
You are called to a residence for a 74-year-old woman who fainted. During your assessment, the patient’s son tells you that he was standing next to his mother when she fainted and that he caught her before she fell to the floor. He further tells you that his mother has angina pectoris and kidney disease. The patient is now conscious but confused. Her blood pressure is 80/50 mmHg, pulse is 110 beats/min and weak, and her respirations are 22 breaths/min and regular. As your partner administers supplemental oxygen to the patient, you should:
assess for the presence of a nitroglycerin patch on the patient and remove it if she is wearing one.
When caring for any pt, it is important to remember that?
your moral standards may conflict with the pts best interests
Which of the following statements regarding the use of emergency escorts is MOST correct?
Many drivers will only see the first emergency vehicle and assume that it is clear once that vehicle has passed
Which of the following factors would MOST likely cause vague or atypical signs of acute myocardial infarction?
female sex and diabetes
Which of the following statements regarding endometriosis is MOST correct?
untreated endometriosis may result in septic shock
Widespread dilation of the resistance vessels, capacitance vessels, or both, leads to:
distributive shock
The bend of the elbow is known as the?
antecubital fossa
A regular rhythm with inverted P waves before each QRS complex, a ventricular rate of 70 beats/min, narrow QRS complexes, and a P-R interval of 0.16 seconds should be interpreted as a/an:
accelerated junctional rhythm.
If an individual has A-positive blood:
his or her blood contains the Rh antigen
It is appropriate to ask, “Would you say the pain is similar to or worse than with previous episodes?” when determining the ¬¬¬___ of a patient's pain.
Severity
Q. Common clinical findings in patients with obstructive lung disease include all of the following, EXCEPT:
a decreased expiratory pause
Upper respiratory tract infections are more common in toddlers than in infants because?
of a loss of passive immunity
* The induction phase of the immune response begins when?
part of the immune system recognizes an antigen
A third-service EMS system is one in which:
a public agency not affiliated with the fire department provides EMS service
Aging brings a widespread disease in bone mass, especially:
in postmenopausal women
During the proliferative phase?
estrogen stimulates the endometrium to increase in thickness in preparation for the reception and future growth of a fertilized egg.
For the EMS provider, the process of collecting and analyzing data regarding injury prevention begins with?
completing a legible PCR
Which term describes an imaginary line drawn vertically through the middle portion of the collarbone and parallel to the midline?
midclavicular
Pharmacologic management for a black widow-spider bite may include all of the following, EXCEPT:
sodium bicarbonate
Q. The MOST significant complication associated with the use of multilumen airways is:
unrecognized displacement of the tube into the esophagus
The mnemonic “OPQRST” is a tool that:
Offers an easy-to-remember approach to analyzing a patient’s chief complaint that is simple and effective.
The preferred antiarrhythmic medication and initial dose for a patient with refractory ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia is:
amiodarone, 300 mg.
Which of the following conditions would result in obstructive shock?
Tension pneumothorax
Air ambulances are advantageous for all of the following reasons, EXCEPT:
more experience of the flight paramedics
During compensated shock:
an increase in respiratory rate and depth creates a compensatory respiratory alkalosis to offset the metabolic acidosis
Leads V1 to V3 allow you to view ___ wall of the left ventricle.
Anteroseptal
Q. Which of the following patients has the lowest minute volume?
Tidal volume of 350 mL; respiratory rate of 12 breaths/min
Untreated depression in people over 65 years of age:
is associated with a higher suicide rate than any other age group
When documenting the severity of a patient's pain, it is also important to:
Note how distressed the patient appears: mild, moderate, or severe.
When wearing gloves while taking care of a pt, you should?
take them off before you drive the ambulance to the hospital
You are dispatched to a residence for a 29-year-old woman with difficulty breathing. The patient was recently diagnosed with leukemia and has just completed her first round of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Upon arriving at the scene, you find the patient sitting in a recliner. Her level of consciousness is markedly diminished and her breathing is shallow. Her husband, obviously frightened, pleads with you to do something. You should FIRST:
move her to the floor and open her airway
The rotator cuff is also called the?
shoulder girdle
A patient's vital signs, ECG findings, and blood glucose reading should be?
disclosed to the patient if he or she inquires about them
A woman who does not take prenatal vitamins during the course of her pregnancy is at GREATEST risk for?
anemia
A weak radial pulse in a patient with shock indicates:
vascular dilation and decreased blood flow
Dysmenorrhea that occurs before, during, and after menstrual flow?
may signal an underlying illness.
If the ECG leads are applied correctly, the PQRST configuration should be inverted in lead:
aVR
Polypharmacy is MOST accurately defined as:
the prescribing of multiple drugs to treat multiple conditions
Q. The cricothyroid membrane:
is relatively avascular and is covered by skin and minimal subcutaneous tissue
Throughout the patient assessment process:
Look for nonverbal communication, such as changes in facial expression, heavy sighs, or aggressive gestures (finger pointing)
You are caring for a patient with non-life-threatening injuries in the treatment section of a mass casualty incident when you are approached by several TV reporters who are seeking details regarding the incident. You should:
direct the reporters to the public information officer
You arrive at the scene of a major motor vehicle crash. The pt, a 29 yo man, is in cardiac arrest from a severe head injury and has been receiving bystander CPR for approximately 10 min. A law enforcement official advises you that the pt's driver's license identifies him as an organ donor. You should?
begin full resuscitative efforts and transport the patient to a trauma center because certain tissues may be viable for harvesting
You would expect a person to be hypertensive and tachycardic following exposure to all of the following, EXCEPT:
parathion
You would MOST likely see an increased end-tidal CO2 reading in an otherwise healthy older adult because?
residual volume increases with age, resulting in stagnant air remaining in the alveoli and hampering gas exchange
A solution that has equal osmotic pressure to cells and body fluid, such as normal saline, is said to be?
isotonic
A woman finds her 50-year-old husband unresponsive on the couch. When you arrive and begin your assessment, the wife tells you that her husband experienced an episode of chest discomfort 2 days prior, but refused to seek medical attention. The patient is unconscious and unresponsive; is breathing with a marked reduction in tidal volume; and has rapid, thready radial pulses. Your partner reports that the patient’s systolic BP is 70 mmHg. The MOST appropriate treatment for this patient involves:
assisting his ventilations, applying a cardiac monitor, intubating if necessary, auscultating his lungs, transporting at once, establishing vascular access en route, administering a 200-mL crystalloid bolus if his lungs are clear, and considering a dopamine infusion.
Abnormal neurologic signs that accompany hypertensive encephalopathy occur when:
pressure causes a breach in the blood brain barrier and fluid leaks out, causing an increase in intracranial pressure.
For the first year of life, an infant has naturally acquired passive immunities because?
he or she maintains some of the mother's immunities
If you have a bad cold, it is MOST appropriate to?
refrain from pt care
Q. The upper airway of an adult consists of all the structures above the:
vocal cords
When assessing a patient who is under the influence of alcohol, it is MOST important to remember that:
Do not assume that all that you are told is completely accurate and keep your best professional attitude as you work with patients you suspect of using drugs or alcohol. Alcohol may mask any number of signs and symptoms.
Which of the following changes occurs in the respiratory system of a pregnant woman?
minute ventilation increases by as much as 50%, which causes the PaCO2 to drop by about 5%.
Which of the following disease processes would MOST likely present with signs and symptoms that mimic those seen with normal aging?
hypothyroidism
Which of the following statements regarding loading and securing a patient in the back of the ambulance is MOST correct?
Whether the patient is lying on the stretcher or sitting on the bench seat, he or she must be properly seat-belted.
You are caring for an alcoholic patient who has been abstinent for about two days. The patient is confused, restless, and tells you that he sees snakes crawling on the walls. His blood pressure is 76/52 mmHg, pulse rate is 140 bpm and weak, and respirations are 24 breaths/min with adequate depth. In addition to administering oxygen, you should:
treat his hypotension with crystalloid fluid boluses.
