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1146 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
ejection click w/ crescendo-decrescendo systolic murmur
aortic stenosis
sore, thick tongue + anemia + esophageal webs =
basophilic leukocytosis is associated with what leukemia?
podocyte effacement
minimal change disease
describe the presentation of the patient with age-related macular degeneration
patchy loss of vision limited to the center, OK peripheral vision, pigmentary changes in the macula
what effect does cortisol have on the nitrogen balance of burn patients?
nitrogen is lost
finely granular surface of kidneys indicates what pathologic process?
benign nephrosclerosis
two locations for early mets of lung cancer
axillary and internal thoracic nodes
most common cancer of the breat
infiltrating ductal
what type of thyroid cancer involves production of amyloid?
IgG, IgM and C' in the mesangium
membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
name the law of Laplace for associating wall stress with pressure, radius, and wall thickness
wall stress = (pressure x radius)/thickness
tropical sprue affects which part of the bowel?
the whole small bowel
diffuse loss of myelin and axons, widespread gliosis; seen in hypertensive patients; loss of white matter
subcortical leukoencephalopathy
infertility + bronchiectasis
underlying molecular mechanism of post-strep GN
deposition of immune complexes on the epithelial side of the GBM
acute decreases in serum Mg cause PTH to (increase/decrease/not change)
is the spleen situated ventrally or dorsally in the abdominal cavity?
histology of early chronic bronchitis shows hypertrophy of which cells?
submucosal glands
LCST lesions result in …
spastic paresis (this is an UMN lesion)
staghorn calculi are associated with what types of bacteria?
urease-splitting bacteria (i.e. Proteus)
cardiac abnormality with Turner's
coarctation of the aorta
common signs of serum sickness
fever, arthralgias, rash, lymphadenopathy
how does pulse pressure change with arteriosclerosis?
decreased arterial compliance leads to increased pulse pressure
another name for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis
young adult with intellectual decline, seizures, and ataxia
Leigh's disease
most common location for volvulus
sigmoid colon
presentation of a patient with cystathionine deficiency
Marfanoid habitus, retardation, high Met levels
hepatic disorder associated with ulcerative colitis
primary sclerosing cholangitis
in empty sella syndrome, the sella turcica is filled with ___
S100 is the tumor marker for ..
neural tumors, astrocytoma, and melanoma
BUN and creatinine in patients with tubulointerstitial disease
creatinine increases more than BUN
constantly increased PR interval withOUT missed QRS complexes
first-degree AV block
deficiency in glucose-6-phosphatase causes …
von Gierke's dz
liver histology in Reye's syndrome
microvesicular steatosis
TRAP staining diagnoses …
hairy cell leukemia
most common location of "newly diagnosed" TB
apex ("newly diagnosed" means reactivated)
role of Angiotensin II in the kidney
constricts the efferent arteriole
squamous cell CA of lung can secrete…(2)
hematologic neoplasm associated with t(2;8), t(8;22), and t(8;14)
Burkitt's lymphoma
how does acute gastritis present?
erythematous mucosa, petechiae, heartburn, nausea, vomiting
what specialized cell might form in an area of fat necrosis?
multinucleated giant cell
the antibody of scleroderma with the worst prognosis
anti-topoisomerase (indicates diffuse scleroderma)
type of neurofibromatosis which includes Lisch nodules
Type I NF
what's another causes for increased BUN with Nl creatinine?
decreased renal perfusion
erythema multiforme affects what body parts?
all over (including distal extremities, differentiating it from Lyme disease, and palms and soles)
decreased breath sounds + hyperresonance
OD causing hyperventilation w/ respiratory alkalosis and compensatory metabolic acidosis
disease caused by a mutation in mitochondrial genes
Leber hereditary optic neuropathy
common characteristics of MEN IIb
medullary thyroid CA, pheochromocytoma, and mucosal neuromas
profound fatigue/weakness, alternating diarrhea and constipation, and hyperpigmentation
Addison's disease
hemodynamic findings in anemia
tachycardia, ↑stroke volume, ↑pulse pressure
the pathogenesis of a mucopolysaccaridosis depends heavily on the involvement of what structures?
glucose spills into the urine at a serum glucose level of ____
200 mg/dL
predisposition for aortic dissection
cystic medial necrosis
the defining feature of an Echinoccus cyst
lab findings in chronic COPD
ph normal (actually just slightly low), pCO2 increased, HCO3 increased
long-term neurologic sequellae of measles
subacute sclerosing panencephalitis
peak age of incidence of membranous GN
fourth and fifth decades
skin disease strongly associated with sprue
dermatitis herpetiformis
valvular lesion characterized by greatly elevated LA pressure toward the end of systole
mitral regurgitation
effect of DIC on kidney
diffuse cortical necrosis
osteopetrosis is a failure of what cell type?
weak femoral pulse (compared with radial), low ab aortic pressures, failure to thrive
coarctation of the aorta
type of emphysema experienced by smokers
Hashimoto's thyroiditis is associated with lesions of what other organ system?
thymus (like MG)
atherosclerotic aneurysms typically arise in the …
abdominal aorta
in sickle cell dz, where in the kidney are RBCs most likely to sickle?
vasa recta (high osmolality)
reperfusion injury is caused by …
free radicals
dx of uncal herniation
CN III problems (mydriasis, loss of accomodation)
when does rupture of ventricular wall occur after an MI?
5-10 days
is atrophy due to disuse caused by a decrease in the number of cells or the number of myofibrils per cell?
decreased # of myofibrils per cell
source of osteoblasts after fracture
damaged periosteum
cardiac disorders involved with Fragile X
aortic root dilation and MVP
cystic medial degeneration is a risk factor
dissecting aneurysm
R ventricular impulse + systolic murmur in pulmonic area + fixed splitting of S2
what does the "borderline" mean in "borderline mucinous tumor"?
cytologic atypia without stromal invasion
describe the pathology of a common senile infarct
opacification of the lens caused by swelling and vacuolation of its fibers
describe MEN II b
pheochromocytoma, medullary thyroid CA, mucocutaneous neuromas
patients with celiac disease have an increased risk of what cancer?
GI lymphoma
goblet cell hyperplasia is common in ….
prognosis of melanoma correlates with …
depth of invasion
aka graft arteriosclerosis
graft vascular disease
lysosomal storage disease that causes widespread areas of demyelination in the brain
long-term sequellae of neonate with hypothyroidism
mental retardation (cretinism)
decreased serum ceruloplasmin is indicative of what disease?
