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122 Cards in this Set

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d/ ICF and %
in cytoplasm, 63% or 2/3
d/ ECF and %
outside cytoplasm, 37% or 1/3
d/ different ECF
interstistial fluid, plasma, CSF, synovial fluid, pericarial, peritoneal, aqueous, vitreous, and lymph
d/ INTERSTITIAL FLUID
fluid btwn cells or tissue
d/ OSMOSIS
diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane
d/ OSMOTIC PRESSURE
When a biological cell is in a hypotonic environment (the cell interior contains a lower concentration of water and a higher concentration of other molecules than its exterior), water flows across the cell membrane into the cell, causing it to expand due to osmotic pressure
____ and water dont mix. % of water in body depends on amt of ___, incr incr ___ means decr in water
Fat
d/ % of water in males and females
female 53-55%
male 63-65%
d/ (4) imporant factors of water:
1 meadian for all reactions
2 high heat capacity
3 high heat of vaporization
4 dissolves substances by dissociation
d/ DISSOCIATION w/ water

e/ of NaCL
break up of ions with water

Na + Cl
d/ regulation of water volume w/ hypothalamus
Slight dehydration THN decr BP & decr reabsorbtion by kidney THN sensed by hypothalamus THN thirst center kicks in THN incr in BP. The primary regulator of water intake is thirst. The intense feeling of thirst derives from the thirst center in the hypothalamus seems to be sensitive to the osmotic pressure of the extracellular fluids. As water is lost from the body, the osmotic pressure increases and the osmoreceptors of the thirst center are stimulated to produce a thirst sensation. This mechanism is triggered when one to two percent of the total body water is lost
d/ 2 hormones that regulate water volume
Aldosterone and ADH
Na level is elevated in intra/extra cellular fluid?
extra
Cations are positive/negative ions?
positive
What is the most abundant extracellular cation and what % is it?
Na, 90%
d/ Fx of Na in our body/
transmit nerve and THF muscle impulses, fluid balance
d/ fx of ALDOSTERONE in fluid balance?
incr Na reabsorbtion (when needed) THF water is reabsorbed as well. As the
concentration of sodium ions decrease, the adrenal cortex secretes the hormone aldosterone. The presence of this hormone causes the distal convoluted tubules and the collecting ducts of the renal tubules to increase the reabsorption of the sodium ions. Aldosterone also functions to regulate potassium. In fact, the most important stimulus for aldosterone secretion is a rise in potassium ion concentration. So, aldosterone functions to increase the secretion of potassium ions
d/ HYPONATREMIA
decr blood Na level
d/ causes of hyponatremia
excessive perspiration, vomiting, alkalosis, diarrhea, renal disease, adrenal cortex, burns
Which is more common hypo/hyper natremia and why?
Hyponatremia b/c kidney can get rid of excess Na easily
Sx of hyponatremia
muscle weekness, HA, tachcardia (similar to when working outside and perspiring
Is Chloride and anion or cation?
Anion
Is Cl- intra or extra-cellular?
Extracellular like Na+,
Does Cl- follow Na then water?
yes
What hormone indirectly controls Cl- levels and why?
Aldosterone, b/c it controls Na+ reabsorbtion, and Cl- and water follow Na+.
d/ HYPOCHLOREMIA, s/s, causes
decr CL- level.

