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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Number of Naturally Occuring Elements
92
What six elements compose 98% of the human body
Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Potassium, Sulfur


CHNOPS
What is the smallest unit to enter into a chemical reaction?
Atom
What subatomic particles make up an atom?
Protons, Neutrons and Electrons
Which particles make up the nucleus of an atom?
Protons and Neutrons
Define a "power shell"
The concentrics rings that form the orbits of the electrons.
Define Atomic Number
The Number of Protons in the nucleus of an atom
Define Atomic Weight?
The number of Protons and Nuetrons in the nucleus of the atom.
What are the charges of the subatomic particles
Proton Positive
Neutron Neutral
Electron Positive
What is an Isotope
An atom that differs only in the number of neutrons thus its atomic number is not effected.
Define Molecule
Occurs when atoms combine to fill their outer electron shell. This may be between atoms of a like nature or different.
How does a compound differ from a molecule?
It is a molecule but the atoms that are bonded are different.
The bond between atoms that occurs when electrons are shared?
Covalent Bond
What type of bond occurs when electrons are given up and taken?
Ionic
When does an Ion occur?
In an ionic bond. The atom that gives up an electron becomes positive while the one taking the electron will be negative.
Define a Polar Covalent Bond
A covalent bond where the electrons are shared unevenly. Thus the seperate atoms carry weak charges. Water is an example.
What is a non-polar covalent bond
In a covalaent bond where the electrons are shared evenly.
What is a hydrogen bond?
When a negative end of a molecule with hydrogen is attracted to the positive end of another molecule the bond is referred to as a hydrogen bond. Water is again an example and this bond gives water most of its characteristics
What is an electrolyte?
A substance that breaks apart and releases ions when placed in water. Electrolytes are important to the health of the human body.
What is Ph?
A measure of the number of hyrdrogen molecules that have been disassociated in water.
What does a low number on the Ph scale represent?
A greater number of hydrogen ions which in turn represents an acid condition.
What does a higher number on the Ph scale represent?
A decreasing amount of hydrogen ions and an increasing number of hydroxide ions. The solution is then a base or alkaline.
Nuetral Ph is what numeric value?
7.0
The normal Ph for the human body is ?
7.35 to 7.45 with 7.4 considered the normal reference point.
What are acidosis and alkalosis
A Ph value of less than 7.35

A ph value of greater than 7.45

Both can be fatal conditions.
What are the main classes of organic molecules in the human body?
Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids and Nucleic Acids.
Carbohydrates are important to the body for what main reason?
They supply short term energy.
What is a monsaccharide?
It is a simple sugar composed of few carbon atoms. It is the building block of other more complex carbohydrates.

Glucose, Fructose and Galactose are the primary monsaccharides. Glucose is often termed blood sugar.
What is a disaccharide?
A carbohydrate composed of two monsaccharides. Sucrose is a disaccharide made from Fructose and Glucose. Sucrose is also known as table sugar.
What carbohydrate is considered to be the main source of cellular energy?
Glucose
What is a Polysaccharide?
Any chain on monosaccharide that exceed two in length.
What are the three mosy common polysaccharide in animals and humans?
Glycogen, starch and cellulose
Cellulose is not digestible for what reason?
The bond between the monosaccharides is not dissovable in water.
Lipids contain what more common groupings?
Oils, waxes, fats, phospholipids and steroids.
Lipids do not dissolve in water for what reason?
The bond is nonpolar thus will not dissolve in water.
The process of bonding monsacchrides together is _______. The reverse of this process is _________.
Condensation Reaction (Dessication) has a by=product of water.

Hydrolysis
Synthesis is the process of combining molecules to make a larger whole.
True
Fats are alo known as ____________.
Triglcerides
A Triglyceride s compose of a molecule of ________ and a molecule of ________.
Gylcerol and a fatty acid.
Define a saturated fat?
A fat with all the possible hydrogen atoms joined to the carbon atoms in the molecule. Saturated fats normally are in a solid state at normal tempature.
Define an unsaturated fat?
One in which there are double and triple bonds between hydrogen atoms and carbon atoms instead of a full complement of hydrogen atoms.

These fats typically are in a liquid state and must have hydrogen added to them to make solid such as margarines
This process is known as hydrogenation.
Discuss glycerol molecule
H-C-OH attached to three carbon atoms
Phospholipids make up what component of the cell?
The cell wall. It differs from other lipid molecules in that it has a polar head and a non-polar tail. This causes the molecule to orient in a specific way as it relates to water. The non-polar head faces the water as it will not dissolve.
Steroids have ______ fused _____ rings.
4, carbon
Cholesterol is a steroid? T,F
True
Estrogen and Testosterone are steroids? T, F
True