Wilson's disease
two conditions in which the aortic pressure during diastole is lower than normal
aortic regurgitation and PDA (in both cases blood is lost from the aorta)
increased megakaryocytes in BM + few platelets on peripheral smear
idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)
hamartomas in the brain + adenoma sebaceum + cardiac rhabdomyomas
tuberous sclerosis
____% of pheochromocytomas occur in kids
peripheral vascular resistance (increases/decreases/no change) in severe anemia
koilocytosis on pap smear suggests …
infection with HPV (NOT carcinoma in situ or severe dysplasia!)
histologic description of aa in hypertension
concentric laminar intimal fibrosis with plexogenic arteriopathy (right ….)
AAA are usually the result of …
LMN findings in the UE and UMN findings in the LE
increased osmotic fragility of RBCs means …
hereditary spherocytosis
leukocytoclastic angiitis is also known as …
hypersensitivity angiitis
strongest risk factor for duodenal peptic ulcer
H. pylori infections
pathophys of Hartnup's disease
poor absorption of aa secondary to deficient epithelial transport (including tryptophan, a precursor for niacin)
etiology of esophageal atresia
posterior deviation of the tracheoesophageal septum
oncogene associated with small cell CA of lung
best way to establish the diagnosis of Budd Chiari
hepatic venography
slowly progressive heart failure (may or may not have chest pain)
chronic ischemic heart disease
thyroid CA with Psammoma bodies
hyponatremia, urine hypo-osmolality, and lung mass
SIADH (small cell CA)
cardinal signs include dec arterial P, small heart, and inc venous P
cardiac tamponade
predisposing conditions for pancreatitis
EtOH and gallstones
kid with short 4th and 5th fingers
sickle cell disease
how does the presence of constitutional sx affect the stage of Hodgkin's?
Stage #B (#A would be no systemic sx)
histology of late chronic bronchitis shows metaplasia of what cells?
goblet cells
findings in Marfan syndrome
long fingers, lens problems, dissecting aortic aneurysm, MVP
what is leukoplakia?
white plaque on the oral mucosa for which a dx cannot be found (5% contain carcinoma)
PDA connects …
aorta and left pulm aa
baby w. mental retardation, growth failure, cataracts, liver dz, aminoaciduria, n/v/d improving (but not eliminated) with removal of milk from the diet
type of leukemia in which marrow contains >30% blasts, of which >50% are erythroblasts
coronary artery finding in Kawasaki disease
coronary artery aneurysm
brain tumor with mucin-secreting epithelial cells w/ cilia (no calcifications)
colloid cyst
translocation in Burkitt's
thymomas and thymic hyperplasia are associated with what neuromuscular disorder?
myasthenia gravis
testes without germ cells or Sertoli cells, but Leydig cells in clumps
medullary CA of the thyroid produces amyloid derived from …
calcitonin precursors
early wrist and ankle involvement is typical of this type of muscular dystrophy
myotonic dystrophy
actinic keratosis predisposes to …
enlarged rugal folds + hyperplasia of mucous-secreting cells
Menetrier disease
definition of Reid index
ratio of gland depth to total bronchial wall thickness
Budd Chiari syndrome is most often a complication of …
thrombogenic or myeloproliferative disorders
thyroid CA with amyloid
how to differentiate TTP from ITP
ITP does NOT have systemic sx or fragmented red cells
TPR is (increased/decreased) in HTN
aka protein-losing gastroenteropathy
Menetrier disease
healing of a large abrasion occurs by …
movement of epithelial stem cells from the skin appendages (sweat glands, hair follicles) into the denuded area
thyroid bx with giant cells, loss of colloid, and follicular disruption
subacute thyroiditis
cyanosis early in life can be caused by … (3)
Transposition, Tetralogy, Truncus (3 Ts)
marker used to follow a seminoma
placental alkphos
two serum markers that differentiate a mixed testicular tumor from a pure seminoma
AFP and hCG
medullary CA of the thyroid produces amyloid derived from …
calcitonin (originate from calcitonin-secreting C cells of thyroid)
breath smells like ___ in DKA
% of patients with ischemic heart disease that present dead
two hormones from anterior pituitary that control blood glucose levels
growth hormone, ACTH
location of CNS venous thrombosis associated with hypercoagulable states
sagittal sinus thrombosis
brain tumor with three cell layers, the innermost of which are dome-shaped urothelial cells
the structure of amyloid closely resembles …
beta-pleated sheets
patient with inability to adduct upon conjugate gaze, but who can converge, likely has a lesion of the …
MLF (as in MS)
predispositions to pulmonary abscess
dental caries, oral surgery, sinus infections, alcoholism
episodic diarrhea, flushing, wheezing
carcinoid syndrome
predisposing condition for hepatic angiosarcoma
exposure to polyvinyl chloride
small granulomas in the colonic mucosa
pulse pressure in aortic regurgitation
high (e.g. 180/60)
the type of meningitis with high lymphoytes, fibroblasts, macrophages, and plasma cells in the CSF
chronic meningitis
describe phenotype of XX female with 17-alpha-hydroxylase deficiency
normal female reproductive tract but NO secondary sexual characteristics at puberty
FAB classification of acute myelocytic anemia with differentiation
blood flow to the heart is regulated by …
the metabolic needs of the myocardium
senile cardiac amyloidosis involves which type of amyloid protein?
transthyretin (if systemic) or ANP-related fibrils (if localized to heart)
the most common site for septic arthritis (N. gonorrhoeae)
young girl with fever, joint swelling, hepatosplenomegaly and generalized lymphadenopathy
Still's Dz (juvenile rheumatoid arthritis)
insertion of 4 nucleotides into the gene for hexaminidase A
etiology of male pseudohermapthroditism
pts make testosterone, but body fails to respond appropriately to it
dilated superficial lymphatics occur in what skin disease?
hemoptysis + renal failure
hematologic findings in secondary polycythemia
high RBCs, normal WBCs and platelets
most common form of hiatal hernia
age of presentation of seminoma (males) and dysgerminoma (females)
seminoma = 4th decade; dysgerminoma = 3rd decade
reproductive tumor with endodermal sinuses that resemble primitive glomeruli
yolk sac tumor
cancer associations with myasthemia gravis
thymoma & bronchogenic carcinoma
Paget's disease of breast signifies underlying …
effect of calcitonin on serum Ca
decreases serum Ca
apolipoprotein that helps lipoproteins bind to cell-surface receptors
lab findings in SIADH
↑ ADH, urinary Na, ANP; ↓aldosterone
hormone secreted by Zollinger-Ellison
common location for a colloid cyst
3rd ventricle
histology of glioblastoma multiforme
pseudopalisading cells with necrosis
hypoglycermia with increased serum insulin and undetectable serum C-peptide
factitious hypoglycemia (administration of insulin)
a patient with chronic hemodialysis is most likely to suffer from which kind of amyloidosis?
beta-2- microglobulin
cancer in what location most often causes pernicious anemia?
stomach (ileal cancers uncommon)
describe the fluid that accumulates in the abdomen with lymphatic obstruction
protein- and lymphocyte-rich
is DiGeorge's syndrome a T or B cell defect?
