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19 Cards in this Set

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What are the basal ganglia and what is their principle function?
Not ganglia at all but rather nuclei (groups of cell bodies within CNS) located at the base of the forebrain

Motor "gatekeeper" theory of function: basal ganglia has net inhibitory effect on motor systems, release of this inhibition permits a motor system to become active
What structures make up the basal ganglia?
Striatum (caudate and putamen), globus pallidus/pallidum (GPi and GPe), substantia nigra (SNc and SNr) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN)
What structures make up the forebrain?
The cerebrum and the diencephalon together make up the forebrain.
What structures make up the diencephalon?
Thalamus, subthalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus
What two structures is the striatum divided into?
Caudate nucleus (caudate) and putamen
What structure appears to separate the caudate and putamen?
Internal capsule
What is the mesencephalon?
The midbrain
What and where is the substantia nigra (SN)?
Mesencephalonic gray matter

Divided into substantia nigra reticulata (SNr) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc)
Does the thalamus tonically inhibit or excite the motor cortex?
The thalamus tonically excites the motor cortex.
Does the cerebral cortex tonically excite or inhibit the striatum?
The cerebral cortex tonically excites the striatum.
Does the SNr/GPi complex tonically inhibit or excite the thalamus?
The SNR/GPi complex tonically inhibits the thalamus
Describe the direct pathway through the basal ganglia:
Cerebral cortex excites striatum, striatal inhibition of the SNr/GPi complex increases (inhibition of the inhibitor), SNr/GPi complex inhibition of thalamus is lowered, thalamic excitation of motor cortex is released, net hyperkinetic state
Does the striatum tonically excite or inhibit the SNr/GPi complex?
The striatum tonically inhibits the SNr/GPi complex (inhibits the inhibitor).
Does the GPe tonically excite or inhibit the STN?
The GPe tonically inhibits the STN.
Does the STN tonically excite or inhibit the SNr/GPi complex?
The STN tonically excites the SNr/GPi complex (excites the inhibitor)
Describe the indirect pathway through the basal ganglia:
Cerebral cortex excites the striatum, striatal inhibition of the GPe increases, GPe inhibition of the STN decreases, STN excitation of the SNr/GPi complex increases, SNr/GPi inhibition of thalamus increase, thalamic excitation of cerebral cortex is dampened

Cerebrum --> Striatum --> GPe --> STN --> SNr/GPi complex --> Thalamus --> Cerebrum

Net effect: hypokinetic state
What is the lentiform nucleus?
Refers to the putamen (of the caudate) and the globus pallidus (or pallidum) within the basal ganglia
Is the putamen lateral or medial to the internal capsule?
Lateral
Is the caudate lateral or medial to the internal capsule?
Medial