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127 Cards in this Set

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Name the 5 different ways of intracellular communication
Chemical Synaptic communication, electrical synaptic, autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine
What is up-reguation?
the receptor density is increased in order to attract hormones. Therefore, if there are low levels of hormones, then the number of receptors are increased in order to accomodate.
What is down-regulation?
hypersecretion of hormone results in a decrease of the number of receptors
What does over secretion result in?
results in disease, such as hyper- or hypo- thyroidism
Hormone receptor interaction depends on 3 factors...
1.) Blood levels of the hormone
2.) the relative number of receptors for that hormone on the target cell
3.) the affinity of the bond between the hormone and the receptor.
Name three places where receptors may be..
there are receptors on the cytoplasm, membrane and nucleus
What are the three groups of hormones?
amino acid derivatives (amines), peptide hormones, and lipid derivatives
Give some examples of biogenic amines..
epinephrine,norenephrine, dopamine, the tyroid hormones, and melatonin.
Name the three catecholamines, and where they are secreted from..
epinephrine and norenephrine are secreted by the adrenal medulla - whereas the hypothalamus secretes dopamine.
What two groups arise from tyrosine?
thyroid hormones and catecholines.
What is tryptophan a precursor for?
seratonin and melatonin
What is does glutamic acid synthesize?
histamine.
What is a prohormone?
it is an inactive hormone that must be activated when cleaved.
Where are steroids drived from?
cholesterol.(cholesterol is modified by enzymes to create steroids such as aldosterone and cortisol.)
Name two characteristics of steroids:
1. remains in circulation longer than peptide hormones, and is absorbed gradually by the liver.
Name the 5 different ways of intracellular communication
Chemical Synaptic communication, electrical synaptic, autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine
What is up-reguation?
the receptor density is increased in order to attract hormones. Therefore, if there are low levels of hormones, then the number of receptors are increased in order to accomodate.
What is down-regulation?
hypersecretion of hormone results in a decrease of the number of receptors
What does over secretion result in?
results in disease, such as hyper- or hypo- thyroidism
Hormone receptor interaction depends on 3 factors...
1.) Blood levels of the hormone
2.) the relative number of receptors for that hormone on the target cell
3.) the affinity of the bond between the hormone and the receptor.
Name three places where receptors may be..
there are receptors on the cytoplasm, membrane and nucleus
What are the three groups of hormones?
amino acid derivatives (amines), peptide hormones, and lipid derivatives
Give some examples of biogenic amines..
epinephrine,norenephrine, dopamine, the tyroid hormones, and melatonin.
Name the three catecholamines, and where they are secreted from..
epinephrine and norenephrine are secreted by the adrenal medulla - whereas the hypothalamus secretes dopamine.
What two groups arise from tyrosine?
thyroid hormones and catecholines.
What is tryptophan a precursor for?
seratonin and melatonin
What is does glutamic acid synthesize?
histamine.
What is a prohormone?
it is an inactive hormone that must be activated when cleaved.
Where are steroids drived from?
cholesterol.(cholesterol is modified by enzymes to create steroids such as aldosterone and cortisol.)
Name two characteristics of steroids:
1. remains in circulation longer than peptide hormones, and is absorbed gradually by the liver.
What are endocrine glands?
endocrine glands are ductless glands that release hormones/ligands in minute amounts into interstitial spaces, then into the bloodstream.
What do 2nd messengers do?
Second messengers either stimulate or inhibit cell structure/function by changing the types of enzymes and proteins made by the cell, their amounts, and or activity (on or off). it functions INSIDE the cell as an enzyme inhibitor, activator or cofactor
What are permissive effects
one hormone affects/enhances a later hormone. for example: estrogen up-regualtes progesterone receptors in the uterus
What are synergistic effects
this is when two hormones act together to have a greater effect than each acting by itself.
ex: FSH and estrogen need each other for normal oocyte develpment
What are antagonistic effects?
one hormone opposes the action of another hormone.
(they balance each other out)
Name two types of cell-cell communication
1.) comminication via gap junctions (cytoplasmic exchange) and 2.) tight junction (electrical connection)
The nervous systema and endocrine system work together to?
coordinate growth, cell differntiation,metabolism, reporduction, and homeostasis
Similarities between the endocrine system and nervous system are?
both are capable of secreting into the blood stream, both have electrical potential and can be depolarized, a single cell can produce both neurotransmitters and hormones.
What types of cellular functions do the hormones of the endocrine system control?
growth
reproduction
activates body defenses
nutrient balance
development
maintenance electrolytes & h20
cellular metabolism
Name the 3 classes of hormones.
Polypeptide and Protein Hormones, amino-acid derivatives, lipid derivatives
Give examples of Polypeptide/protein hormones.
growth hormones and ADH
Give examples of amino acid derivatives.
epinephrine and thyrosine
What is synthesized from the amino acid tyrosine?
catecholamines and thyroid hormones
Describe the synthesis, storage and release of polypeptides/protein hormones.
synthesized through the process of protein synthesis: starts off as prohormones in the rough e.r. and is packaged by the golgi into vesicles, and stored into secretory granules. An influx of Ca will activate transportation, til it is exocytosed via gap junctions (pores)
Describe the synthesis of amino acid derivatives
both catecholamines, and thyroid hormones are derived from amino acid tyrosine.

