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50 Cards in this Set

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LIPID BILAYER
AMPHIPATHIC
CONTAINS BOTH POLAR & NONPOLAR DOMAINS
HYDORPHILIC HEADS
WATER LOVING; AFFINITY FOR WATER BECAUSE OF HYDROGEN BONDS
HYDROPHOBIC TAILS
WATER FEARING; NON PPOLAR, DO NOT DISSOLVE IN WATER
LIPID BILAYER COMPONENTS
PHOSPHOLIPIDS
GLYCOLIPIDS
CHOLESTEROL
PLASMA/CELL MEMBRANE
COMMUNICATION
A.OTHER CELLS
B.LIGANDS (HORMONES, NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND ANTIBODIES)
EXTRACELLULAR
INTRACELLULAR
INTERCELLULAR
OUTSIDE OF CELL
INSIDE OF CELL
BTN THE CELLS; PART OF EXTRACELLULAR ENVIRONMENT
PLASMA/CELL MEMBRANE
ELECTROCHEMICAL GRADIENT
Na, K, Cl, PO4
PLASMA/CELL MEMBRANE
SELECTIVE PERMEABILITY
DETERMINE HOW WELL THINGS WILL CROSS INTO THE CELL: 1). LIPID SOLUBILITY (MOST IMP-THE > THE LIPID SOLUBILITY, THE > IT WILL GO INTO THE CELL; 2). SIZE (MOLEC. WT); 3). CHARGE; 4).CHANNELS & TRANSPORTERS PRESENCE .
PLASMA/CELL MEMBRANE
PROTEINS
INTEGRAL: (THROUGH THE MEMBRANE)
A.PORES
B. TRANSPORTERS
C. RECEPTORS (LIGANDS)
D. ENZYMES
PLASMA/CELL MEMBRANE
PROTEINS
PERPHERAL PROTEINS (CAN BE EITHER INSIDE OR OUTSIDE)
A.ABO BLOOD
B. ENZYMES
C. ANCHORS FOR INSIDE TCELL
PLASMA/CELL MEMBRANE
CYTOSKELETON
SHAPE & COORDINATED MOVEMENT (MICROFILAMENTS, MICROTUBULES)
CYTOPLASM
CYSTOL + ALL OTHER COMPONENTS OUTSIDE OF NUCLEUS
LYSOSOMES
CELL ENZYMES; MOLECULAR DIGESTION (FOR. MATL, BACTERIA)
MITOCHONDRIA
ATP PRODUCTION, POWERHOUSE, DNA
CENTROSOMES/CENTRIOLES
ORGANIZE MICROTUBULES IN NON-DIVIDING.
MITOTIC SPINDLES W/ CELL DIVISION
GOLGI COMPLEX/ APPARATUS
CISTERNS, VESICLES;
PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULM
RER
SER (W/O RIBOSOMES)
NUCLEUS
1. HAS DNA
2. SURROUNDED BY POROUS NUCLEAR MEMBRANE
mRNA
TRIPLE BASE CODON
PARALLEL TO DNA CODING STRAND
ANTIPARELLE TO DNA TEMPLATE STRAND
EA CODON FOR SPECIF AA
tRNA
PICKS UP SELECTIV AA
HAS TRIPLE BASE "ANTI CODON"
ANTIPARELLEL TO mRNA
PARELLEL TO TEMPLATE STRAND DNA
rRNA
COMBINES W/ PROTEIN TO FORM A RIBOSOME
PASSIVE PROCESS
SIMPLE DIFFUSION: HIGH->LOW CONC.
FACIL.DIFFUSION-MVMT ACCROSS
SEL.PERM.MMBRN W/ HELP OF MEMB
PROT THAT SERVE AS CARRIERS
OSMOSIS-NET MOVT OF WATER
THROUGH SELECT PERM MEMB FROM
HIGH->LOWER CONCENTRATION
ACTIVE PROCESSES
ACTIVE TRANSPORT: LOW->HIGH
CONCENTRATION
CO-TRANSPORT-TWO MOL MOVE IN
SAME DIR (GLUCOSE AND NA)
COUNTER-TRANSPORT-OPPOSITE DIR.
(NA-K PUMP)
PHAGOCYTOSIS
ENDOCYTOSIS
EXOCYTOSIS
SOLUTIONS
ISOTONIC
HYPERTONIC-SOLUTION IS HYPERTON.
RBC WILL SHRINK/CRENATE
HYPOTONIC-SOLUTION IS HYPOTON.
RBC WILL SWELL AND LYSE/HEMOLYS
PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
TRANSCRIPTION & TRANSLATION
CELL PROCESS
1. REPLICATION (CELL DIV, MIT & MEI)
2. PROTEIN SYNTH (TRSCR+TRNSL)
DNA BASES
A,T,G,C (COMPLEMENTARY BASE PAIRING)
SNRP
EXCISION OF INTRONS IN PRE mRNA STRAND. LEAVES EXTRONS (mRNA)
mRNA STRAND IS COMPLEMENTARY AND ANTI-PARELLEL FROM ITS DNA TEMPLATE (NON CODING) STRAND
TRANSLATION
mRNA MOVES OUT INTO CYTOPLASM AND tRNA BRINGS IN ITS ANTI CODONS
AUG
START CODON - ALWAYS!
UAA,UAG,UGA
STOP CODONS
mRNA
5',7 methly guanines cap, poly A tail, 3'
EXONS