What is the movement of a solvent from an area of low solute concentration to one of higher concentration through a selectively permeable membrane called?
osmosis
* An injection of immunoglobulin is an example of?
passive acquired immunity
A paramedic is considered a health care professional, and as such should?
meet societal expectations whether he or she is on or off duty
A woman who is taking pentosan polysulfate sodium (Elmiron) MOST likely has?
interstitial cystitis
An ambulance should be removed from service immediately if you feel or hear:
brake fade
Atherosclerosis is a process in which:
plaque infiltrates the arterial wall, decreasing its elasticity and narrowing its lumen.
If you suspect that a patient has been abused, you should:
Never hesitate to call for law enforcement personnel.
Q. Digital clubbing is MOST indicative of:
chronic hypoxia
The dieffencachia plant is also referred to as “dumb cane” because:
ingestion can result in the patient being unable to speak.
The goal of volume replacement for a patient with hemorrhagic shock is to:
maintain perfusion without increasing internal or uncontrollable external bleeding
You respond to a residence for an unknown emergency involving an 83-year-old man. When you arrive, you find the patient, who is conscious and alert, sitting on his couch with his head held over a bowl. He tells you that his nose starting bleeding about 20 minutes ago and he cannot get it to stop. As your partner assists the patient in controlling the bleeding, you inquire about his medical history. He tells you that he has chronic atrial fibrillation, high blood pressure, and is occasionally depressed. When you ask him about compliance with his medications, he tells you, “I take my medicine every day, but the writing on the bottles is so small.” The patient’s blood pressure is 112/58 mmHg, pulse rate is 88 beats/min and irregular, and respirations are 18 and unlabored. This patient has MOST likely inadvertently:
overdosed on his warfarin
A 55-year-old man has signs and symptoms consistent with peritonitis. Which of the following symptoms is consistent with this condition?
decreased bowel sounds
Care for a patient with profound shock begins by:
following BSI precautions
Considering the physiologic changes that occur with age, which of the following interventions would pose the GREATEST risk for harm when caring for an elderly patient with a severe burn that is complicated by a spinal injury?
fluid replacement
In the late stage of syphilis?
the patient is usually asymptomatic, but damage to the brain, heart, blood vessels, and liver is occurring
Older adults are prone to subdural hematomas because?
age-related shrinkage of the brain stretches the bridging veins that return blood from the brain to the dura mater
Q. A critical step when using a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) unit to treat a patient with severe respiratory distress is:
ensuring an adequate mask seal with minimal leakage
The bioavailability and excretion rate of a toxin are influenced MOST by the:
amount of the toxin and the relative speed at which it is metabolized
The husband of a terminally ill woman called 911 because he thinks that his wife is about to die. The pt has a valid living will and an out-of-hospital DNR order. You should?
treat the husband and his wife with respect and provide emotional support
Which of the following findings would make you the LEAST suspicious for abuse or domestic violence?
(Suspicious findings WOULD INCLUDE) injuries inconsistent with the information you are given, or multiple injuries in various stages of healing.
While preparing to receive patients at the scene of a hazardous material spill, you see a middle-aged man approaching your ambulance. He is covered with a green liquid, is dyspneic, and states that he “barely got out of there alive!” You should:
tell him to stop immediately and inform the incident commander that the patient has not been decontaminated.
You are assessing a conscious and alert middle-aged male who complains of chest discomfort and nausea. His blood pressure is 112/70 mmHg, pulse is 90 beats/min and regular, and respirations are 20 breaths/min and regular. The patient’s past medical history is significant for hypothyroidism and hyperlipidemia. His medications include Synthroid, Lipitor, Cialis, and 1 baby aspirin per day. Which of the following medications would you LEAST likely administer?
Nitroglycerin
Which term describes the palm of the hand facing downward?
pronation
A patient with a medical condition that requires antiplatelet therapy would MOST likely be taking:
Plavix
Just after birth, the ductus arteriosus constricts and closes, resulting in?
circulation through the pulmonary system
Q. Whether you are using the PtL or the Combitube:
both devices are inserted blindly into the posterior pharynx
When a pt minimizes his or her symptoms by stating, "I'm fine," the paramedic should?
find a reliable informant among the pt's family or friends
When asking questions pertaining to a patient's sexual history, it is MOST important to remember that:
Private setting is essential, also certain factors may inhibit truthful response.
When functioning at the scene of a major incident, communication should:
be face to face to minimize radio traffic
Which of the following central nervous system functions does NOT change as a person ages?
intelligence level
Which of the following interventions is influenced strongly by the amount of time that has elapsed since a patient ingested a toxic substance?
Gastric lavage
Which of the following statements regarding hypotension and shock is MOST correct?
Hypotension is a classic sign of shock, but it occurs late
Which of the following statements regarding the human papillomavirus (HPV) is MOST correct?
HPV has been identified as a causative agent in cervical cancer
A patient is having trouble breathing and showing signs of a heart attack. The patient is placed on a stretcher, seated, with the back of the stretcher about halfway up. This position is called?
semi-Fowler's
An increase in maternal cardiac output can cause a benign systolic flow murmur, which results from?
hypertrophy of the heart and dilation across the tricuspid valve
As multiple myeloma progresses, the patient would MOST likely experience:
spontaneous fractures
External bleeding would be the LEAST difficult to control in a patient with a large laceration to the ___ and a BP of ___ mmHg.
Brachial artery, 68/46
If a patient does not respond to a question within a couple of seconds, he or she:
May simply be searching for the answer. Trying to decide if he can trust you.
If you are at the scene of an incident that potentially involves a weapon of mass destruction and other emergency resources are en route, it is MOST important for you to give the dispatcher information regarding the:
optimal route of approach
Q. Paradoxical respiratory movement is characterized by:
the epigastrium and thorax moving in opposite directions
Which term describes the turning of an extremity toward the midline?
internal rotation
Unlike an idioventricular rhythm, an agonal rhythm:
does not produce a palpable pulse.
Which of the following disease processes is more common in women?
osteoporosis
Which of the following is the MOST common respiratory infection that causes death in the elderly population?
Pneumococcus bacteria
While caring for an 80 yo man with a possible fractured arm, you discover other injury patterns that are suggestive of abuse. The patient is conscious and alert. You should?
splint the pt's arm, transport him to the hospital, and report your suspicions to the emergency dept physician
The inner layer of the heart is known as the?
endocardium
* By properly introducing yourself to a patient, you are also saying that?
you are in charge of the patient's health care, regardless of the indignities of treatment, and that the patient can communicate with you as an equal
A patient who is overly talkative during your assessment:
May just be that way, also multiple clinical causes for over talkativeness (eg. fight/flight recovery). May have abused methamphetamines.
In contrast to delirium, dementia is:
a progressive disease that produces irreversible brain failure
Production of clotting factors is a function of the:
liver
Q. What type of medication dries secretions in the airway and prevents the cilia from removing them effectively?
antihistamine
The primary function of the treatment section is to:
separate and treat patients based on their triage category
Which of the following statements regarding toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is MOST correct?
patients with TSS may show signs of liver failure
With regard to stroke volume, the healthy heart:
can easily increase stroke volume by 50%.
You are caring for a 66 yo man with terminal CA. He is conscious and alert without evidence of mental incapacitation. You offer him O2, but he refuses to accept it, stating "Just let me die with dignity!" You should?
respect the pt's wishes and ask him if he wants to be transported to the hospital
You are dispatched to a restaurant for a patient that is choking. Upon arrival, you find the patient, a 30-year-old man, in obvious respiratory distress. His face is flushed and his arms are covered with hives. You are unable to obtain a blood pressure because the patient is restless; however, you are able to palpate his pulse, which is rapid and weak. In addition to ensuring adequate oxygenation and ventilation, the MOST important treatment for this patient involves:
administering epinephrine as soon as possible
The large area between the lungs is referred to as the?
mediastinum
After obtaining an elderly patient’s chief complaint, gathering additional information about the history of present illness would MOST likely be complicated because:
chronic problems may affect the acute problem
An organ or tissue that is considerably colder than 98.6°F is better able to resist damage from hypoperfusion because:
the body’s metabolic rate is slower
If you were unsure whether a conscious cardiac patient requires immediate transport versus continued assessment at the scene, you should:
continue with the focused assessment to obtain more information.