Causes - same as hyponatremia

s/s - muscle spasms and cramps
Is Calcium anion or cation?
Cation
Is Ca++ extra or intra-cellular?
Extra
Fx of Ca++?
blood clotting, muscle contraction, found in bones and teeth
What hormones is blood Ca++ level controlled by?
Thyrocalcitonin and Parathormone
Does is matter how much Ca++ you eat? Where does body get store Ca and get reserve when needed?
No. Body uses stored Ca++ in bones if there is no supply, first will get fr intestines or reabsorb fr kidney if needed.
d/ fx of CALCITONIN?
Secreted by thyroid. Decr blood Ca++ level by decr tubular resorption & decr resprption by the bones
d/ fx of PARATHORMONE?
Secreted by the parathyroid. Incr blood Ca++ levels by taking fr bone, intestine, or kidney.
Where is parathyroid and how many are there?
Para = next to. Found behind thyroid gland, 5-6 parathyroid glands
CALCITONIN ___ blood Ca++ level and PARATHORMONE _____ blood Ca++ level
decreases, increases
d/ HYPERCALCEMIA. What is possible cause of this? What would you check?
incr blood CA level. Hyperparathyroidism may be cause b/c secretes parathormone which increases bl Ca++ level. Check parathyoid fx.
What can hypercalcemia lead to and why?
Osteoporosis b/c it hypercalcemia means that Ca is leaching fr your bones
d/ Starling Law?
The amt of water filtered/pushed out of blood = the amt resorbed by capillaries + the amt absorbed by lymphatic system.
Under normal conditions why wont fluid go into cells?
b/c cells are isotonic
d/ EDEMA
If fluid excess doesn't go into lymph b/c of blockage or excessive amts
EFP = (BHP + IFOP) - (BOP + IFHP)

BHP (A=35, V=15)
IFOP (A=0, V=3)
BOP (A=25, V=25)
IFHP (A=2, V=1)
BHP is BP. BHP + IFOP is "out" pressure. BOP + IFHP is "in" pressure
EX of EFP in arterial bed:

EFP = (35 + 0)out - (2 + 25)in
35 - 27
+8
THF will use lymphatic system
EX of EFP in venous bed:

EFP = (15 + 3)out - (1 + 25)in
18 - 26
-8
THF wont use lymphatic system
If BP goes up more or less water go out of blood to interstitial?

Ideal to have __ pressure.
More, b/c it raises out pressure

0
If there is a problem with absorbing excess fluid, will that cause edema?
Yes. incr BP can cause edema if cant get excess water pulled out of interstitial
What are important factors to maintain EFP?
BP (pushes water into tissues), blood osmotic pressure, blood hydrostatic pressure
Fx of UREA and ALBUMIN in blood?
Maintain osmotic pressure, scientist cant think of any other reason why they are in the blodd
Control of water btwn interstitial and intracellular tissue is regulated by _________ which is normally ________?
Osmotic Pressure, isotonic
Diff btwn interstitial and intracellular fluid?
Fluid inside and outside of cells
Intra and Extracellular fluid is normally isotonic which means that there is the _____ amt of Na+ and K+ on each side.
same
d/ what happens to this balance when person perspires heavily and loses water and Na+ called "water toxicity"?
perspire heavily THN Water leaves to cool body, so Na(K stays in cells) leaves cells cause goes w/ water THN Intracellular is hypertonic and higher osmotic pressure (and ECF has low osmotic pressure and hypotonic) THN water goes from blood to cells to return to isotonicity THF BP decreases b/c water leaves blood stream to go into cells
d/ ACID/BASE BALANCE
homeostasis of H+ ions in the body
d/ ACID
compound that releases H+ ions in aqueous sol'n
d/ STRONG ACID

IE with HCl acid
dissociates/releases H+ rapidly and completely

IE HCl THN H + Cl-
d/ WEAK ACID

IE with carbonic acid
dissociates/releases H+ slowly

IE CO2 + H20 THN H2Co3(carbonic acid) THN H+ + HCo3(bicarbonate)
What is the most common acid in the blood?
Carbonic Acid (lots in the blood)
d/ BASE
Releases OH- (carboxyl) ion in aqueous sol'n
d/ STRONG BASE

IE
dissociates OH- rapidly

IE NaOH (sodium hydroxide), lye, Drano, oven cleaner
d/ WEAK BASE
dissociates OH- slowly
d/ pH
the negative logarythm of the H+ ion
As you go lower on the scale H+ ions incr by power of ___?
10
d/ normal blood pH
7.35 - 7.45
d/ venous and arterial norm pH:

Veins have ___ CO2 THF ___ pH

Atery have ___ CO2 THF ___ pH
more, less

less, more
d/ life threatening pH range
less than 7 or more than 7.8
d/ death pH
6.8 = death acidosis
8 = death alkalosis
With Acidosis CNS is _____ ?