T cell
how does an increase in peak systolic pressure affect the blood flow to the heart?
decreases blood flow (shuts off coronary aa blood flow)
what test is likely to be abnormal in an older adult, but not reflect disease?
anti-nuclear Ab
the organ that most contributes to death from amyloidosis is …
how to tell the difference between fibroadenoma and fibrocytic change
aspirate yields fluid in fibrocytic change
when does fibrinous pericarditis occur after an MI?
several weeks
mom's plasma levels of ___ depend on a viable fetus
apolipoprotein responsible for activating lipoprotein lipase
left ventricular peak systolic P >> aortic peak systolic pressure
aortic stenosis
the part of the brain first affected by Alzheimer's disease
neurologic sx, small liver, choreoathetosis
Wilson's disease
Native Americans are at high risk for what dz?
direct toxicity of the heart by enzymes contained in eosinophilic granules
Loffler's endocarditis
gene defect in hereditary spherocytosis
auscultatory findings in aortic regurgitation
blowing holosystolic murmur along LSB
Roth's spots
craniopharyngeoma arises from cells derived from …
Rathke's pouch
osteitis fibrosa cystica is a characteristic of what endocrine disorder?
primary hyperparathyroidism
promyelocytic leukemia with abundant granulation in the cytoplasm
the skin cancer for which patients with albinism are most at risk
squamous cell CA
cell type involved in the pathogenesis of ARDS
neutrophils (secrete substances that damage the endothelium)
bipolar cell tumor located in the cerebellum of a young child
pilocytic astrocytoma
decrease in nuclear basophilia due to Dnase activity
lab findings in vitamin D deficiency
decreased Ca and P, normal ALP
black women with non-caseating pulmonary granulomas and hilar adenopathy
morphologic features of MVP
myxoid degeneration
risk factors for bilirubin stones
C sinensis infection, hemolytic anemia, hepatic cirrhosis
usual location for Meckel's diverticulum
in the ileum near the ileocecal valve
hemophilia is due to deficiency of …
F VIII (hemophilia A), or F IX (hemophilia B)
the only ovarian tumors that produce sex steroids are …
granulosa-theca tumors
lab and blood smear findings of DIC
decreased platelets, fragmented RBCs, increased PT/PTT, decreased fibrinogen
anti-mitochondrial Ab
primary biliary cirrhosis
arteriolar density in malignant hypertension is (increased/decreased)
decreased (called arteriolar rarefaction)
newborn with large L atrium and L ventricle, dilated aorta, and continuous murmur
radiographically dense crystals in the joint space
why does BUN increase in burn patients?
urea is the product of protein breakdown, which occurs at accelerated pace in these patients
HLA type associated with rheumatoid arthritis
Hartnup disease is a deficiency in ___ metabolism
subarachnoid hemorrages are caused by … (2)
rupture of berry aneurysm, AVM
in a child's xray, a sharply-demarcated, translucent lesion surrounded by a thin layer of bone is most likely …
benign cartilage
characteristics of a premortem thrombus
lines of Zahn
SVC syndrome is associated with which cancers?
bronchogenic lung CA (commonly small cell and squamous cell)
pheochromocytoma and medullary thyroid CA are associated with which MEN syndromes?
2a and 2b
crescendo-decrescendo murmurs
aortic and pulmonic stenosis
paralysis of upward gaze + insomnia
enzymatic degradation of what type of collagen plays a role in osteoarthritis?
Type II collagen
absence of temporal relationship between P and QRS waves
third-degree AV block
mucous casts of small airways are known as …
Curschmann spirals
hepatic cysts associated with ADPKD (are/are not) associated with liver failure
are not
defect in Cori's disease
debranching enzyme (glycogen storage dz)
pathophys of why EtOH abuse causes hypoglycemia
low NAD+ leads to inability to absorb hydrogens from lactate to make pyruvate; without pyruvate, no gluconeogenesis can occur
random electrical activity without recognizable QRS complexes
v fib
FAB classification of acute megakaryocytic leukemia
mid-cycle ovulatory pain
what is the most likely H&N location for squamous cell CA in a smoker?
tip of the tongue
treatment for lead poisoning
EDTA chelation
cytoplasmic & nuclear blebbing is indicative of …
bilateral dislocation of the lenses is common in …
Marfan's disease
↓ breath sounds, rhonchi, wheezes, resp distress
presentation of Nelson's syndrome
extreme hyperpigmentation due to very high ACTH
rupture of an AV malformation causes what type of bleeding?
pathogenesis of dizygotic twins
two eggs and two sperm unite
the "double bubble" sign on XR is typical of what dz?
Down's syndrome (air bubble in stomach and duodenum)
DKA causes what acid-base abnormality?
metabolic acidosis (inc gap)
baby has a disorder in which multiple contact blisters form. Etiology?
defect in basal cell tonofilaments
two mild forms of mucopolysaccharidoses (no mental retardation)
Morquio and Scheie
etiology of hypokalemic periodic paralysis
defect in Ca channels
distribution of posterior descending branch of RCA
posterior septum
adult polysystic kidney disease: GFR up or down?
the serologic marker that best correlates with HepB activity
site of majority of morbidity and mortality due to Chaga's dz
brain malformation common in Trisomy 13
inreased PO2 in the RV and pulm aa but NOT the RA is indicative of ….
lamellar bodies are composed of what?
type of neurofibromatosis which includes acoustic schwannomas
Type II NF
most frequent serous ovarian tumor
serous cystadenocarcinoma
massive dilation of the aortic root withOUT evidence of atherosclerotic disease
syphilitic aneurysm
when GFR is reduced by 1/2, plasma creatinine …
when does congenital fibroelastosis usually present?
finger-like projections on the mitral valve; histologically: fibrous core lined w/ endothelium
papillary fibroelastoma
clubbing with subperiosteal bone formation is associated with …
intrathoracic cancer
abscesses of the brain are usually caused by direct extension from …
middle ear
port wine stain is associated with what multifactorial disease?
