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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What does a prokaryotic cell lack in comparison to a eukaryotic cell?
Membrane-bound organelles
Prokaryotic region with no membrane where chromosomes are located
What 2 kingdoms make up Prokaryotic cells?
Bacteria, Archea
What are the 7 parts to a bacterium?
1) Pili -attachment via surface
2) Nucleoid
3) Ribosomes
4) Plasma membrane
5) Cell wall
6) Capsule - Outer coating of bacterium
7) Flagella - locomotion
In plant cells not animal cells (6 things)
1) Plastids - Membrane-bound plant-organelles
2) Cell wall
3) Central vacuole
4) Chloroplasts
5) Plasmodesmata
6) Tonoplast
In animal cells not plant cells
1) Lysosomes
2) Centrioles
3) Flagella
What does the cell wall do?
· Protect cell from physical harm
· Maintain cell shape
· Made of cellulose
What does the central vacuole do?
· Storage
· Breakdown of waste and macromolecules (hydrolysis)
What do chloroplasts do?
· Photosynthesis of ATP and glucose from sunlight
What is the function of the plasmodesmata?
Allow connection of two adjacent cells' cytoplasms using specific "bridges"
What is the tonoplast?
Membrane that separates central vacuole and its cell sap from the cytoplasm's cytosol
What is the membrane for the nucleus called?
Nuclear Envelope
Where is the pore complex located and what does it do?
· Located on the nucleus
· Regulates entry of certain large macromolecules and particles
What does the nuclear lamina do?
· Protein filaments that maintain shape of nucleus by lining the nuclear envelope
What does the nucleolus do?
· Central hub for chromatin
· Produces ribosomes
What are ribosomes and what do they do?
· Organelles made of ribosomal DNA
· Protein synthesis
What are the two types of ribosomes and where are they located?
1) Free ribosomes - Cytosol
2) Bound ribosomes - Outside of Endoplasmic Reticulum or Nuclear Envelope
Function of Free Ribosome?
Catalyze first steps of sugar breakdown
Function of Bound Ribosome?
Make Proteins destined for
(1) insertion into mmembranes,
(2) for packaging within organelles like lysosomes (perform hydrolysis), or
(3) for secretion and interaction with external cellular environment
Endomembrane System?
The collection of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related through direct physical contact or transfer of membrane vesicles
What do vesicles do?
Sacs made of membrane that contain
What are the 6 "members" of the endomembrane system?
1) Nucleur Envelope
2) Plasma Membrane
3) Lysosomes
4) Golgi Appartus
5) Endoplasmic Reticulum
6) Various kinds of vacuoles
What are the two regions of the endoplasmic reticulum?
1) Smooth ER
2) Rough ER
What does the Rough ER have that the Smooth ER lacks?
Bound ribosomes
What are the 3 functions of the Smooth ER?
1) Synthesis of Lipids
2) Metabolism of Carbohydrates (Storing of calcium ions)
3) Detoxification of drugs and poisons
What are the 2 functions of the Rough ER?
1) Form secretory proteins via the bound ribosomes and expels them from the cell on transport vesicles by exocytosis.
2) Using membrane proteins and phosolipids, regenerates its own membrane for later use in vesicles
What are the two poles of a Golgi stack and what are their functions?
Cis face and trans face. They are the receiving and shipping departments of the Golgi apparatus.
What is the 6 step process of the Golgi apparatus that vesicles must move through?
1) Vesicles move from ER to Golgi
2) Vesicles unite to form new cis Golgi cisternae
3) Golgi cisternae mive in a cis-to-trans direction
4) Vesicles form and leave Golgi, carrying specific proteins
5) Vesicles transport specific proteins backward to newer Golgi cisternae
6) Vesicles also transport some protein back to ER
What is a lysosome and what does it do?
Membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes used for digesting macromolecules. The process by which lysosomes digest food is called phagocytosis.
What are the 3 types of plant vacuoles and what are their basic functions?
Food Vacuoles
Contractile Vacuoles - Pump excess water out of cell
Central vacuole
What are mitochondria and what do they do?
Sites for Cellular Respiration