Management for a ingested poison focuses mainly on:
neutralizing the poison in the stomach
Patients between 41 and 60 years of age are LEAST susceptible to?
active immunosuppression
Q. If you see a soft tissue bulge on either side of the airway when performing nasotracheal intubation:
you have probably inserted the tube into the pyriform fossa
The MOST common underlying cause of a tubo-ovarian abscess is?
gonorrhea
The MOST difficult part of any rescue is:
the simultaneous coordination of rescue and treatment
When dealing with a patient who has multiple complaints, the MOST effective way to develop an appropriate care plan is to:
Prioritize the pt complaints.
Your unit is the first to arrive at the scene of a traffic accident. Numerous bystanders are surrounding the wrecked vehicle. The driver appears to be unconscious. You should?
assess the scene carefully and notify other responding units of any hazards that may be present
The appendix is found in which abdominal compartment?
right lower quadrant (RLQ)
Hemoglobin functions by:
binding to oxygen that is absorbed in the lungs and transporting it to the tissues
Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) hormone sends signals to the corpus luteum, which in turn?
produces hormones designed to support the pregnancy until the placenta has developed
If you know common hand signs or slang used by gangs:
it would be dangerous for you to use them around gang members because you are not a member of the group
In contrast to a 30-year-old man, if a 70-year-old were to consume an excessive amount of alcohol:
he will experience a higher blood alcohol concentration due to decreases in body mass and total body water
Q. The diaphragm of the stethoscope is designed to auscultate:
high-pitched sounds
The paramedic must always keep in mind that the information he or she fails to obtain:
Could be the info needed to treat the pt.
The precordial leads do NOT view the ___ wall of the heart.
Inferior
The pulse rate of a 16-year-old adolescent typically ranges between?
60 and 100 beats/min
Which of the following is NOT a reason why EMS providers are in the ideal position to serve as advocates for injury prevention?
most EMS systems require their personnel to participate actively in injury prevention programs
Which of the following statements regarding sickle cell disease is MOST correct:
patients with sickle cell disease become hypoxic because their misshapen red blood cells are poor carriers of oxygen
Which of the following is NOT one of the stages of mitosis?
nucleophase
* In decompensated shock, systolic blood pressure is?
less than the fifth percentile for the age
Alcohol potentiates Valium. This means that:
alcohol enhances the effects of the Valium
Failure of the body’s compensatory mechanisms to preserve perfusion results in all of the following, EXCEPT:
an increase in preload
If you are trained in hazardous materials at the awareness level, you should be able to:
recognize potential hazards and the need for additional resources
Implied consent is based on the premise that a pt?
would consent to care because of the seriousness of his or her injury
MOST age-related visual disturbances are the result of:
cataracts or glaucoma
Potential contraindications to fibrinolysis include all of the following, EXCEPT:
significant closed head trauma within the past 3 months.
Q. Unlike bronchodilator therapy, corticosteroid therapy:
takes a few hours to produce bronchial edema
The MOST negative immediate consequence of providing inappropriate reassurance to your patient in the prehospital setting is:
Your patient could choose not to share quite as much information as he or she might have under other circumstances, leaving you with less information rather than more.
Which of the following conditions poses the LEAST risk for shock due to vaginal bleeding?
dysmenorrhea
Reputation provides status for individual gang members and is gained by:
committing crimes
The leading cause of death in the US is?
heart disease
When a certain level of tissue hypoperfusion is reached:
the cells convert to anaerobic metabolism, the byproduct of which is lactic acid
When assessing an unresponsive older person’s airway, it is MOST important to remember that:
delayed gastric emptying increases the risk of aspiration
Which of the following drugs possesses beta-2-specific properties?
Proventil
Which body plane divides the body into the cephalad and caudad parts?
transverse
Appropriate care for postpartum bleeding in the prehospital setting includes all of the following, EXCEPT?
carefully placing sanitary pads in the vagina
Clinical signs and symptoms following exposure to a toxin will manifest MOST rapidly if the patient:
breathes in the toxic chemical
If a patients family member is hostile and begins shouting at you, you should:
Tell the person directly that if he or she continues to shout, you will not feel safe enough to do your assessment and will need to call law enforcement personnel.
It would be MOST appropriate to ask a patient a closed-ended question when?
you are trying to obtain medical history information
Q. Which of the following statements regarding pediatric endotracheal intubation in the prehospital setting is MOST correct?
Bag-mask ventilation can be as effective as intubation for EMS systems that have short transport times
* The body's rejection of an organ following transplantation is MOST likely the result of?
isoimmunity
If a hostile family member suddenly leaves the room, especially in the middle of a conversation with him or her, you should:
Follow the person, while working to calm him or her and defuse the situation. What you are also doing is making certain the person doesn't get a gun and shoot you,your partner or their spouse.
Once you have succeeded in establishing verbal contact with a man who is in the process of being rescued, it is MOST important to:
remain in contact with him
Part of your therapeutic role as a paramedic includes?
maintaining a calm and confident attitude
Q. A hyperventilating patient:
may be acidotic and is trying to decrease his or her pH level
The MOST significant risk associated with the use of fibrinolytic therapy is?
Hemorrhage
The relatively high use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs by older patients predisposes them to:
peptic ulcer disease
Which of the following is atypical of an alcoholic:
chronically pale face and palms
Which of the following statements regarding uterine fundus measurement is MOST correct?
measurement of the fundus in centimeters corresponds to the number of gestational weeks
You are administering a normal saline bolus to a patient in hypovolemic shock secondary to severe external blood loss. How much saline will remain in the patient’s intravascular space after 20 minutes if you have infused a total of 500 mL?
200 mL
Your paramedic squad is dispatched to a reported diabetic emergency. Upon arriving at the scene you find a 24-year-old man in what appears to be a progessing case of hypoglycemia that has come on suddenly and appears to be developing rapidly. Which of the following signs do you NOT expect the patient to exhibit?
alert & calm demeanor
Children are at higher risk for serious injury than adults because of?
a proportionately larger head
Heat gain or loss in response to environmental changes is delayed in elderly people for all of the following reasons, EXCEPT:
chronic hyperthyroidism
In pregnancy, magnesium sulfate is used principally for?
eclamptic seizures
Pulse oximetry will not provide a true assessment of arterial oxygenation in patients with carbon monoxide (CO) toxicity because:
the device cannot determine whether CO or oxygen is bound to the hemoglobin.
Q. A 76-year-old woman with empyhsema presents with respiratory distress that has worsened progressively over the past two days. She is breathing through pursed lips and has a prolonged expiratory phase and an oxygen saturation on 76%. She is on home oxygen at 2L/min. Your initial action should be to:
place her in a position that facilitates breathing
When noncolloid solutions are used in the treatment of shock:
you should give two to three times the volume of blood lost
Which of the following is an example of homeostatic failure?
salt and water retention and a blood pressure of 170/98 mmHg
Which of the following statements regarding an intoxicated patient is MOST correct?
(ALL CORRECT) Taking a good medical history becomes very difficult. Intoxication may mask symptoms, such as pain. With intoxication also comes a decrease in patience.
While en route to a motor vehicle accident, the dispatcher advises you that law enforcement is at the scene and reporting that numerous bystanders are suddenly becoming ill. After receiving this information, you should:
keep a safe distance from the scene and view it with binoculars
You are dispatched to a residence at 4:00 am for an elderly man with shortness of breath. The patient tells you that he was awakened with the feeling that he was smothering. You note traces of dried blood around his mouth. The patient tells you that he has some type of “breathing problem,” for which he uses a prescribed inhaler. Based on the information you have obtained thus far, you should be MOST suspicious for:
left-sided heart failure
How many bones compose the skeletal system of the frame of the body?