Sturge-Weber disease
type of MI that affects all EKG leads; usually occurs in the setting of severe hypotension or shock
blood flow to upper body (>/</=) blood flow in the lower body in aortic coarctation
pansystolic murmus, loudest at the apex
mitral regurgitation
amoebae which ingests RBCs
E. histolytica
bicornuate uterus is associated with what obstetric disorder?
recurrent spontaneous abortion
what cell is more numerous in chronic bronchitis than normal individuals?
goblet cells
histology of the liver in acute icteric hepatitis
balooning degeneration, Councilman bodies, and interrupted bile flow (bile lakes)
what type of steroids do sertoli-leydig tumors excrete?
what aa is likely to be elevated in the urine of patients with cystinuria?
2 things that cause the majority of maternal deaths in preeclampsia
cerebral hemorrhage and ARDS
this results from sperm fertilization of an empty egg
complete mole
one of the earliest and most severely affected brain area in Alzheimer's
crescent formation suggests ______
PFTs in chronic bronchitis
Nl TLC, decreased FEV1
pathogenesis of galactosemia
autosomal dominant absence of galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase
blood smear with small, mature lymphocytes (no blast forms)
differentiation between Diffuse Lewy Body Disease and Parkinsonism
Lewy bodies are in the cortex in DLBD and absent from the cortex in Park.
etiology of familial hypercholesterolemia
defective LDL receptor
peripheral lung cancers
large cell, adeno, and bronchioloalveolar
initial step in development of atherosclerosis
endothelial injury
describe the lesion of erythroplasia of queyrat
soft, red plaque
rounded colonic growth with glands and sawtooth crypts
hyperplastic polyp (no malignant potential)
medullary thyroid cancer and ____ are associated with MEN Types 2 and 2b
type of MI that only affects a few EKG leads; generally begins in the community
the size of the heart in primary (idiopathic) cardiomyopathy
large (leads to dilated cardiomyopathy and CHF)
"subepithelial humps" within glomeruli
poststrep glomerulonephritis
ACTH is very similar structurally to what other pituitary hormone?
melanocyte-stimulating hormone
old woman with amyloid desposition in the heart, but nowhere else (no hx of chronic conditions)
senile cardiac amyloidosis
lipid status of patients with nephrotic syndrome
Crohn's or IC: presence of fistulas
30% of patients with cchronic pancreatitis develop …
diabetes mellitus
heart findings in coarctation of the aorta
in older patients, the presence of ____ strongly suggests CHF
a varient of polyarteritis nodosa in which pt suffers from asthma, vasculitides, and eosinophilia
Churg-Strauss syndrome
steatorrhea, pruritis, sclerosing cholangitis, and cholangiolitis
primary biliary cirrhosis
histology of rhabdomyoma
benign tumor with skeletal muscle differentiation
what causes edema in septic patients?
increased microvascular permeability
"smudge cells"
ill, febrile child with large cervical lymph nodes and a desquamating skin rash on palms, soles, and mouth
Kawasaki disease
45, XO karyotype
Turner's syndrome
describe aberrant blood flow in PDA
blood shunted from aorta to pulmonary aa
distribution of anterior descending branch of LCA
anterior L ventricle, apex, and anterior 2/3 of septum
short stature + webbed neck
Turner's syndrome
VSD combined with R ventricular outflow obstruction, overriding aorta, and R ventricular hypertrophy
Tetrology of Fallot
distribution of L circumflex branch of LCA
lateral L ventricular wall
disease indicating osteoarthritis at a very early age
wrinkling of the aortic intima indicates ….
syphilitic aneurysm ("tree-barking")
urinary findings in cystinuria
yellow-brown, hexagonal crystals
difference between patent foramen ovale and ASD
patent foramen ovale is hemodynamically insignificant; ASD is large
anti-microsomal Ab in the setting of hypothyroidism
define ankylosis
stiffening of a previously movable joint
aka Osler-Weber-Rendu disease
hereditary hemorrhagic telangectasia
normal CSF glucose is ___ of serum glucose
BUN and creatinine in patients with glomerular disease
both rise proportionately
angina of aortic stenosis is due to ….
orotic aciduria is a genetic defect in which pathway?
pyrimidine metabolism
thrombocytopenia following respiratory infection
auscultatory findings in aortic stenosis
soft S2, midsystolic click w/ cres-decres
proteinaceous granular lung precipitate with hemosiderin-laden macrophages
pulmonary edema (CHF)
absence of muscle tone and peristalsis in the esophagus is associated with what systemic disease?
temporal arteritis is also known as …
giant cell arteritis
ab pain, n/v, hallucinations, irritability, peripheral neuropathy
acute intermittent porphyria
type of anemia which may occur after chloramphenicol administration
most common complication of hydatidiform mole
invasive mole (10%)
major apoplipoprotein found on HDL
tumor marker for serous papillary cystadenocarcioma of the ovary
90% of patients with syringomyelia also have _____ malformations
histology of Reye's syndrome
altered mitochondria
the unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia that causes death in early childhood
Criglar-Najar Type I
role of bcl-2 gene product
regulator of apoptosis
etiology of intracranial hemorrhage in Alzheimer's Disease
amyloid angiopathy (makes veessels weak and prone to rupture)
arteriolar diameter (increases/decreases/no change) in severe anemia
likely locations for urinary stones to lodge
renal pelvis, crossing of the external artery and pelvic brim
"tram-track" glomeruli
membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
inability to read (alexia), with preservation of the ability to write (agraphia), is indicative of a lesion in the …
left occipital cortex and splenium of CC
sequellae include kyphoscoliosis and food deformities
Friedreich's ataxia
most common cause of chronic meningitis
endocrine findings in patients with congenital lack of androgen receptors
high testosterone (they are XY)
poor blood supply to what tissue is most likely to impair healing?
adipose tissue
helps in the prognosis & tx of breast cancer
progesterone and estrogen receptors
a patient with a VIPoma will most likely present with …
diarrhea (not peptic ulcers!)
