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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the organs of the female reproductive system?
=Ovaries
=Fallopian tubes
=Uterus
=Vagina
=External genital organs
=Mammary glands
What are the ovaries and what do they do?
=The two small ovaries are
attached to the posterior of the
broad ligament.
=They produce mature ova and secrete primarily female sexual hormones.
How do the ovaries work?
 Ovaries contain ovarian follicles. Each
follicle consists of an immature egg called
an oocyte and cells surrounding the oocyte,
called follicular cells.
=On day 14 the mature ovum bursts from the follicle cells in a process called ovulation.
=The ovum then enters the fallopian tubes.
What is the uterus and what does it do?
=Primary function is to provide a safe and nurturing environment for the growing baby.
=The Uterus has three parts Fundus, the body and cervix
=The Uterus has three layers
Epimetrium, perimetrium and
endometrium
What is the cervix?
=The inferior, narrow portion of the uterus that opens into the vagina
=During labor, the cervix thins out (efface) and dilates
What is the Vagina?
=The birth canal or passageway between the
uterus and the external genitalia or perineum
=It also provides a passageway for menstrual
flow and for the fetus during delivery
What are the external genitalia?
=Consists of the vestibule and
surrounding structures
 Labia minora
 Clitoris
 Labia majora
 Clinical perineum
What are the mammary glands?
=A single lactiferous duct divides to form smaller ducts
Forms secretory sacs that secrete milk during nursing
What is the Menstrual Cycle and when does it begin?
=Menarche
 The onset of menses, usually occurring
between ages 10 and 14.
-Estrogen and progesterone secreted by the
ovaries cause the endometrial changes.
=The Menstrual cycle has three stages:
 Proliferative phase – thickening and repairing
itself
 Secretory phase - after ovulation
 Menstrual phase – shedding the ischemic endometrium
How does fertilization take place?
=Each month the uterus is stimulated by the hormone to develop a thickened
endometrium.
=If sperm fertilizes an egg, it is implanted in the uterus and nourished by this lining.
=If no egg is fertilized, the uterus sheds the lining, composed of cells and blood.
=This process is known as the menstrual cycle.
What is the Menopause
=The cessation of menses and ovarian function resulting from decreased secretion of estrogen.
=Menstrual periods generally
continue to occur until a woman is 45 to 55.
What comprises the male sex bits?
 Testes
 Epididymus and Vas Deferens
 Prostate gland
 Penis
Describe the parts of the male reproductive system?
 Testes – composed of lobules with two types of
cells: the seminiferous tubules which produce
sperm and the interstitial cells which secretes
testosterone
=Epididymis – The sperm mature here and moves
through to the vas deferens
=Vas deferens – carry sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct.
=The left and right ejaculatory ducts go through the prostate gland and join with the urethra
=Urethra – extends from the bladder to the tip of the penis. It serves two purposes.
What are the secretions added to the sperm?
Various secretions are added to the sperm as they
travel through the genital ducts. The secretions come
from three glands:
=Seminal vesicles –secretes a thick yellowish material rich in fructose, vitamin C and prostaglandins. These substances nourish and
activate the sperm as they pass through the ejaculatory ducts.
=Prostate gland – secretes a milky alkaline substance that plays a role in increasing sperm motility.
=Bulbourethral glands – tiny glands that secrete a thick mucus into the urethra for lubrication.
Sum up the movement of sperm?
Sperm is produced in the testes and matured in the epididymus. It then travels through the vas deferens to the ejaculatory duct, through the prostate gland to the urethra.
How does blood flow during fetal life?
Oxygenated blood flows from the placenta via the umbilical veins to the fetus' liver. From here to to the inferior vena cava to the right atrium. Blood passes through the foramen ovale an opening between the right and left atria. Then through the head and upper body parts. The to the right aria - right ventricles and lower body via the pulmonary artery and the descending aorta via a special duct.
What happens at birth?
The duct and foramen close and normal circulation through the pulmonary artery begins with the infants first breath.
What is antepartum?
Occurring not long before childbirth
What is postpartum?
Occuring not long after childbirth
What is prenatal?
before and during pregnancy
what is natal?
Relating to the place or time of one's birth
what is primagravida?
A primigravida or gravida 1 is a woman who is pregnant for the first time
what is multigravida?
A pregnant woman with one or more previous pregnancies.
what is primapara?
A woman who has given birth for the first time to an infant or infants
what is multipara?
A woman who has given birth two or more times
What are the signs and symptoms of eclampsia?
Tonic-clonic seizures generally preceded by pre-eclampsia (high blood pressure)
What are the three layers of tissue of the uterus?
perimetrium, myometrium, endometrium