206
An effective injury prevention program should focus on all of the following data, EXCEPT?
current EMS call volumes
If a patient refuses to talk, and he or she is not exhibiting signs of decreased mental status, it is MOST appropriate for the paramedic to?
advise the patient that his or her silence will only hamper your ability to determine what is wrong
In contrast to younger patients, elderly patients:
tend not to complain, even when they have legitimate symptoms
Most of the blood’s formed elements are:
erythrocytes
Q. If a patient’s initial presentation makes you suspicious about a particular respiratory condition, you must:
confirm your suspicions with a thorough assessment
The MOST effective way to obtain a medical history from a patient who is crying is to:
Keep a calm demeanor and patient approach; appropriate touch, such as a hand on the shoulder; and a quite, “I’m in control now” tone of voice will help get the crying to stop.
What is the MOST correct sequence of treatment for a patient with a suspected acute myocardial infarction?
Oxygen, aspirin, nitroglycerin, morphine.
When conduction the scene size-up of a call involving a gynecologic emergency, it is MOST important to?
assess for danger because any scene should be considered volatile
Which of the following factors would have the MOST negative effect on the body’s process of hemostasis?
Anticoagulant use
You arrive at the scene of a motor vehicle crash in which a small passenger car struck a power pole at a high rate of speed. As you size-up the scene, you can see that the driver is severely entrapped in his car and is screaming in pain. The fire department is en route to the scene with extrication equipment. You should:
stay away from the car until the absence of any utility hazards is confirmed
The full distance that a joint can be moved is called?
range of motion
* If a parent insists on monitoring your conversation with his or her adolescent son or daughter, you should?
communicate the situation to the emergency department physician and document it accurately
Cardiogenic shock would MOST likely develop following:
decompensated congestive heart failure
Initial signs and symptoms of toxic shock syndrome (TSS) include all of the following, EXCEPT?
cardiac dysrhythmias
Q. You are attempting to intubate a 5-year-old girl when you note that her heart rate has fallen from 120 beats/min to 80 beats/min. A patent IV line has been established. The MOST appropriate action is to:
abort the attempt and ventilate with a bag-mask device and 100% oxygen
Signs and symptoms of nerve agent exposure include all of the following, EXCEPT:
tachycardia
Situational depression is:
A reaction to a stressful event in a patient’s life.
The attribution of one's own behavior or feelings to others is called?
projection
The son of a 76-year-old woman called 911 because his mother is “ill.” The patient presents with mild confusion, poor skin turgor, and tachycardia. She is incontinent of urine and asks you for a glass of water. Her son tells you that she had not been feeling well for the past several weeks, but would not allow him to take her to the doctor. Which of the following assessment parameters will MOST likely reinforce your suspicion regarding the underlying cause of this patient’s condition?
blood glucose
Which of the following actions should NOT occur while CPR is in progress?
Cardiac rhythm assessment
Which of the following is a sign of severe barbiturate withdrawal?
Hallucinations
Which term refers to the back?
dorsal
An infant's fontanelles are typically fused together by the age of?
18 months
If your patient becomes seductive or makes sexual advances towards you, you should advise the patient that your relationship with him or her is strictly professional and then:
Try to keep your partner, law enforcement, or a family member in the room with you at all times.
In contrast to stable angina, unstable angina:
often awakens the patient from his or her sleep.
In the average female, the menstrual cycle lasts ___ days.
28
Men who have been abused by their female spouses:
are often too humiliated to report the incident as it happened
Proximate cause is MOST accurately defined as?
a link between the paramedic's improper action and the pt's injury
Q. ___ breath sounds are the MOST commonly heard breath sounds, and have a much more obvious inspiratory component.
vesicular
Which of the following bandages is associated with the HIGHEST risk of blood flow compromise?
Elastic bandages
Which of the following ECG abnormalities is MOST suggestive of cocaine toxicity?
Prolongation of the QT interval
Which of the following items of information is typically NOT obtained by the dispatcher prior to sending rescue units to the scene?
the patient’s medical history
Which term describes a body that is resting on its back with the face upward?
supine
A patient who gives the emergency department physician completely different information than he or she gave to you in the field:
Patients may be too frightened or embarrassed to give particular information to a paramedic but will give a physician the information. May have an organic condition such as a brain tumor.
Major risk factors for lung cancer include?
cigarette smoking and exposure to asbestos
Q. A 66-year-old man with chronic bronchitis presents with severe respiratory distress. The patient’s wife tells you that he takes medications for high blood pressure and bronchitis, is on home oxygen threapy, and has recently been taking an over-the-counter antitussive. She further tells you that he has not been compliant with his oxygen therapy. Auscultation of his lungs reveals diffuse rhonchi. What is the MOST likely cause of this patient’s respiratory distress?
recent antitussive use
Sinus arrest is characterized by:
a dropped PQRST complex.
The MOST common and reliable sign of pit viper envenomation is:
rapidly developing edema around the bite area
Which of the following statements regarding documentation is MOST correct?
a thorough and accurate medical record is the paramedic's best protection in court
Which of the following statements regarding hostage situations is MOST correct?
The physiological effects of being held hostage are often of greater concern than physical problems
Which of the following wounds usually requires substantial irrigation and debridement prior to closure?
Degloving injuries
You are dispatched to a grocery store for a woman with severe abdominal pain. When you arrive, you find the patient lying on her side in the manager’s office. She is confused, diaphoretic, and appears to be bleeding from her vagina. Her blood pressure is low, and her pulse and respiratory rates are elevated. You should?
apply high-flow oxygen, visually inspect her vagina and cover it with sterile dressings, keep her warm, begin transport, establish at least one large-bore IV en route, and administer enough crystalloid fluid to maintain radial pulses
You receive a call to a residence for an “unknown injury.” Upon arrival at the scene, you are greeted at the door by a well-dressed man, who tells you that his 39-year-old wife fell down a small flight of stairs and is in the living room. As you are assessing the patient, you note multiple bruises to the left side of her face and an area of redness to her anterior neck. When her husband leaves the room for a brief period, she states, “Mike’s really a good man, but he does have somewhat of a temper.” You should:
continue your assessment as your partner notifies law enforcement
You contact medical control and receive an order for 5% dextrose is water (D5W). What type of solution is this?
hypotonic
* Endothelial cells that line the inside of blood vessels?
regulate blood flow and coagulation
Changes in cardiac contractility may be induced by medications that have a positive or negative ___ effect.
Inotropic
Q. The MOST common complication associated with nasotracheal intubation is:
bleeding
The skin is also referred to as the:
integument
When arriving at a residence for any EMS call, you should make it a routine habit to:
pay attention and listen for loud, threatening voices
When caring for a patient who is mentally challenged:
You may need to get information from family members, friends, or another caregiver.
Which of the following cardiac medications has a small therapeutic window and the GREATEST propensity to reach toxic levels?
Digoxin
Which of the following injury patterns is MOST suggestive of child abuse?
stocking-glove
Which of the following was NOT a required component identified by the Emergency Medical Services System Act of 1973?
national EMS certification
While caring for an unresponsive young woman who was apparently sexually assaulted, you note that her respirations are slow and shallow, her pulse is slow and weak, and her blood pressure is low. There is a small amount of dried blood on her thigh, but no grossly active bleeding. Immediate care for this patient involves?
maintaining her airway and providing ventilatory assistance.
What is the uptake of solid particles through the cell membrane called?
phagocytosis
A 56-year-old man presents with an acute onset of chest pressure and diaphoresis. He has a history of hypertension and insulin-dependent diabetes. His airway is patent and his breathing is adequate. You should:
administer high-flow oxygen.
If a pt makes a decision regarding his or her own health care and the paramedic does not agree with that decision, the paramedic should?
respect the pt's wishes, assuming he or she has decision-making capacity
In which of the following situations would a transfusion reaction MOST likely occur?