AV fistulas cause what hematologic differences? (CO, TPR, etc.)
increased CO/HR/SV/venous O2 content, decreased TPR/diastolic BP
first step in the pathogenesis is endothelial damage (HTN, nicotine, high cholesterol)
patients with Down's syndrome are at risk for what leukemia?
hypocalcemia, glucose intolerance, hypotension, and jaundice
acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis
LA pressure remains greater than LV pressure in this valvular lesion
mitral stenosis
subdural hematomas are most often caused by damage to what vessel?
bridging veins (slow to develop)
morphology of a Pick body
intracytoplasmic spherules composed of paired helical fragments
how do we measure GFR on the wards?
creatinine clearance
when is pyloris stenosis usually diagnosed?
3-4 weeks old
an elderly person presenting with acute RLQ pain
pancreatic pseudocyst formation is a consequence of what process?
Ab that mediate warm-agglutinin hemolytic anemia
urea nitrogen:creatinine ratio in CHF
high (=high BUN, nl creatinine)
type of emphysema in coal miners
feared major complication of CMV infection during the last trimester
↓TLC with higher pressure at a given capacity
interstitial fibrosis (restrictive dz?)
etiology of Gilbert's dz
decreased bilirubin uptake by liver cells & decreased activity of glucuronyl transferase
what does heterotrophy mean?
normal tissue in abnormal places
resp distress in pneumonia is due to …
inequalities in ventilation and perfusion
skin hyperpigmentation is typical of what disease?
Addison's disease
"hour-glass" stomach
sliding hiatal hernia
colonic polyps + pigmented macules, especially on lips and buccal mucosa
Describe Taussing-Bing malformation of the heart
transposition PLUS tetralogy of Fallot
baby with cyanosis of the LE only
aortic coarctation, infantile form (includes PDA)
uveitis + mouth or ginital ulcers
Behcet's syndrome
disease of the elderly in which ring-like calcifications form in medium & large aa
Monckeburg's arteriosclerosis
lab findings in Klinefelter's
↓ testosterone & inhibin; ↑ estrogen/LH/FSH
most important predictor of the metastatic potential of a carcinoid tumor
site and size
a lesion of the left spiral ganglion would result in …
ipsilateral hearing loss
how would one differentiate Monckeburg's from atherosclerosis?
no narrowing of the lumen in Monckeburg's
Curschmann spirals are typical of ____
rheumatic fever occurs ___ weeks following pharyngitis
1-5 weeks
small, laminated, calcific spherules seen in thyroid, neural, and ovarian tumors
Psammoma bodies
red, ulcerated lesions on a woman's nipple suggest underlying …
ductal CA
leukocytoclastic angiitis has been linked to the use of what drug?
serum calcium AND phosphate both decreased (PTH high)
vitamin D deficiency
M-spike on serum electrophoresis; dec platelets and inc ESR
multiple myeloma
mechanism of pulmonary infarction
multiple small emboli that occlude pulm vessels
inflammatory breast cancer is characterized by …
dermal lymphatic invasion
two components of Sturge-Weber dz
port-wine stain, meningeal angiomatosis
common presentation for patients with congenital lack of androgen receptors
inguinal hernia or primary amenorrhea
define compliance
∆ volume / ∆ pressure
BUN and creatinine in burn patients
BUN increases, creatinine remains normal
describe Churg-Strauss
asthma, eosinophilia, and granulomas of skin, lung, and/or arteries
treat Wilson's disease with …
punched-out ulcers in the esophagus
heerpes simplex esophagitis
infection associated with megaesophagus
Chaga's disease
the Ab associated with primary biliary cirrhosis
anti-mitochondrial Ab
infantile coarctation is accompanied by what other cardiac lesion?
what's the difference between pseudohyperparathyroidism and pseudopseudohyperparathyroidism?
in pseudopseudo., the serum levels of PTH and Ca are normal
thyroid tumor that contains amyloid
medullary carcinoma
polycythemia vera is related to which leukemia?
two autoAb associated with scleroderma
anti-Scl-70, anti-topoisomerase
dextrocardia + respiratory symptoms
airway volume associated with a 0 cm H20 pressure
Dx for "cluster of grapes" kidneys in an infant
total renal agenesis
how to diagnose a medullary thyroid CA
pentagastrin-stimulated calcitonin study (evaluates thyroid C cell hyperplasia)
lab tests in DIC
↑PTT and PT, ↓ platelets
defect in von Gierke's dz
glucose-6-phosphate (glycogen storage dz)
intense eye pain, redness, and halos around lights
acute closed-angle glaucoma
CSF drainage of the fourth ventricle
foramina of Luschka and Magendie
Auer rods in M3 AML contain a substance which can cause …
excessive fibrous tissue formation in the stroma of a tumor
hypokalemia is most commonly due to …
prolonged vomiting
most common location of primary TB
upper part of lower lung or lower part of upper lung, adjacent to pleura
in which muscles is fatigue in myasthenia gravis felt first?
the small, active mm around the eyes
plasma cell proliferation resembling multiple myeloma but without metastatic potential
oncogene associated with follicular and undifferentiated lymphoma
accumulation of clear fluid in the tunica vaginalis
fast mental deterioration + ataxia + LE myoclonic jerks
Cruetzfeldt-Jacob disease
the DPC oncogene is associated with …
pancreatic cancer
what happens to the NADH/NAD+ ratio in EtOH abuse?
increased (NAD+ more prevalent because alcohol dehydrogenase eats up NADH)
differentiation of prerenal failure and ATN
fraction excretion of Na <1% in prerenal failure, >2% in ATN
most frequent cause of aortic stenosis in the elderly
two causes of schistocytosis
prosthetic valves, DIC
weight loss despite eating a lot + polydipsia
diabetes mellitus
histologic findings in Goodpasture's
linear IgG deposits
characteristic histologic finding in membranous glomerulonephritis
diffuse thickening of caps
general type of leukemia that has cells with B cell markers
lymphoblastic leukemia
features of thiamine deficiency
cardiomyopathy, neuropathy, mammillary body degeneration (Wernicke-Korsakoff)
crypt abscesses in colonic mucosa
ulcerative colitis
define heterotopia
small amounts of normal tissue in abnormal sites
tract affects in syringomyelia
"tree-barking", or wrinkling of the intimal surface of the aorta
syphilitic aneurysm
the most common long-term sequellae of rheumatic fever is …
mitral valve disease
the stage of Hodgkin's in which lymph nodes on both sides of the diaphragm are involved
stage III
seen after rapid correction of hyponatremia
central pontine myelinosis
Horner's syndrome can result from a lung cancer located …
at either apex
where does fibrinoid necrosis usually occur?
arteries (necrosis of media and intima, with deposition of fibrin)
child w/ harsh systolic murmur, no diastolic murmur, and increased O2 in the right ventricle
common presentation for Trisomy 18
overlapping 3rd/4th fingers, oligohydramnios, rocker-bottom feet, single umbilical aa
untreated temporal arteritis can lead to ….
blindness (involvement of opthalmic aa)
deficiency in beta-D-glucosidase
Gaucher disease
type of angina occurring at rest
Prinzmetal, severe unstable?