With Alkalosis CNS is _____ ?
depressed, excited
Common Acids in body
1 Carbonic Acid
2 - lactic acid-anaerobic exerc
3 - acetic acid-acetyl co A
4 - citric acid-krebs
5 - phosphoric acid-drinks, tart
6 - HCl acid-stomach
Acids are bitter/sour, while bases are bitter/sour
sour, bitter
We make acids in our bodies, and most of our foods and drinks are acid, yet our blood pH remains ____
low pH or alkaline
d/ BUFFER SYSTEM
chemicals that help keep the pH constant
Fx of the buffer system
Chgs strong acids and bases to weak acids and bases
The buffer system is also called the __________________ system?
Carbonic acid/Bicarbonate
What is the ratio of carbonic acid to biacarbonate and why is it this way?
1 (carbonic) to 20 (bicarb), b/c most things are acid and we need to neutralize
Give example of buffer system with strong acid:
HCl (strong acid) + NaHCo3 (bicarb) yeilds NaCl- + H2CO3 (weak acid)
Give example of buffer sysem with strong base:
NaOH (sodium hydroxide)+ H2Co3 (carbonic acid) yeilds H2O + NaHCo3
d/ Respiratory regulation of pH:

If blood pH drops (acidosis)THN RR ___ (to incr pH as incr Co2, incr pH)
incr
d/ Respiratory regulation of pH:

If blood pH increases (acidosis)THN RR ___ (to decr pH as dcr Co2, dcr pH)
decr
d/ renal regulation of pH
kidney releases H+ ions and NH4 to incr blood pH
d/ METABOLIC ACIDOSIS causes and early sx
kidney malfunction, excessive fat oxidation (diabetic, starvation), lactic acidosis.

Incr RR rate
d/ RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and causes
inadequate removal of Co2 from lungs due to emphysema, lung injury, hypoventilation
kidney buffer system would help _______, while respiratory buffer system would help _______.
Respiratory acidosis, metabolic acidosis
d/ Compensatory acidosis/alkalosis
return to norm
d/ uncompensated acidosis/alkalosis
Not return to norm and need medical intervention
d/ METABOLIC ALKALOSIS causes and what may happen to RR rate
OD on antacids, vomiting and diarrhea.

May stop breathing
d/ RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS causes
hyperventilation, fear and anxiety, ASA OD, high altitude, taking too many antacids
Explain how water balance and electrolyte balance are interdependent.
Electrolytes are dissolved in the water of body fluids. This means that if the concentration of one is altered, it will alter the concentrations of the other by making them either more dilute or more concentrated
d/ Extracellular fluids composition
Extracellular fluids generally have similar compositions, including relatively high concentrations of sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate ions, and lesser concentrations of potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphate, and sulfate ions. The blood plasma fraction contains considerably more protein than either interstitial fluid or lymph
d/ Intracellular fluid composition
Intracellular fluid contains relatively high concentrations of potassium, phosphate, and magnesium ions, a somewhat greater concentration of sulfate ions, and lesser concentrations of sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate ions. It also has a greater concentration of protein than plasma
d/ hydrostatic pressure
Hydrostatic pressure, or blood pressure, is the amount of force that the water is exerting on the blood vessel walls. It is the main reason that fluid enters the interstitial space from the capillaries.
Explain how an acid-base buffer system functions and the three main acid-base buffer systems in the body.
There are three main acid-base buffer systems in the body. They are chemical substances that combine with acids or bases when either occurs in excess. The substances in these systems function by shedding or accepting hydrogen ions in the presence of strong bases or acids. This helps to neutralize substances that could alter the pH levels in the body.
Describe the function of hemoglobin as a buffer system.
Describe the function of hemoglobin as a buffer system.
Red blood cells contain an enzyme called carbonic anhydrase that speeds the reaction of carbon dioxide and water. This reaction produces carbonic acid, which quickly dissociates into bicarbonate and hydrogen ions.
Explain how the respiratory center functions in the regulation of the acid-base balance.
Explain how the respiratory center functions in the regulation of the acid-base balance.
What is the main force that causes water to move among the various fluid compartments?
osmosis
filtration
hydrostatic pressure
dialysis
Osmosis
What is the main force that causes fluid to leave the plasma compartment?

