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51 Cards in this Set

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d/ METABOLISM?
All chemical reactions in the body
d/e CATABOLISM?
d/ Destroys

e/ Cellular respiration, digestion
d/e ANABOLISM?
d/ Synthesis or putting things together, usually requires NRG

e/ Protin synthesis
Should metabolism all be occuring at the same time?
yes
d/ METABOLIC RATE?
Amt of heat(NRG)released in a given amt of time as a result of catabolism of glucose.
d/ 1 calorie (c)?
the amt of heat needed to increase temp 1 ml of H2O 1 centigrade
d/ 1 Calorie (C)?
kCal=1000 (little)calories or amount of heat needed to raise temp of 1 liter of H2O
d/e DIRECT CALORIMETRY?
d/ Way to see how much NRG is given off

e/ measurement of either heat produced or heat transferred from an animal to the environment. This method is technically difficult and clinically impractical.
Cellular respiration:

Glucose + o2 yields what?
Co2 + h2o + NRG
d/ CALORIMETRY?
Method of measuring energy expenditure or metabolic rate
d/ INDIRECT CALORIMETRY?
Caloric burn rate is calculated from a measurement of oxygen uptake
What (5) things influences our METABOLIC RATE?
1 Exercise - direct
2 Body Temp - direct
3 Eating - direct
4 Age - direct
5 Hormone Bal (thyroid)
- direct
6 Gender men have higher metabolic rate than woman
How long does exercise affect your metabolic rate?
For the whole day, not just at time of exercise
What is BMR?
Metabolic rate that is measured under very specific parameters
What specific parameters are required when measuring BMR?
Client must be:

Awake, lying down, warm, post absorbtive(12'fasting)state
Factors that influence BMR?
Gender, age, drugs (meds or vitamins), fever, stress or emotions, pregnancy, thyroid balance
d/e Homeostasis of body temperature?
constant body temperature
d/e HOMEOTHERMIC?
d/ Constant body tempurature(37'c) humans

e/ birds (101'f)
d/e POIKELOTHERMIC?
d/ Variable body termpurature

e/ Reptiles
Homeostasis of body tempurature depends on what (2) processes?
THERMOGENESIS and THERMOLYSIS
d/ THERMOGENESIS?

What it is a product of?
Heat production.

Catabolism of glucose (cell respiration)
What % of thermogenesis (catabolism) come from muscles cells?
80%
What % of thermogenesis (catabolism) come from other processes?
20%
d/ THERMOLYSIS?
heat loss
What (5) ways do we lose heat (thermolysis)?
1 Resp system
2 Digestion
3 Urinary
4 Skin
What % of heat do we lose from the skin?
80%
What (4) ways do we lose heat?
1 radiation
2 Evaporation
3 Conduction
4 Convection
d/ RADIATION?

What % is lost this way?
transe of heat from one body to another w/o contact

60%
d/ EVAPORATION?

What % is lost this way?
perspiration

22%
d/ CONDUCTION?

What % is lost this way?
txfer of heat to cooler surfaces that you are touching

3%
More humid the air is (less or more) evaporation is going to occur?
Less
d/ CONVECTION?

What % is lost this way?
when cooler air comes in contact with skin then rises while taking heat with it

16%
Where is the THERMOSTATIC CONTROL CENTER in our body?
Hypothalamus and the Pre-Optic Center
How does HYPOTHALAMUS and PRE-OPTIC CENTER affect thermostatic control?
In the hypothalamus there is the pre-optic center hich is sensative to blood tempurature changes
How does pre-optic center of Hypothalamus fx and affect HEAT LOSING or HEAT GENERATING Center?
depending on blood tempurature change, will send appropriate impusles to HEAT LOSING or HEAT GENERATING center of Hypothalamus
What are (3) themostatic centers of Hypothalamus?
1 Pre optice
2 Heat generating
3 Heat Losing
What are (2) heat dissapating/losing methods dictated by the heat losing center of the hypothalamus?
1 Sweat gland stimulation (to release more h2o to coll skin)

2 Dilate arteries & arterioles in skin.
How is dilation of arterioles like a car radiator in cooling the blood?
Like radiator in that it as capillarie dilate more blood is circulating at the surface of the skin, when we sweat and perspire this increase amt of blood comes in contact with cooled skin and in turn cools the blood
What are (4) HEAT GENERATING methods of the dictated by the hypothalamus?
1 inhibit sweat gland
2 Constrict vessels
3 Shiver
4 Hypothalamus
How does SHIVERING produce heat?
muscles contract to produce heat
3 steps that cause Hypothalamus produce heat?
1 hypothalamus secrete TRF (thyroid release factor)

2 thn PITUITARY or HYPOPHESIS secret TSH (thyroid stimulting hormone)

3 thn THYROID release T3 and t4 (which incr metabolism/cell respiration/catabolism/heat)
What are skin thermoreceptors?

Are these tied to internal temp control?
Receptors in skin which tell you what external temp is?

No
What (2) populus have least efficient tempurature regulation?
Infants and Elderly
In Carbohydrate metabolism;

1 gm of Glucose = ______ Calories of NRG
4
What are the 3 monosacharides?
Glucose, Fructose, galactose
All carbohydrates are converted to ______ in the ______.
glucose, liver
What 3 proceses regarding Carbohydrate metabolism occur in the liver?
Glycogenesis, Glycogenolysis, Glyconeogenesis
What is GLYCOGENESIS?
Production of Glycogen which is the stored form of glucose
What is GLYCONEOGENESIS?
Produce glucose from fat or protein
What is GLYCOGENOLYSIS?
break down glycogen
What are the (5) steps of cellular respiration?
1 phosphorilation of glucose
2 glycolysis
3 conversion of pyruvic acid
4 Krebs cycle
5 Electron Transport