Acanthomoeba or Naegleria: affects immnocompromised only
karyotype of patients with testicular feminization syndrome
urine turns black when standing at room temperature
thryoid cancer involved in MEN II and III
the most likely dx in a woman with nipple discharge is …
intraductal papilloma
oligoclonal bands of IgG in CSF means…
myasthenia gravis
clinical features of neurosyphilis
personality change, affect change, hyperactive reflexes, pupillary changes in the eyes, sensorium change, intellectual decline, speech decline (PARESIS)
macrophages containing debris from ingested lymphocytes ("tingible macrophages") is a characteristic of what disease?
benign reactive lymphadenitis
most important anterior thyroid hormones
glucocorticoids and thyroid hormone
what is pentagastrin?
synthetic peptide used to test gastrin secretion (not endogenous to man)
autoab associated with Type I diabetes
anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (enzyme present in pancreatic β cells)
atrophy of the caudate and putamen are associated with …
lesions of the ventral white commissure cause …
bilateral pain/temp sensation loss in the dermatomes of affected segments
% of pts with membranous GN that have edema
opportunistic lung pathogen that stains spherically with silver stain
P. carinii
from what cell do medullary thyroid carcinomas originate?
C cells of the thyroid
histology of celiac disease
flattened intestinal villi
three stages of necrosis (in order)
pyknosis, karyorrhexis, karyolysis
type of peripheral lung cancer associated with scarred or previously traumatized lung
dissecting aneurysms are due to what two causes?
HTN and cystic medial degeneration (Marfan's) - NOT ATHEROSCLEROSIS
low ratio of urea nitrogen:creatinine
acute tubular necrosis
physiologic role of lipoprotein lipase
takes triglycerides from the chylomicrons and makes them FFA+glycerol
brain tumor with a whorled histologic pattern
interstitial fibrosis _______ compliance
urinary findings in gallstone disease
high bilirubin (conjugated bilirubin spills into the urine)
megaloblastic anemia is caused by deficiency of … (2)
Vitamin B12 or folate
sx of UMN lesion
spasticity, hyperreflexia, extension of toes on Babinski test
type of amyloid that appears in inflammation (chronic infection, RA)
AA amyloid
hypercellular bone marrow over-producing all three cell lines (2)
CML and polycythemia vera
characteristics of Wermer syndrome
pituitary, pancreas, and parathyroid
prolactin is very similar structurally to what other pituitary hormone?
celiac disease affects which part of the bowel?
proximal small bowel
outflow of CSF from the third ventricle
foramen of Sylvius
balooning degeneration of hepatocytes is typical of what kind of HepB infxn?
approximate age of patients with ALL
young kids
thyroid CA is associated with exposure to what environmental toxin?
when is Hirschprung's usually diagnosed?
first few days of life
a defect in what protein is associated with Marfan syndrome?
creatinine is (increased/decreased/nl) in postrenal obstruction
therapy for emphysema
Kid in renal failure shows loss of bone due to what hormone?
appearance of kidney with malignant hypertension
hemorrhagic, mottled appearance
manifestations of congenital rubella
IUGR, cardiac problems, sensory problems, hepatosplenomegaly, purpura
child with volume-overloaded right ventricle and midsystolic ejection murmur
what happens to compliance with emphysema?
embolization from infective endocarditis causes …
multiple parietal lobe abscesses
protein whose expression correlates with neoplastic replicative ability
osteoclast activity is (increased/decreased/nl) in hyperparathyroidism
another name for MEN II
Sipple syndrome
"crew haircut" or "hair-on-end" upon head xray
sickle cell disease
maternal diabetes is linked to what fetal heart abnormality?
transposition of the great vessels
cardiopulmonary arrest cause what type of acid-base imbalance?
mixed disorder (metabolic lactic acidosis and respiratory acidosis due to blood standstill)
differentiation between pseudohyperparathyroidism and pseudopseudohyperparathyroidism
Ca, P, and PTH are normal with pseudopseudohyperparathyroidism
carotid body tumors are similar to what other endocrine tumor?
how long after coronary artery occlusion are changes visible on light microscopy?
10-12 hours
iron overload (e.g. hemolytic anemia, transfusions) can lead to what disorder?
secondary hemochromatosis
ECG pattern of pericarditis
ST elevation and upright T waves
what cardiac lesions is associated with tuberous sclerosis?
cardiac rhabdomyoma
strawberry nevus: regress with age or not?
regress with age
discrepancy in blood pressure between R and L arms, with mediastinal widening
aortic dissection
hematologic indices in megaloblastic anemia
↑MCV; Normal MCHC and MCH
XY patient with feminized genitalia & male internal reproductive organs has deficiency of …
5α hydroxylase
cell type that is increased in atopic asthma
in a pt with Cushing's, high-dose dexamethasone should suppress ACTH secretion from the pituitary by at least ___%
name some anaerobes which can cause lung abscess
Fusibacterium, Bacteriodes, Peptococcus
↓pH, ↓bicarb, ↓Co2 si what acid-base disorder?
metabolic acidosis
chronic mastitis is associated with what life change? What bug?
perimenopause; no bugs (it is sterile, due to inspissated mucus)
what causes the hirsutism in polycystic ovarian syndrome?