catheholamines are synthesized in the chromaffin cell of the adrenal medulla.

thyroids are synthesized in the thyroid follicular cells.

similar release such as those of the polypeptides
Name two eicosanoids.
Leukotrienes (released by leukocytes, its job is to coordinate tissue response to injury and disease) and prostoglandins (augment and coordinate)
What are factors that stimulate the release of hormones.
humoral stimuli: due to blood levels or nutrients

neural stimuli: some glands are innervated by nerve fibers

hormonal stimuli: most endocrine glands release
What system is the all-over controller?
the nervous system. because it can override all other systems by controlling hormone release, and it can undergo extreme conditions.
negative feedback loop
as hormone levels rise in the blood stream, the release of more hormones is inhibited.
positive feedback loops
blood clotting and parturition
up or down regulation refers to?
the number of receptors.
What are the two types of hormone receptors?
membrane bound receptors, and intercellular hormone receptors.
How do membrain bound receptors work?
they work by stimulating 2nd messenger production.
How do intercellular hormone receptors work?
by direct gene activation
What are amino acid derivatives? Give some examples
small molecules that are structurally related to amino acids - the building blocks of proteins. sometimes know as biogenic amines. epinephrine, norenephrine, dopamine, throid hormones and melatonin.
Name two catecholamines
norenephrine, epinephrine and dopamine
What are prohormones?
inactive molecules that are converted into active hormones either before or after they are secreted.
What are peptide hormones
chains of amino acids
Name the two groups of peptide hormones.
short peptide chains: such as ADH, oxytocin,grouth hormone and prolactin
including all of the hormones secreted by the hypothalamus, heart, thymus, digestive tract, pancreas, posterior lobe of the pituitary gland and anterior

2nd group: consists of glycoproteins
such as TSH, LH, FSH
Name the two classes of lipid derivatives
steroid hormones which are derived from cholesterol, and eicosanoids which are derived from arachidonic acid.
What are eicosanoids?
small molecules that coordinate cellular activities and affect enzymatic processes. leukotrienes and prostaglandins are just to name a few
Name 3 of the most important 2nd Messengers.
1.) Cyclic-AMP (cAMP)- ATP derivative
2.) cyclic-GMP (cGMP) - a derivative of GTP
3.) calcium ions
amplification
the process of magnifying the effect of a hormone on target cells.
G protein
the link between a first messenger and a second messenger. It is an enzyme complex which is coupled to a membrane receptor. only activated when a hormone binds to its receptor on the membrane surface.
Where is the receptor located on a peptide?
on the cell membrane
Where is the receptor located on a steroid?
cytoplasm or in the nucleus
Where is the receptor located on an amine?
depends.