A person with type O blood receives type AB blood
Q. Uncontrollable coughing and hemoptysis in a cigarette smoker are clinical findings MOST consistent with:
lung cancer
The position of the human body from which all body position descriptions are derived is called?
anatomic position
Signs of abuse in a nursing home resident include:
undocumented decubitus ulcers
The study of the functioning of an organism in the presence of disease is called?
pathophysiology
When your patient is a non-English-speaking person, his or her child is often able to function as an interpreter because:
Children absorb a new language quickly in their school.
Which of the following is NOT characteristic of the secondary stage of syphilis?
single or multiple chancres
Which of the following medications would MOST likely interfere with homeostasis?
Plavix
Which of the following statements regarding a hazardous materials toxicity level is NOT correct?
Most ambulances carry protective gear that would be required for dealing with level 2 and above hazardous materials.
_______ are tough white bands of tissue that bind joints together, connecting bone and cartilage?
ligaments
A pathologic Q wave:
is wider than 0.04 seconds and is seen in 2 or more contiguous leads.
A patient taking ___ would MOST likely experience a delay in the healing of a wound.
Corticosteroids
A spontaneous abortion?
occurs naturally and may or may not have an identifiable cause
By definition, infancy begins at?
1 month of age
Child neglect is MOST accurately defined as:
harm or endangerment to a child that occurs when a caregiver fails to provide basic necessities or engages in dangerous child-rearing practices
Cyanide blocks the utilization of oxygen at the cellular level by:
combining with cytochrome oxidase
If a physician insists that you perform an intervention that you are not properly trained to perform, it would be MOST appropriate to?
ask the physician if he or she can suggest another alternative
If you must break a window to gain access to a patient trapped in his or her vehicle, you should:
ensure that the patient and all rescuers are protected properly
Q. On either side of the glottis, tissue forms a pocket called the:
piriform fossa
Which of the following is NOT an effective way of obtaining a medical history from a patient who is totally deaf?
The following are effective ways: When addressing a patient who is totally deaf but can read lips, address them face-to-face, slowing your speech slightly so that you are speaking clearly. Use an interpreter who knows ASL. Write out the communication.
Small, rod-like organelles that function as the metabolic center of the cell are called?
mitochondria
A man stormed into a daycare center and opened fire with a semiautomatic rifle. The scene has been secured by law enforcement, and you are in the process of triaging the injured children. The first child you assess, a 4-year-old boy, is unresponsive and apneic but has a pulse. After manually opening his airway, he remains apneic. You should:
provide five rescue breaths and reassess his respiratory status
All of the following have been identified as potential complications of child maltreatment, EXCEPT:
criminal behavior beginning in late adulthood
Atrial fibrillation can be interpreted by noting:
an irregularly irregular rhythm and absent P waves.
Enlargement of the heart due to chronically elevated blood pressure is called?
hypertrophy
Objective patient information is:
Objective (based on fact or observable) information is obtained from a pt about his or her overall state of health
Q. Which of the following statements regarding anatomic dead space is MOST correct?
anatomic dead space is about 1 mL per pound of body weight.
Uterine rupture MOST commonly occurs?
during active labor
When caring for a confused elderly patient, it is MOST important for the paramedic to?
explain what he or she is doing at all times
Which of the following statements regarding the black widow spider is MOST correct?
Following a black widow spider bite, the patient’s abdomen is often rigid due to severe muscle spasms
You are the first unit to arrive at the scene of a small building collapse. As you exit the ambulance, you can see a man pinned under a large metal beam. You should:
immediately request a special rescue team
A motor vehicle accident has resulted in a patient with a traumatic head injury. Upon arrival at the hospital you are informed that the patient has an epidural hemorrhage. Where is the bleeding occuring?
outer layer of the dura
___ entails gently striking the surface of the body, typically where it overlies various body cavities.
Percussion
A patient with nerve compromise following an open injury to the hand:
requires prompt transport to the hospital
In contrast to endometritis, endometriosis?
may present without abdominal pain
In contrast to sexual assault, rape:
involves penile penetration of the genitalia without the victim’s consent
It is important to remember that if a patient is not personally sensitive to modesty because of an impaired mental state:
the patient's family likely will be
Q. After inserting the needle into through the cricothyroid membrane, you should next:
insert the needle about 1 cm farther and then aspirate with a syringe.
The hematocrit is the:
overall percentage of red blood cells in the blood
The paramedic's #1 priority is to?
be prepared to respond to and treat injuries that inevitable will occur
The S1 heart sounds represent:
Closure of the mitral and tricuspid valves.
Upon arriving at a scene in which the incident command system has already been established, you should:
locate the medical staging officer to receive your assignment
If a mortally injured patient's wishes regarding organ donation are not know?
consent must be obtained from a family member
Other than overall patient appearance, the patient's ___ is/are the MOST objective data for determining his or her status.
Vital signs
Q. It would be appropriate to insert a nasopharyngeal airway in patients who:
have an altered mental status with an intact gag relfex
The FIRST aspect to address in any patient with a soft-tissue injury is:
your safety
Unlike bacteria, viruses?
do not produce exotoxins or endotoxins
Which of the following statements regarding idioventricular rhythm is MOST correct?
Most patients with an idioventricular rhythm are hemodynamically unstable.
Your index of suspicion for elder abuse should increase if:
a mentally competent patient allows the caregiver to respond to your questions
Which term means "toward the head"?
cephalad
A spontaneous abortion?
occurs naturally and may or may not have an identifiable cause
Command functions include all of the following, EXCEPT the:
triage officer
During the second stage of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy:
decreased clotting factors cause uncontrolled hemorrhage
A 25-year-old woman presents with acute abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. She tells you that she has soaked 8 high-absorbency tampons in the past 2 hours. Approximately how much blood has she lost externally?
160 mL
Inadvertent lithium toxicity would MOST likely occur in a patient who is taking:
a tricyclic antidepressant
Lactated Ringer's is a/an ___ solution because its solute concentration is equal to that of the inside of the cell.
isotonic
Necrosis of tissue caused by an anaerobic, toxin-producing bacterium is called:
gangrene
Q. When nasally intubating a patient, the ET tube is advanced:
when the patient inhales
Safe practices when parking your emergency vehicle on a roadway at night include all of the following, EXCEPT:
leaving the headlights on
The firing of an artificial ventricular pacemaker causes:
a vertical spike followed by a wide QRS complex.
The residual pressure in the circulatory system while the left ventricle is relaxing is called the:
Diastolic pressure
The surrogate decision maker?
is legally obligated to make decisions as the patient would want
Which of the following caregiver characteristics is LEAST suggestive of abusive behavior?
underreaction to child misbehavior
When placing a patient on a long board for spinal immobilization, what body surface of the patient is in contact with the board?
posterior
An immature egg is called a/an?
oocyte
Because extrication and rescue are medically complex:
the officers responsible for these functions usually function under the EMS branch of the incident command system
Blood pressure is the product of:
Cardiac output & peripheral vascular resistance, so it includes two components: systolic and diastolic pressure
During the inflammation phase of the healing process:
histamine causes vasodilation and increased blood flow to the injury
If you want reliable answers to personal questions, you should?
manage the scene so you can ask such questions quietly and privately
Q. Pneumonitis is especially common in older patients with:
chronic food aspiration
The deliberate withholding of medicine, food, or assistance with mobility is called?
active neglect
The MOST immediate forms of reperfusion therapy for an injured myocardium are:
fibrinolytics and placement of a coronary stent.
Which of the following scenarios reflects a violation of the Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act (EMTALA)?
a hospital transfers an unstable patient to another facility
You would expect a person’s hematocrit to be low if he or she:
is hemorrhaging
You have treated a motorcyclist for a right tibia/fibula fracture. The deformity is below the knee. When making the radio report to the hospital, which of the following terms most correctly describes the location of the injury?
distal to the knee
* Dehydration is generally a more serious concern in elderly patients than in younger adults because?
total body water constitutes only 45% of body weight in older people
A paramedic's actions are considered to be grossly negligent if he or she?
willfully or wantonly deviates from the standard of care
An unresponsive, pulseless, apneic patient presents with ventricular tachycardia on the cardiac monitor. After defibrillating the patient with 360 joules, you should:
resume CPR and reassess the patient after 2 minutes.
