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17 Cards in this Set

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What is the gastrointestinal system (GI)?
Known as the digestive system or GI tract. Stretches from the mouth to the anus and is composed of organs involved in the consumption, digestion and elimination of food.
How is food moved through the digestive system?
A process called peristalis. Progressive contractions of the smooth muscle propel food.
Describe the process of digestion?
Food is chewed and mixed with saliva from glands.

Food is swallowed and travels down the esophagus to the stomach.

Food is further digested in the stomach then the small intestine where further digested and absorbed (chemical digestion).

Water is absorbed and stool formed in the large intestine.

Stool passes from the body via the rectum.
Describe the mouth and its function in digestion?
Digestion begins in the mouth with mastication. Food is mixed with saliva which starts to break down the food into simple sugars.
What is the role of the esophagus in digestion?
The esophagus is an expandable hollow tube with a thick muscular wall that transports food and liquid from the mouth to the stomach. Sphincters control movement in and out of the esophagus.
What is the role of the stomach in digestion?
The stomach is an expandable organ. In the stomach the food is churned and mixed with digestive juices forming a semiliquid mass called chyme. The pyloric sphincter lies between the stomach and the small intestine.
Describe the role of the small intestine in digestion?
It is the longest part of the digestive tract and the major site of food digestion and absorption of nutrients. Secretions lubricate and protect the walls.
What are the three sections of the small intestine?
Duodenum (forms a 180 arch in the abdomen, the pancreas is located within this loop)

Jejunum which has thicker walls and more folds than the other portions.

Ileum is the last portion that travels on to become the large intestine or colon.
What are the roles of the sections of the small intestine?
The Duodenum does most of the digestion and the jejunum and ileum absorb most of the nutrients.
What is the role of the large intestine in digestion?
The large intestine forms the stool and absorbs water back into the body.
What is the role of the gallbladder in digestion?
The gallbladder is a saclike organ located on the lower surface of the liver that acts as a reservoir for bile one of the digestive enzymes produced by the liver. The gallbladder releases bile into the duodenum via the cystic duct.
What is the role of the liver in digestion?
The liver is the largest internal organ. The livers many functions include storage of glucose, protein synthesis and filtering of body wastes from the blood.
What is the role of the spleen and pancreas in digestion?
The spleen is vascular and vital in flighting infection as well as in the removal of red blood cells from circulation.

The pancreas makes insulin, glucagon and digestive enzymes. The digestive enzymes travel via the main pancreatic duct to the duodenum.
What is synthesised in the large intestine?
Synthesis of certain vitamins by the intestinal bacteria (especially Vitamin K and certain B Vitamins)
What are the four sections of the large colon?
-Cecum
-Ascending Colon
-Transverse Colon
-Descending Colon
How much blood does the liver recieve?
The liver receives approximately 1.5 l/min of
blood from the portal vein and the hepatic
artery.
What does the liver do?
Plays a major role in:
-Maintaining normal blood glucose level
-Lipid and protein metabolism
-Removing drugs and hormones
-Storing vitamins A, B12, D, E, and K
-Storing minerals (iron and copper)
-Secreting bile