on catecholine it is on the cell membrane.

on thyroid hormones, it is on the nucleus
Name the 3 2nd messenger pathways
1.) cyclic amp pathway or cyclic gmp
2.) phospholipid pathway
3.) calcium pathway
What are the steps involved in increasing cAMP levels? (activating cyclic amp)
1.) g-protein is activated which activates
2.) adenylate cyclase which converts to ATP to
3.) Cyclic-AMP (2nd messenger)
4.) which activates Kinase

g-ac-camp-kin (gack)

3.)
What hormones undergo activation of cyclic amp?
calcitonin, parathyroid, ADH, ACTH, epinephrine, FSH, LH, TSH and glucagon
What inactivates cyclic-AMP and makes it short lived?
phosphodiesterase (PDE)
it inactivates cyclic-AMP by converting it to (adenosine monophosphate)
What are the steps involved in inhibition of adenylate cyclase?
1.) the activated Gprotein stimulates
2.) PDE activity (which inhibits Adenylate cyclase)
3.) results in an inhibitory effect on the cell. (no phosphorylation.)
What are the steps involved when the g-protein is activated by calcium levels?
(phospholipase-C)
1.) g-protein activates the enzyme Phospholipase-C (PLC)
2.) which results in: DAG (diacylgylcerol) and IP3 (inositol triphosphate) production.
3.) IP3 then diffuses and triggers the release of Ca+ from reserves
4.) DAG and IP3 combination results in activation of
5.) Kinase C (PKC)
What does the activation of PKC result in?
leads to the phosphorylation of calcium channel proteins (a process that opens up the channels and permits extracellular Calcium - therefore this elevates calcium ion [] as well.
Where does intracellular calcium result from? and what does it bind to? (2)
the release of ca+ from endo. retic. and or the opening of calcium channels...causes an increase in intracellular ca.
- calcium binds to protein kinase to cause protein phosphorylation.
- or calcium binds to calmodulin.
Describe the steps in phospholipid pathways.
1.) activation of
phospholipase C
2.) triggers of conversion of PIP3 to IP3
3.) IP3 causes release of Calcium from e.r.
4.)Calcium binds to kinase C
5.) DAG then binds with protein kinase C
6. cellular response
Name the hormones secreted by the hypothalamus
ADH, oxytocin, and regulatory hormones
What is another name for the pitutiary gland?
hypophysis
What is another name for the anterior pituitary gland? posterior pituitary gland?
anterior: adenyhypopysis, par distalis (master gland)

posterior: neurohypophysis, par nervousa
What is the par medialis?
between anterior and posterior glands.
What hormones are produced by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland?
ADH (supraoptic nuclei) ,and Oxytocin (paraventricular nuclei)
ADH
antidiuretic hormone. regulates body fluid and prevents you from making urine. regulated BY fluid osmolarity. REGULATES H20 concentration.
OXYTOCIN (2)
triggers milk ejection (the letdown reflex)
and
ejection of milk
The anterior pituitary secretes two types of hormones
trophic and direct acting
What are the trphic hormones:
FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH
(flat)
What are the direct acting hormones of the pituitary
growth hormones (somatotrphin) and proactin
What does GH (somatotrophin) do?
general anabolic stimulant.
stimulates release in:
GHRH, Ghrelin, bromocriptin, hypoglycemia, reduced fatty acid concentraiton, and exercise,stress
What does the inhibition of GH release?
somatostatin
glucocorticoids
What are the metabolic effects of GH?
bone, cartilage,and connective tissue, build up of protein (anabolic), catabolic effect on fat, diabetogenic (increase in insulin levels, and minerals
gigantism
results due to hypersecretion of GH during infancy, childhood and adolescense.
acromegaly
excessive GH after closure of the epipheseal plate. Hands are meaty, bossy forehead, bones are thickened.
dwarfism
deficiency of the GH in childhood leading to a maximum of 4 feet, proportional. can be treated with horomone replacement therapy if diagnosed early
What is PRL? prolactin?
prolactin, aka mammatrophin, stimulates the release of milke production.

