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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Thyroid gland storage
Thyroid hormones are stored in tiny sacs called thyroid follicles
Hormone Producing Organs
1. Heart & Kidneys

2. Ovaries & Testicles

3. Pancreas & Intestines
9 Specialized glands
Thyroid, (4)Parathyroid, Thymus, Pituitary, (2) Adrenal
What are hormones?
Chemical substances secreted into the blood system in order to circulate throughout the body and activate target cells
What hormones are secreted by the thyroid gland? What is their function?
T-3 and T-4

Regulate growth and metabolism
What activates the thyroid gland?
TSH, secreted by the pituitary gland
What hormone is secreted in response to a stressful stimuli?
Adrenaline and Noradrenaline from the Adrenal Medulla
Name 4 hormones secreted by the Adrenal cortex
Aldosterone
Cortisol
Androgens
Estrogen
Name the 2 most important hormones secreted from the Pancreas
Glucagon
Insulin
Name the two systems that the pancreas is involved in.
Endocrine
Digestion (enzymes)
KINDS OF GLANDS
EXOCRINE
ENDOCRINE
EXOCRINE
Release products into ducts
Inside organs
On body surface
ENDOCRINE
No ducts
Into blood
Carried to target organs
TYPES OF HORMONES
Lipid soluble
Water soluble
Lipid soluble
Thyroid hormones
Gas
Steroids
KINDS OF GLANDS
EXOCRINE
ENDOCRINE
EXOCRINE
Release products into ducts
Inside organs
On body surface
ENDOCRINE
No ducts
Into blood
Carried to target organs
TYPES OF HORMONES
Lipid soluble
Water soluble
Lipid soluble
Thyroid hormones
Gas
Steroids
Water soluble
1.Amines

2.Peptides and proteins

3.Eicosanoids
THYROID HORMONES
Iodine attached to the amino acid tyrosine
Lipid soluble
GAS
1.Nitric oxide

2.Both hormone and neurotransmitter
STEROIDS
Derived from Cholesterol
Lipid soluble
Aldosterone,
Testosterone,
Estrogens,
Progesterone
AMINES
Modified forms of amino acid tyrosine
Simplest
Adrenal medulla hormones
Epinephrine, norepinephrine-water soluble
PROTEINS-PEPTIDES
Chains of amino acids
Small or large
EICOSANOIDS
Derived from a fatty acid
Mostly local
Work where they are released
Prostoglandins, Leukotrines
REGULATION OF HORMONE SECRETION
Determined by the body’s need
Negative feedback control (most)
NEGATIVE FEEDBACK
Gland releases hormone
Hormone levels
build in blood
Or cause release
of another substance
into blood
Gland senses increased
levels of hormone
Or increased levels
of released substance
Gland turns off
NEGATIVE FEEDBACK-PARATHORMONE
Parathyroids release parathormone
Parathormone causes bones to release Ca++
Blood levels of Ca++ rise
Parathyroids turn off
Parathormone levels drop
Blood levels of Ca++ drop
Parathyroids release
parathormone
TARGET CELLS
Hormone only exerts effects on target cells
Cells that contain
receptor molecules
Receptors are proteins
Other cells are not effected
HOW HORMONES WORK
SOME ENTER CELL DIRECTLY
Lipid soluble hormones
SOME BIND TO CELL MEMBRANE
Amines, Peptides, Proteins, Ecosinoids
HORMONES THAT ENTER CELL I
Include Steroid and Thyroid hormones
Estrogen, Testosterone, Cortisone, Aldosterone
Pass through
the cell membrane
Hormone binds
to protein receptors
Within nucleus
Or on nuclear membrane
HORMONES THAT ENTER CELL II
Form a
HORMONE/PROTEIN
COMPLEX
Activates genes
Causes or stops production
of enzymes
Enzymes effect
cellular activities
HORMONES THAT BIND TO THE CELL MEMBRANE
All other hormones
Hormones act as a
first messenger
Causes the appearance
of a second messenger
in the cell
Second messengers
include:
Cyclic AMP
Cyclic GMP
Calcium ions
STEPS IN HORMONAL ACTIVATION I
Hormone binds to a receptor on the cell membrane
2. A G-protein is activated
3. The G-protein causes either:
Formation of cAMP
Activation of protein kinases
4. This leads to
Activation of enzymes
or
Entry or release of Ca++
Which leads to activation of enzymes
STEPS IN HORMONAL ACTIVATION II
Hormone binds
to a receptor
2. A G-protein
is activated
CASCADE EFFECT
A small amount of hormone leads to
Formation of several protein kinases leads to
Formation or activation of many enzymes leads to
Multiple effects on cell
AMINES
Include
Pancreatic hormones
Parathyroid hormones
Anterior and posterior Pituitary hormones