Bruises to a child’s ___ are LEAST suggestive of an intentionally inflicted injury.
shins
Common signs and symptoms of lymphoma include:
night sweats and chills
How should you position your ambulance upon arriving at the scene of a victim who was found slumped over the steering wheel of his car?
At least 15 feet behind the parked vehicle, at a 10 degree angle to the drivers side, facing the shoulder
Motor vehicle trauma accounts for nearly 70% of trauma in pregnancy?
but only about 20% of maternal deaths
Q. The external jugular veins run ___ and are located ___ to the cricothyroid membrane.
vertically; lateral
To obtain a heart rate in infants younger than 1 year of age, you should:
Palpate the brachial artery to assess the pulse
When caring for an amputated body part:
early notification of the hospital is important
Maintenance of a relatively stable internal physiologic environment in which the cells live is called?
homeostasis
A conscious patient's respiratory rate should be measured:
By inspection of the patient’s chest, but respiratory movements can also be assessed by visualizing portions of the abdominal wall, neck, face, and overall accessory muscle use.
A pulse that alternates in strength from one beat to the next beat is called:
pulsus alternans
A sick or injured patient who is thinking clearly?
should be able to answer simple questions that make sense within 1 second
All of the following are functions of the skin, EXCEPT:
providing the immune system response for the body
In contrast to endometritis, endometriosis?
may present without abdominal pain
Q. Surfactant is:
a proteinaceous substance that decreases surface tension on the alveolar walls
The primary site for cell production in the human body is the:
bone marrow
When approaching a van at night to determine if the driver, who is reportedly unconscious, is in need of medical assistance, you should:
move 10 to 15 feet away from the passenger side and walk parallel to the van
Which of the following statements regarding the initiation of resuscitative efforts on an infant with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is MOST correct?
initiating resuscitative efforts on the infant may not be ethically appropriate and may cause the family additional suffering
You are assessing a 79-year-old man who presents with an altered mental status. The patient’s 50-year-old son, who lives with the patient, tells you that his father’s present condition is “normal for him.” Your assessment of the patient reveals a large hematoma to the back of his head and numerous skin tears to his arms. You should:
assess the patient and correct any immediately life-threatening conditions
You respond to a patient who was reported to have been seizing and who is now postictal. No trauma is suspected. You place the patient in the ________ position, which will allow for fluids to drain from the mouth.
recovery
Because of the physical and psychological injuries that abused children experience:
they may become abusive or neglectful caregivers as adults
In general, normal psychosocial factors that affect the life of the 35-year-old person include all of the following, EXCEPT:
anxiety
Indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma:
may never spread from the lymphoid system
Mild effects of cyanide exposure:
generally resolve by simply removing the victim from the environment and administering oxygen
Q. With regards to pulse oximetry, the more hypoxic a patient becomes:
the faster he or she will desaturate
The initial dose of atropine sulfate for a patient in asystole is:
1.0 mg
When a dying person enters the acceptance stage?
it is often the family that is in need of the most help
When a patient’s leg is entrapped under a crushing object for a prolonged period of time, toxic metabolic waste products are released into the systemic circulation:
after the patient’s leg is freed from entrapment
When using a tympanic device to obtain a patient's body temperature, you should:
Be aware of extrinsic factors that may increase or decrease the temperature reading.
You are caring for a young woman with constant, diffuse abdominal pain, referred pain to both shoulders, and vaginal bleeding. She states that her last menstrual period was 2 months ago, but she adamantly denies being pregnant. Her blood pressure is 86/50 mmHg, pulse rate is 120 beats/min and weak, and respirations are 24 breaths/min and regular. Which of the following interventions is NOT appropriate for this patient?
narcotic analgesia
The viscous material that supports all internal cellular structures is called?
protoplasm
* As the smooth muscles of the lower airway weaken with age:
beta-agonistic bronchodilators become an ineffective treatment for acute bronchospasm
People who abuse their partner or spouse:
may use intimidation and threats to maintain control
Q. The pulse oximeter would be LEAST useful when:
determining how much oxygen to give a patient
The skin helps regulate body temperature through:
the production of sweat, which is evaporated from the surface of the skin
What do tabun, sarin, soman, and V agent all have in common?
The onset of symptoms following exposure is immediate
Which of the following drugs is contraindicated in patients with bronchospastic diease?
Labetalol
Which of the following factors would likely NOT skew a pulse oximetry reading?
(ARE LIKELY) hypotensive or cold patient, carbon monoxide poisoning, abnormal hemoglobin (ie, sickle-cell disease), vascular dyes, patient motion, and incorrect placement. (WOULD NOT) hypertension
Which of the following is NOT a typical question to answer when evaluating and interpreting research?
will the research study be published in a notable journal?
Which of the following is NOT characteristic of the secondary stage of syphilis?
single or multiple chancres
Which of the following questions often yields the LEAST reliable answer when questioning a patient who intentionally exposed himself or herself to a toxic substance?
Why did you take the substance?
Your ambulance is dispatched to a 6-month-old patient who is reported to have been sick for two days with diarrhea and vomiting. After performing the assessment you suspect dehydration. One of the signs you should check is the head, where you would expect to find what landmark sunken?
fontanelle
Organelles that contain RNA and protein that interact with RNA from other parts of the cells to join amino acids together to form proteins are called?
ribosomes
Abused elders generally do not seek help for all of the following reasons, EXCEPT:
disorders such as Parkinson’s disease
An appropriate sized blood cuff should:
The cuff should be one half to two thirds the size of the upper arm.
Cardiac arrest following a narcotic overdose is usually the result of:
respiratory arrest
Compared to the bleeding from an open wound, bleeding from a closed wound:
is limited because the skin is unbroken
During the acute inflammatory response:
transient arteriolar constriction is followed by anteriolar dilation, which allows an influx of blood under increased pressure
Law enforcement request that you respond to a local apartment complex for a young woman who was sexually assaulted. When you arrive at the scene, you find the patient sitting on her couch, clearly upset. You see a small amount of blood on her shorts, near the groin area. What is your initial priority in the care of this patient?
identifying and treating immediate life threats
Patients experiencing a right ventricular infarction:
may present with hypotension
Patterns of living that you develop in your youth?
are hard to modify in later life
Q. You would MOST likely observe a grossly low respiratory rate and volume in a patient who overdosed on:
heroin
Upon arriving at the scene of a patient who is reportedly unconscious in his or her parked vehicle, you should:
notify the dispatcher of your location and the number and state of the vehicle’s license plate
The motion associated with the return of a body part from a flexed position is called?
extension
A 25-year-old woman presents with acute abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. She tells you that she has soaked 8 high-absorbency tampons in the past 2 hours. Approximately how much blood has she lost externally?
160 mL
A regular cardiac rhythm with a rate of 104 beats/min, upright P waves, a P-R interval of 0.14 seconds, and a narrow QRS complexes should be interpreted as:
sinus tachycardia
A wound is at HIGHEST risk for infection if:
it is caused by a human or animal bite
Abdominal pain that is associated with polycythemia is usually associated with:
an enlarged spleen
At a very large incident, the operations section is responsible for:
managing the tactical operations job usually handled by the incident commander on route EMS calls
If the receiving facility does not have adequate resources to take care of your patient, you should next determine whether?
there is an appropriate facility within a reasonable distance
Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus:
need exogenous insulin to survive
Q. Abnormal breath sounds associated with pneumonia and congestive heart failure are MOST often heard in the:
bases of the lungs
Which of the following statements regarding the reporting of suspected child abuse is MOST correct?
in most states, the paramedic is a mandated reporter in cases of child abuse and neglect
Which of the following statements regarding your general survey of the patient is MOST correct?
(ALL CORRECT). The general survey begins as you approach the scene, simultaneously sizing up the situation and the patients overall presentation. A quick look at the environment and the general appearance of the patient provides a substantial amount of info before you ask the first question. The expression “sick or not sick” sums up the approach.