inhibited in non-pregnant women, and is triggered by high levels of estrogen and progesterone.
hyperprolactinaemia
causes problems in women and breast enlargement in males.
results from pituitary tumors.
What is the precursor to the thyroid hormone?
tyrosine
Where are T3 and T4 synthesized?
in the colloids
T3
"quick fix" quick onset, but short lived. it stimulates protein synthesis, increase metabolic rate and heat, stimulates increase of consumption of glucose and fatty acids, stimlates the rate of cellular respiration regulator of tissue growht and development
T4
more abundant than T3, weakly and slowly increases basal metabolic rate. and its effects last longer.
What are the steps in the synthesis of thyroid hormones?
the thyroid gland traps iodine, and iodine is pumped into the cell.
T3 and T4 are synthesized in the colloid by iodination and condensation of tyrosine.

then T3 and T4 bind to thyroglobulin and are excreted
What are the metabolic effects of Thyroid Hormones on Carbohydrates?
promotes the breakdowna nd storage of glcogen.
hypoglycemic if in excessive amounts
Graves disease
rapid heart beat, exopthalmus, sweating, nervousness, an autoimmune disorder. bug eye due to excess fat in the orbit
adult myxedema
accumulation of mycoprotein and fluid in subcutaneous tissue
Hormones associated with calcium metabolism
parathyroid hormone
calcitonin
vitamin D
What physiological roles does calcium play?
clotting and membrane stability
If there are high levels of Calcium in the blood, what role does the bone, kidneys and intestine play?
formation of bone, secretion of calcium by intestines, and filtration by the kidneys
What is the PTH (parathyroid hormone designed to do?
to elevate blood calcium levels.
What is calcitonin designed to do
designed to lower blood calcium levels.
What is another name for Vitamin D? and what does it do?
cholecalciferol, calciferol

it works along with the parathyroid (aka calcitrol), and is designed to elevate blood calcium levels. Mirrors the effect of the parathyroid hormones
What are the two cortices of the kidney?
adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla
What are the three zones of the adrenal cortex?
zona glomerulosa (outermost)
zona fasciculata (middle)
zona reticularis (innermost)
What hormone does the zona glomerulosa synthesize?
aldosterone (mineralcorticoids) and secretion
what hormone does the zona fasciculata the site for?
for cortisol (glucocorticoid synthesis and secretion
What hormone does the zona reticularis the site for?
androgen synthesis
What is the job of aldosterone aka mineralocorticoids?
regulation of electrolyte and H20 balance. , and stimulation of the kidney to reabsorb salt and secrete potassium
What is the job of cortisol?
glucosemetabolism, and stress management
What are synthesized in the adrenal medulla?
epinephrine and norenephrine.
Androgenital syndrome
bearded lady, hypersecretin of androgens in adrenal cortex, most often apparent in women. growth of of clitoris to resemble a small penis
cushings disease
humpback with chicken legs
what hormones are secreted by the pancreas?
glucagon, insulin
What does the islets of langerhans consist of?
alpha and beta cells.
alpha is a source of glucagon
beta is source of insulin
what is insulin do
takes glucose out of hte blood and inhibits the breakdown of glycogen.
Diabetes mellitus: type 1 diabetes means that
no insulin is created. an autoimmune disease
type 2 diabetes
adult onset. non insulin dependent... receptor does not respond to insulin hormone

heredity plays a role
ANF
atrial natriuretic factor.

increase of sodium exretion, decrease in extra cellular volume, decreses arterial blood pressure (does everything oppsite of aldosterone)
If there is a decrease in blood pressure, then renin does what?
renin then converts to angiotensinogen to angiogensin I.

angiotensin I then flows to the lungs where there is ACE (angitensin converting enzyme) and results in Angiotensin II
What hormones are important for growth?
1.) GH
2.) Thyroid hormoes
3.)Insulin
4.) PTH
5.) Calcitrol
6.) reproductive horomes
What is the most potent vasoconstrictor?
angiotensin II. it increases blood pressure.