production of androgens
some causes for pleural transudate
hepatic cirrhosis, CHF, nephrotic syndrome, protein-losing enteropathy
chemotherapy for AML can cause …
pain in upper neck on swallowing + frequent regurgitation of food
Zenker's diverticulum
change in heart w/ chronic anemia
fatty change
describe the lab studies in a patient with isolated ACTH deficiency
decreased steroids (pubic hair, etc.), normal aldosterone (regulated by renin), low cortisol
levels of Ca, P, and PTH in renal failure
↑P b/c kidney malfunction, ↓Ca b/c P is high, ↑PTH b/c Ca is low
histology of atrial myxoma
scattered mesenchymal cells on myxoid background
"chicken-fat" clot that is all red and easily detached from the vessel wall
postmortem clot
name the members of the glycoprotein hormone family
ocular finding in Wilson's
Kayser-Fleicher ring
Dressler's syndrome
fibrinous pericarditis (autoimmune following MI)
the effects of heparin are best assessed with what test?
the essential underlying cause of cor pulmonale
increased pulmonary aa pressure
laboratory findings in empty sella syndrome
all pituitary hormone levels normal
obese people are predisposed to hypoxemia of (peripheral/central) origin
peripheral (intermittent obstruction of airway due to fatty neck)
cancers associated with Virchow's nodes (supraclavicular)
lung, H&N, stomach (left node only)
name some myeloproliferative disorders
polycythemia vera, myeloid metaplasia w/ myelofibrosis, CML
area of liver most sensitive to ischemic injury
pericentral vein zone (zone 3)
ECG findings in subendocaardial infarction
results from incomplete splitting of the embryo
siamese (conjoined) twins
ITP is characterized by autoAb against …
glycoprotein IIb/IIIa of platelets
pathogenesis of testicular feminization syndrome
lack of androgen receptor
hyperplasia of the stratum spinosum of the skin is called …
repeated episodes of stable angina pectoris cause what histologic changes?
small patches of fibrosis with vacuolization of damaged myocytes
ground-glass nuclei are typical of what kind of hepatitis B infection (active, chronic, etc.)?
chronic active hep B
do TIAs produce gross changes in brain appearance?
lab tests in Graves dz
↑ RAIU, T4, T3, T3 resin uptake; ↓ TSH
key words for Whipple's disease
submucosal macrophages, bacillary bodies
cyanosis later in life can be caused by … (3)
acute mastitis is associated with what life change? What bug?
breast feeding, S. aureus
what CA is increased in Plummer Vinson?
squamous CC of esophagus
benign nephrosclerosis is often the result of what chronic dz?
generalized bleeding occurs around what platelet count?
presentation of Budd Chiari
nontender hepatomegaly, ascites
cardiac findings in coarctation of the aorta
blockage of common bile duct produces what sx?
RUQ pain and ↑ direct bilirubin
patient with tachypnea, bilateral interstitial & alveolar infiltrates, bilateral crackles
virilization, hypertension, and hypokalemia are associated with what enzyme deficiency?
TB's effect on the heart
constrictive pericarditis
presents with abdominal (but not peripheral) ascites
obstruction of liver vasculature
explain why renin is high in ADPKD
cysts decrease perfusion, leading to the release of renin
the lab findings in euthroid sick syndrome
normal T4 and TSH, low T3
selective proteinuria w/ nephrotic syndrome
minimal change disease
hypertension, hypokalemia, and hypernatremia
Conn's syndrome (excessive cortisol)
dx of cystinuria
(+) nitroprusside cyanide test on urine
aka endodermal sinus tumor
yolk sac tumor
fragmentation and complete lysis of nuclei
trauma to the right midclavicular line, 5th intercostal space would cause …
what age group is affected by volvulus?
most common presentation of patients with pancreatic cancer (in head of pancreas)
obstructive jaundice (high alkphos and conjugated bilirubin)
↑pH, ↓bicarb, ↓Co2 is what acid base disorder?
resp alkalosis
autosomal recessive disease in which the renal tubules cannot resorb the aa cystine
results from a deficiency of homogentisate oxidase
this results in partial mole
1 or 2 sperm + 1 egg (rarely progresses to choriocarcinoma)
postcoital bleeding is associated with …
invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix
long, narrow, coiled endometrial glands (no atypia)
secretory endometrium
treatment for leaukemia predisposes to what type of stone?
uric acid
AAA are almost always the result of …
Troussau's sign indicates … (2)
pancreatitis or hypocalcemia
memory loss, confusion, and confabulation
Korsakoff syndrome (thiamine deficiency)
therapy for dumping syndrome
small, more frequent meals that are higher in fat
lung tumor associated with Eaton-Lambert syndrome
small cell CA
reproductive phenotype of pt with Turner's
"fibrous streaks" for ovaries; normal female reproductive tract; low estrogen secretion
what cell-surface marker is (+) in most B cell lymphomas?
etiology of renal osteodystrophy/secondary hyperparathyroidism
kidneys fail to keep phosphate in; P inhibits calcitriol synthesis; Ca ↓ and PTH ↑
morphine & barbiturates can cause hypoxemia of (peripheral/central) origin
characteristic histologic feature of apoptosis
peripheral aggregation of chromatin
wide pulse pressure is typical of ….
aortic regurg (160/50)
sclerosing cholangitis is associated with what chronic bowel disease?
ulcerative colitis
most common cause for Hashimoto's thyroiditis
anti-TPO Ab
edema + frothy urine
nephrotic syndrome
hypersegmented polys is a dead giveaway for …
folate or B12 deficiency
ADPKD can ectopically secrete…
special kinds of cells seen in thyroid bx of patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis
Hurthle cells
flat penile plaque with atypical squamous epithelium (on the penis)
Bowen's dz
causes of pernicious anemia
B12 or folate deficiency, atrophic gastritis, resection of stomach or small bowel
the DCC oncogene is associated with …
carcinomas of the colon
ACTH level in 21 hydroxylase deficiency
cortisol cannot be made; therefore ACTH high
compressed breast glands with lobular orientation suggests …
sclerosing adenosis
differentiation between subacute lymphocytic and granulocytic thyroiditis
lymphocytic is usually painless; granulocytic is painful
psoriasis is associated with what autoimmune arthritis?
rheumatoid arthritis
syndrome of muscle rigidity, hyperpyrexia, CNS alterations, and heart alterations
neuroleptic malignant syndrome (caused by antipsychotics and amoxipine)
cause of anemia in patients taking RT inhibitors or protease inhibitors
decreased production from the marrow
genetics of Kartegener's
autosomal recessive, defect in dynein
other causes for membranous glomerulonephritis
gold rx, penacillamine, SLE, Hep B, DM
differentiation of acute pericarditis and dissecting aortic aneurysm
pleuritic pain with pericarditis (i.e. pain with breathing)
a Meckel's diverticulum occurs when ____ fails to atrophy completely
vitelline duct
bone marrow expansion in the calvarium occurs in … (2 dzs)
sickle cell, thalassemia
role of angiostatin
dissecting aneurysms are associated with what genetic disease?