Which of the following is NOT a type of tissue?
squamous
A patient who overdosed on heroin and is unconscious with slow, shallow respirations would MOST likely experience?
decreased PaCO2 levels
An attack on an abortion clinic would MOST likely be carried out by a/an:
single-issue group
If a woman who is 35 weeks pregnant is placed in supine position?
atrial preload may be reduced markedly
Q. Once you have confirmed that the lighted stylet-ET tube comination has entered the trachea, you should:
hold the stylet in place and advance the tube about 2 to 4 cm into the trachea.
Regulatory functions of blood include:
transporting hormones to their target organs
Signs and symptoms of compartment syndrome include all of the following, EXCEPT:
erythema
The BEST indicator of possible child abuse is:
evidence gathered from a thorough physical exam and case history
The skin becomes ___ when red blood cell perfusion to the capillary beds of the skin is poor.
Pallor
Which of the following statements MOST accurately describes an acute myocardial infarction (AMI)?
Necrosis of a portion of the myocardium due to a prolonged lack of oxygen
While attempting to resuscitate a middle-aged woman in cardiac arrest, you perform effective CPR, but do not evaluate the pt's cardiac rhythm until 10 min into the resuscitation attempt. When the cardiac monitor is finally applied, the pt is in asystole. The pt is transported, but is pronounced dead upon arrival at the hospital. Which of the following statements regarding this scenario is MOST correct?
the delay in evaluating the pt's cardiac rhythm constitutes a breach of duty and could be proven to be the proximate cause of her death
What is the shiny connective tissue that is lubricated by synovial fluid?
cartilage
* The cardinal sign of overhydration is?
edema
A patient who does not respond to verbal or tactile stimuli is:
Classified as U or Unresponsive
After you have safely approached a parked vehicle and are ready to alert the apparently ill driver of your presence, you should:
do so without moving past the B column into the driver’s door area
During your assessment of a 7-year-old boy with a fractured arm, you note that the child has a flat affect and will not tell you how the injury occurred. The child’s father, who is in the same room, is clearly apprehensive and rudely interrupts you when you question the child by stating, “I’ll answer for my own kid; he can’t tell you what happened!” You should:
continue your assessment as your partner discreetly returns to the ambulance to notify law enforcement
Injury to or disease of the ___ may cause prolapse of a cardiac valve leaflet, allowing blood to regurgitate from the ventricle into the atrium.
Cordae tendineae
Q. Compared with an onen cricothyrotomy, needle cricothyrotomy:
allows for subsequent attempts to intubate the patient
Spray paints and lacquer thinner contain ___, and typically cause ___ when they are inhaled recreationally.
Toluene, hallucinations and mania
The leading cause of death from injury is?
unintentional MVC's
The MOST significant immediate threat to a patient with a soft-tissue injury is:
hemorrhage
Uterine rupture MOST commonly occurs?
during active labor
What are the specialized tough cords or bands of dense white connective tissue that are continous with the periosteum?
tendon
A beta-blocking drug would counteract all of the following medications, EXCEPT:
atropine
A discipline within ethics that discusses and debates the health care of human beings is called?
bioethics
A patient with thrombocytopenia:
has a decreased platelet count
Flushed skin is commonly seen as a result of all the following, EXCEPT:
SIGNS INCLUDE: Patient’s with fever, and it may be seen in patients experiencing an allergic reaction.
In addition to bleeding and contamination, the MOST immediate danger associated with an avulsion is:
a loss of blood supply to the avulsed flap
Law enforcement requests your assistance to assess a 33-year-old woman who was sexually assaulted. When you arrive at the scene, you find the patient sitting on the curb outside her apartment complex. She is conscious and crying, but does not have any gross injuries. When you begin to assess her, she tells you that all she wants to do is go home and clean herself up. She further tells you that she does not need your help. You should:
remain empathetic and advise the patient that she needs medical care, and that cleaning herself up may destroy any potential evidence.
Q. Which of the following medications is a parasympathetic bronchodilator?
Ipratropium
Triage and emergency medical treatment should be performed:
in the cold zone
Which of the following factors typically does NOT affect the vital signs for a 65-year-old patient?
living conditions
You are dispatched to a residence for a 34-year-old woman who is “sick.” Upon your arrival, the patient greets you at the door. She states that she recently had her menstrual period, which was accompanied by more pain than usual. Her vital signs are stable, she is conscious and alert, and denies vaginal bleeding or fever. This patient MOST likely has?
a ruptured ovarian cyst
The presence of dizziness in a patient with a suspected myocardial infarction is MOST likely the result of:
a reduction in cardiac output
The use of wet dressings in the field is limited because:
they provide a medium for pathogens to grow
When approaching an overturned tanker truck that is not displaying a warning placard, it is MOST important for the paramedic to maintain a high index of suspicion because:
tankers carrying small amounts of a hazardous material may not be required by law to display a warning placard
You are assessing an injured 9-year-old girl. The child’s father, who appears to be intoxicated, is sitting on the couch and does not seem concerned about his daughter’s injury. When asked when the injury occurred, the father tells you, “I can’t remember, but it’s been at least a few hours ago.” You should:
elicit your partner’s help and conduct a thorough assessment of the child
You receive a call to a residence for a patient who is “sick.” Upon arriving at the scene, you find the patient, a 39-year-old woman, lying on the couch with a wet washcloth on her forehead. She is conscious and alert, and tells you that she has had several episodes of diarrhea and noticed bright red blood in her stool. Her pulse rate is rapid and weak, her skin is cool and clammy, and her blood pressure is 98/58 mmHg. Her medical history is significant for hemophilia, for which she is receiving factor VIII therapy. As you pull out a nonrebreathing mask, she tells you that her husband will be home in a few hours, and that he will take her to the hospital. You should:
advise her that her condition dictates immediate transport to the hospital and that delaying transport could result in deathTre
Strains can be classified with regard to degree of damage. Whate grade is assigned to a strain with minimal damage and no swelling or bruisng?
I
* All of the following factors would cause potassium to shift into the cell, EXCEPT:
increased vagal tone
From an injury prevention standpoint, the term "intervention" is defined as?
specific prevention measures or activites designed to increase positive health and safety outcomes
Motor vehicle trauma accounts for nearly 70% of trauma in pregnancy?
but only about 20% of maternal deaths
Poor skin turgor in an infant or child is MOST indicative of:
Dehydration
Q. The MOST clinically significant finding when questioning a patient with a chronic respiratory disease is:
prior intubation for the same problem
Changes in hair growth or loss of hair are LEAST suggestive of:
An underlying endocrine disorder, such as diabetes, or may result from treatment modalities for disease processes (eg, chemotherapy or radiation treatment of cancer). (least suggestive of) an infection
If a patient avoids answering a specific question, you should?
redirect him or her to the question to elicit a response
If a pt experiences prolonged hypotension or requires prolonged CPR, his or her ___ would be inappropriate for organ or tissue donation.
liver
If a young female with a known history of gonorrhea presents with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, and bleeding between periods?
she most likely has pelvic inflammatory disease
In most cases of child sexual abuse:
the abuser knows the child and may be living with him or her
Q. A 21-year-old man experienced an acute onset of pleuritic chest pain and dyspnea while playing softball. He is noticeably dyspneic, has an oxygen saturation of 95% on room air, and diminished breath sounds to the upper right lobe. The MOST appropriate treatment for this patient involves:
administering high flow supplemental oxygen and transporting at once.
The area of conduction tissue in which electrical activity arises at any given time is called the?
Pacemaker
Treatment for cyanide poisoning includes all of the following, EXCEPT:
calcium gluconate
You are at the scene of a drive-by shooting in which a 15-year-old man was shot in the chest. Law enforcement personnel are at the scene. The patient is conscious, has an actively bleeding entry wound to his left anterolateral chest, and is breathing with difficulty. You should:
provide only the amount of care needed to prevent his condition from deteriorating and quickly move him to the ambulance.