INTRONS
EXPRESS PROTEINS


GET CUT OUT OF PRE mRNA STRAND
SOMATIC (BODY) CELL DIVISION
ACCOMPLISHED BY MITOSIS
THOSE CELLS OTHER THAN REPROD.
CELLS.
HUM SOM CELLS 23 PAIRS OF CHROMOSOMES WH = 46
REPRODUCTIVE/SEX CELLS
ACCOMPLISHED BY MEIOSIS.
SEX CELLS(SPERM, EGG OVA) CONTAIN A TOTAL OF 23 CHROMOSOMES
PHASES OF REPLICATION
INTERPHASE-NO CHROMOSOMES
PROPHASE-CHROM FORM,NUC MEMBR
BRKS DN
METAPHASE-MIDDLE
ANAPHASE-APART, CYTOKINESIS STRT
TELEPHASE-TELEPHONE 2 PARTS
PROTEASOMES
CELL STRUCTURES THAT DESTROY WORN OUT OR TOXIC PROTEINS
APOPTOSIS
(TELOMERES)
PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH
(CLICKER, KEEPING TRACK OF # X'S
CELL REPRODUCES)
MUTATION
PERMANENT STRUCTURAL CHANGE IN A GENE.
PURINES


PYRIMIDINES
G,A


C,U,T, (CUT THE "PY")
TRANSCRIPTION
TAKES PLACE IN THE NUCLEUS.
TX OF NUCLEAR GENETIC DNA MATERIAL TO A STRAND OF PRE-mRNA (hn-RNA)
DNA IS ALWAYS READ 5'>3'
IF THERE IS NO MARKING, ALWAYS
ASSUME 5'>3'
DNA CODING STRAND 5'>3'
DNA TEMPLATE STRAND 3'>5'
mRNA 5'>3'
tRNA '3>5'
BASES OF mRNA
GROUPED IN T TRIPLET = CODON
rRNA
SYNTHESIZED BY DNA IN NUCLEUS.
FORMS A RIBOSOME
tRNA
PASS OUT FROM THE NUCLEUS & INTO THE CYTOPLASM WHERE IT PICKS UP AN AA
UNIVERSAL CODE
EVRY CODON HAS A SPECIFIC AA THAT IT CALLS FOR
DEGENERATIVE CODE
4 TOTHE 3 = 64
MINUS 1 FOR START CODON
MINUS 3 FOR STOP CODON = 60, BUT ONLY 20 AA, SO MORE THAN ONE CODON WILL CALL FOR SAME AA.
ANTICODON
END OF THE tRNA W. TRIPLE BASE SEQUENCE. ANTI-PARELLEL TO THE CODON
P SITE
WHERE FIRST tRNA ATTACHES TO START CODON IN mRNA
A SITE
WHERE 2ND tRNA ATTACHES TO mRNA