Marfan's (cystic medial necrosis)
greenish-brown rings around the edge of the cornea
Kayser-Fleicher ring (pathognomic for Wilson's)
hernia that appears inferolateral to pubic tubercle and medial to femoral vein
femoral hernia
what type of course does MS take? (progressive, waxing-waning, etc.)
another name for anti-Ro
anti-SS-A (associated with Sjogren's)
a placenta has many small plaques on the amniotic surface. MD should be concerned about defects in which organs?
PFTs in asthma
↓ FVC, ↓ FEV1, ↑ TLC
apocrine metaplasia (does/does not) increase risk for CA
does not
pleomorphic adenoma: benign or malignant?
black urine upon standing and debilitating arthritis
effacement of lymph nodes with small lymphocyte population
follicular lymphoma
muscle tissue stains with …
organism w/ acute bacterial endocarditis
S. aureus
most common cause of hypothyroidism in kids
fragmented, hyperchromatic nuclei with small blebs containing cytoplasm and nuclear fragments
a test that assesses DNA damage and evaluates carcinogenicity in vitro
Ames test
histopath of Reidel's thyroiditis
fibrous reaction with gland destruction
when blood is lost in trauma, how does the body maintain BP?
constriction of veins and venules
hematologic finding in mumps
increased serum amylase
kidney findings in HUS
intimal thickening of small aa and glomerular thrombosis or collapse
Lisch nodules
how to differentiate intestinal TB from Crohn's
both have granulomas, but only TB will have a positive AFB stain
what type of amyloid deposition is expected secondary to chonic bronchiectasis?
anemia causes a decrease in (pO2, O2 sat, O2 content)
O2 content (pO2 and sat unaffected)
two general causes for RPGN
Goodpasture's and vasculitides (temporal arteritis, Wegner's, etc.)
type of cardiomypathy suffered by pt with rheumatoid arthritis
restrictive (i.e. amyloid)
HLA types associated with diabetes mellitus
radiographic finding in coarctation of the aorta
notching of the inferior surfaces of the ribs
patients with Nelson's syndrome have a history of…
opthalmoplegia + rigidity in axial skeleton + bradykinesia
progressive supranuclear palsy
osteosarcoma is associated with what germline mutation?
the most significant factor predisposing a patient to breast cancer
positive family history
granulomas necessarily must have what kind of cells?
epithelioid histiocytes
CSF flows out of the lateral ventricles into the third ventricle through …
foramina of Monroe (there are two, one from each ventricle)
type of twins that develop from a single fertilized egg that subsequently splits at the blastocyst stage
monozygotic twins
Wegner's granulomatosis
defect in McArdle's dz
muscle phosphorylase (glycogen storage dz)
THE symptom of angina
chest pain (i.e. if there is no pain, it's not angina!)
complications of measles
pneumonia, encephalitis, otitis media
osteoclast activity is (increased/decreased/normal) in osteomalacia
fibrous scar following MI predisposes to …
ventricular aneurysm (also mural thrombi)
most grave histologic finding in fibrocystic change; indicates high risk for progression to carcinoma
epithelial hyperplasia
hallmark PFT of obstructive lung dz
↓ FEV1/FVC ratio
etiology of varicose veins
faulty venous valves causing high venous P in the legs
memory loss, ataxia, and urinary incontinence
normal-pressure hydrocephalus
mucosal neuromas + marfanoid habitus
wall-to-lumen ratio in HTN is (increased/decreased)
increased (hypertrophy of arteriolar walls)
has Auer rods
a patient with uncontrollable shaking of the hand when making purposeful movements most likely has a lesion of the …
tuberous sclerosis is associated with what brain neoplasm?
site of vitamin A storage
"Ito" cells (fat-containing mesenchymal cells in the liver's space of Disse)
"fried-egg" appearance of bone marrow biopsy
hairy cell leukemia
R ventricle pressure is (increased/decreased) in mild CHF
patient with renal dysfunction, hematuria, sinus infections, nasal perforation …
etiology of eclampsia
placental infarction
cancers that secrete EPO
renal cell CA, hepatocellular CA, cerebellar hemangioma
how is the urine affected by bile duct obstruction?
conjugated bilirubin is water soluable & excreted in the urine; urine is light brown
coma + oxalate crystals in urine + metabolic acidosis
ethylene glycol poisoning
Cruetzfeldt-Jacob disease typically involves deposition of ___ in the brain
to determine if RBCs are covered with IgG, do a …
direct Coomb's test (mix anti-IgG Abs with RBCs and see if agglutination occurs)
approximate age of patients with AML
middle adulthood (20-45 yo)
describe the appearance of the endometrium with anovulation
proliferative endometrium with stromal breakdown
port wine stain: regress with age or not?
what does the peripheral smear show in HUS?
schistocytes or (according to First Aid) poikilocytes
another name for Burkitt's lymphoma
small non-cleaved cell lymphoma
after blood flow ceases, pressure in the venous system _______ (inc/dec/no change)
increases (all pressures equilibrate)
AIDS-associated lymphoma occurs in ___% of patients
another name for MEN I
Wermer syndrome
urea nitrogen:creatinine ratio in postrenal obstruction
high (=high BUN, high creatinine)
autoantibodies against GP IIb/IIIa
idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)
"mosaic pattern of newly-formed bone" on histology
Paget's disease
bombesin is the tumor marker for …
neuroblastoma, small cell CA, gastric & pancreatic carcinomas
pathophysiology of stress-induced gastric ulcer
pepsin released in response to stress > causes excess acid secretion
connective tissue stains with …
a Baker's cyst represents …
enlarged semimembranous bursa on the back of the knee
in bx specimens, Giardia looks like …
crescent-shaped protozoa
a young person presenting with acute RLA pain
acute appendicitis
approximate age of patients with CML
older adulthood (~45 yo)
Budd-Chiari syndrome is usually produced by occlusion of the …