You are dispatched to a residence for a man who cut his hand with a chainsaw. Upon arriving at the scene, your first action should be to:
carefully assess the scene for safety hazards
Sprains can be classified with regard to degree of damage. What grade is assigned to a sprain with complete disruption of the ligament along with severe swelling and bruising?
III
A young man is found unresponsive by his girlfriend. Your assessment reveals marked respiratory depression, a slow, weak pulse, and pinpoint pupils. There are numerous medication bottles found in his home. Of these, he has MOST likely ingested:
Percodan
Law enforcement request that you respond to a local apartment complex for a young woman who was sexually assaulted. When you arrive at the scene, you find the patient sitting on her couch, clearly upset. You see a small amount of blood on her shorts, near the groin area. What is your initial priority in the care of this patient?
identifying and treating immediate life threats
Patients with decision-making capacity?
have the right to refuse all or part of the emergency medical care offered to them
Q. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in the emergency setting is used to treat patients with certain obstructive airway diseases by:
improving patency of the lower airway through the use of positive-end expiratory pressure.
The brief pause between the P wave and QRS complex represents:
A momentary conduction delay at the AV junction.
The pulse of the superficial temporal artery can be felt:
Just anterior to the ear in the temporal region.
What level of personal protective equipment is typically worn by the hazardous materials decontamination team in the warm zone?
Level B
When assessing an older adult's pupils and ocular movements, you should recall that?
it is not uncommon for lens deterioration to cause the pupils to be sluggish to react
Which of the following interventions encourages drainage from the site of a closed wound and reduces swelling?
Elevation
Which of the following is NOT consistent with the profile of a person who abuses elders?
younger than 50 years of age
What are cells that produce bone tissue called?
osteoblasts
* Common signs and symptoms of ulcerative colitis include all of the following, EXCEPT?
bloating after milk ingestion
Bones are classified according to their shape. Which of the following is NOT one of these classificiations?
articulated
A child has probably NOT been abused if he or she:
looks to the parent for reassurance after being injured
A major complication associated with atrial fibrillation is:
clot formation in the fibrillating atria.
EMS protocol development, training methodologies, and equipment use decisions are based mainly on?
research
Examination of the head is MOST important when assessing a patient who:
Is a trauma patient or a patient with altered mental status or are unresponsive.
If a woman who is 35 weeks pregnant is placed in supine position?
atrial preload may be reduced markedly
Q. While transporting an intubated 8-year-old boy, he suddenly jerks his head and becomes cyanotic shortly thereafter. His oxygen saturation and capnometry readings are both falling, and he is becoming bradycardic. You attempt to auscultate breath sounds, but are unable to hear because of the drone of the engine. What has MOST likely happened?
inadvertent extubation
Severe salicylate toxicity produces:
metabolic acidosis
When checking the ambulance engine, the odor of sewer gas:
indicates that the acid in the battery has boiled
Which of the following statements regarding compartment syndrome is MOST correct?
Compartment syndrome is more likely to occur with closed injuries
The growth plate of a bone is also referred to as the _______ plate.
epiphyseal
A crushing or tearing amputation:
can result in excessive blood loss due to hemorrhage if the paramedic does not intervene rapidly
Bulging of a child's anterior fontanelle is:
Common while crying, pathologic when observed in a quiet child.
If a young female with a known history of gonorrhea presents with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, and bleeding between periods?
she most likely has pelvic inflammatory disease
Q. Removal of a dental appliance after intubating a patient is:
dangerous and may cause dislodgement of the tube.
The first EMT textbook, Emergency Care and Transportation of the Sick and Injured, was published in 1971 by the?
American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS)
The hazardous materials team has deemed it safe for you to enter and remove patients from an office building that exploded. As you are moving the patients, it is MOST important to:
remain alert to the possibility of a secondary explosive device
When you ask a patient an uncomplicated question in plain English, and he or she responds with an unnecessarily complicated or inappropriate response, you should consider that the patient is?
possibly lying due to the stress of the situation
Which of the following statements regarding an abusive parent is MOST correct?
Abusive parents have unrealistic expectations of their children and try to control their children through negative and authoritarian means
You are transporting a young female who intentionally ingested a large quantity of her prescribed Pamelor. She is conscious, but drowsy, and complains of a dry mouth and blurred vision. The cardiac monitor reveals sinus tachycardia at 120 beats/min. You are administering high-flow oxygen and have established a patent IV line. With regard to her ECG rhythm, you should be especially alert for:
QRS widening
You have applied the defibrillator pads to a pulseless and apneic 60-year-old woman and observe a slow, wide QRS complex rhythm. Your next action should be to:
immediately begin CPR.
A fracture at an angle to the shaft of the bone is called a/an?
oblique fracture
* At birth, a pulse rate of up to ___ beats/min and a respiratory rate of up to ___ breaths/min are considered normal.
180, 60
A patient who complains of double vision has:
Diplopia
Elder abuse is generally substantiated by:
adult protective services
Gestational hypertension?
may be an early sign of preeclampsia
If your unit is the first to arrive at an incident, you should keep yourself safe, size up the scene, and then:
notify dispatch, identify your unit, apprise dispatch of the situation, and assume command.
In adult patients, oral ingestion of a caustic substance:
is usually intentional
Q. Hepatomegaly and jugular veinous distention are MOST suggestive of:
right heart failure
When an ambulance collides with a citizen's vehicle at an intersection?
the driver of the ambulance may be charged criminally
When managing a patient who is entrapped by a crushing object, it is MOST important to:
make every effort to treat the patient before removing the crushing object
Which of the following medications is a calcium channel blocker?
Cardizem
Formation of new bone on the surface of the bone is called ________ bone growth.
appositional
Anatomically contiguous leads view:
The same general area of the heart.
At 10:20 PM, you are dispatched for a woman reportedly slumped over the steering wheel of her car alongside the highway. Upon arriving at the scene, you should:
park your ambulance at least 15 feet behind the patient’s vehicle
Down syndrome occurs when:
a triplication of chromosome 21 occurs
Full-thickness circumferential burns to the chest:
may cause significant restriction of respiratory excursion
In most infants, the primary method of communicating distress is?
crying
Q. Patients with obvious respiratory failure require immediate:
ventilation support
The MOST immediate danger to a deeply unconscious patient with acute alcohol intoxication is:
aspiration of vomitus
The typical upper limit of the fetal heart rate is?
160 beats/min
When assessing visual acuity in the prehospital setting, you should:
Simple test such as light/dark discrimination and finger counting. Test each eye in isolation.
Which of the following is the BEST example of a teachable moment?
advising the unrestrained passenger with minor injuries following a MVC that she easily could have been killed
You are called to a local gym for the patient with nausea. Your patient, a 29-year-old man, tells you that he thinks he has a “stomach bug.” He is conscious and alert, denies CP or SOB, and tells you that he has been nauseated for the last 4 hours, but has not vomited. His blood pressure is 124/66 mmHg, pulse is 46 beats/min and strong, respirations are 20 breaths/min and regular, and room air oxygen saturation is 99%. The cardiac monitor reveals a sinus bradycardia. You should:
administer oxygen via nasal cannula, start an IV of normal saline, consider administering an antiemetic, and transport.
The ______ part of the skeletal system consists, in part, of the skull and spine.
appendicular
Q. The barrel-chest appearance classically seen in emphysemic patients is secondary to:
air trapping in the lungs.
The diameter and reactivity of a patient's pupils to light:
Reflect the status of the brain’s perfusion, oxygenation, and condition.
The egg is referred to as a blastocyst when?
it has been fertilized and enters the uterus and begins absorbing uterine fluid through the cell membrane
The equipment and supplies that are carried in the back of an ambulance:
must be stowed safely yet easily accessible
The hyperpnea and tachypnea associated with methyl alcohol intoxication is secondary to:
metabolic acidosis
The LEAST common cause of death from fires is:
integument burns
The paramedic is in the BEST position to formulate an appropriate treatment plan for an ill patient if the paramedic?
is able to identify the etiology of the patient's illness