osmosis
hydrostatic pressure
dialysis
filtration
Hydrostatic
As total body water decreases, the _____ of the extracellular fluid increases.

amount of sodium
osmotic pressure
hydrostatic pressure
protein level
Osmotic pressure
The main factor that causes the kidney to conserve water is _____.
ADH
osmosis
renin production
plasma filtration pressure
ADH
The symptoms of dehydration result from loss of _____ water

intracellular
extracellular
blood
transcellular
Intra
Which factor accounts for the ability of the body to conserve high levels of sodium?

blood pressure
aldosterone
kidney function
adequate diet
Aldosterone
Which ion is usually exchanged for sodium absorption?

Cl-
bicarbonate
K+
H+
K+
Which of these is NOT an effect of parathyroid hormone?

osteoclast stimulation
increase in blood Ca2+
increase in renal elimination
increase in intestinal absorption
Incr renal elim
Hyperparathyroidism usually causes an increase in _____.

potassium
calcium
phosphate
sodium
Ca
Which of the following is NOT related to hypocalcemia?

vitamin D deficiency
muscle weakness
tetany
cardiac arrhythmia
Muscle weekness
Which is the most abundant extracellular ion?

phosphate
bicarbonate
chloride
potassium
Cl
In the bicarbonate buffer system, _____ reacts with bases.

carbon dioxide
carbonic acid
bicarbonate ion
water
Carbonic Acid
When a strong base reacts with the bicarbonate buffer system, ______ is formed from the base.
water
carbon dioxide
bicarbonate ion
carbonic acid
Water
When an acid reacts with the bicarbonate buffer system, ______ is formed as an end product.

NaCl
water
carbonic acid
bicarbonate ion
Carbonic Acid
Which factor greatly increases the reaction between carbon dioxide and water?
carbonic anhydrase
concentration of carbon dioxide
concentration of bicarbonate
pH of hemoglobin
Carbonic Anhysrase
Which of the following is an effect of acidosis?

increased diuresis
decreased diuresis
mental confusion
seizures
Mental Confusion
Hyperventilation from anxiety usually causes _____.

respiratory acidosis
metabolic acidosis
respiratory alkalosis
metabolic alkalosis
Resp Alkalosis
Lung cancer usually causes the tendency towards _____.

metabolic acidosis
metabolic alkalosis
respiratory acidosis
respiratory alkalosis
Resp Acidosis
What trigger signals the brain to increase the output of ADH for water conservation?

thickened saliva signals the sympathetic nervous system
osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus detect the increase in osmotic pressure of body fluids and signal the posterior pituitary to release ADH
chemoreceptors in the renal tubule sense the increased viscosity of renal filtrate and signal the hypothalamus which, in turn, signals the posterior pituitary
the juxtaglomerular apparatus senses the greater osmotic pressure in the blood and triggers the release of ADH
Osmoreceptors in hypothalamus
Edema can be caused by all of these factors except ________________.

an increase in the plasma protein concentration
obstruction of lymphatic vessels
increased capillary permeability because of inflammation
increased venous pressure
incr plasma protein
Which of these is considered a secondary defense against changes in pH?

renal excretion of hydrogen ions
the bicarbonate buffer system
the phosphate buffer system
the protein buffer system
rEnal
The most serious consequence of potassium imbalances is _____.

seizure
nerve damage
renal failure
cardiac abnormalities
Cardiac
What is the most significant inorganic plasma buffer?

phosphate
albumin
hemoglobin
bicarbonate
Bicarb
Diabetic ketoacidosis is an example of which imbalance?

respiratory acidosis
respiratory alkalosis
metabolic alkalosis
metabolic acidosis
Met Acidosis
High concentrations of blood sodium could cause tissue cells to expand from taking excess water in.
True
False
t
Loss of blood from trauma will usually reduce the amount of urine that is produced.
True
False
t
Diuretics can have an effect of reducing blood pressure.
True
False
t
Surgical removal of a breast can cause edema in the arm.

True
False
t
Holding one's breath tends to make the blood more acidic.

True
False
t
The respiratory centers in the pons and medulla are able to alter the pH of the blood.

True
False
t