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223 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the study of the structure of an organism and the relationships of its parts.
the science that treats the functions of the living organism and its parts.
the study of the body parts visible to the naked eye.
Gross Anatomy
the scientific study of life
looking at what is happening
an educated guess
test used to prove your hypothesis
enough confidence to prove the hypothesis
Unusually high level of confidence
respond to irritability
the capacity to transmit a signal
increase in size or number of cells
absorption, utilization of oxygen and carbon dioxide
complex food are broken down into simpler substances used in cells
movement of digested nutrients through the wall of the digestive tube and into the body fluids.
production and delivery of specialized substances
removal of waste products
movement of body fluids and many substances, such as
formation of new cells through cell division
there are more than 100 different chemical building
blocks of nature, called atoms
Chemical Level
chemical structures may be organized within larger units
called cells to form various structures called organelles. These
organelles are structure to perform a specific function. Example
(mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum)
Organelle Level
Cells are the basic building blocks and specialized
Cellular Level
A group of a great many similar cells that all developed
together from the same part of the embryo and are all specialized to
perform a certain function. Four major types (Epithelial, connective,
muscle, and nervous)
Tissue Level
A more complex unit. A structure made up of several
different kinds of tissues so arranged that, together, they can perform a
special function. Example ( Heart , muscle and specialized connective
tissues give it shape, specialized epithelial tissues line the cavities, or
chambers, and nervous tissues permit control of muscular contraction.
Organ Level
Most complex. Many organs arranged together so they
can perform complex function for the body. There are eleven major
systems for the human body
System Level
support & movement; skin
Integumentary System
Support and movement; Bones, Ligaments
Skeletal System
Support and movement; Skeletal muscles, tendons
Muscular System
Communication, control and integration; brain, spinal cord, verves, sensory
Nervous System
Communication, control and integration; pituitary gland, adrenals, pancreas,
Endocrine System
Transportation and defense; heart, arteries, veins, capillaries
Transportation and defense; lymph nodes, vessels, spleen thymus, tonsils
Respiration, nutrition,
and excretion; lungs, bronchial, trachea, larynx,
nasal cavity
Respiration, nutrition,
and excretion; stomach, small and large intestines,
esophagus, liver, mouth pancreas
Respiration, nutrition,
and excretion; Kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra
Reproduction, development; Testes, prostate, seminal vesicles, Penis, ovaries, fallopian tubes, vagina, breasts
The position the body is in an erect, or standing, posture with the arms at the sides and palms turned forward. The head and feet are also pointing forward.
Anatomical Position
Hold the Pleural Cavity and the Mediastinum
Thoracic Cavity
cavity surround the lungs
Pleural Cavity
heart, trachea, right and left bronchi, esophagus, and thymus
Holds the Abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity
Abdominopelvic Cavity
cavity surround the digestive
Abdominal Cavity
uro-genital system
Pelvic Cavity
Holds the cranial and spinal cavities
Dorsal Cavity
Cranial Cavity
Cavity that holds the spinal cord
Spinal Cavity
head, neck, and torso or trunk (body region)
upper and lower extremities and their connection to the
axial portions (body region)
toward the head
Superior & Inferior
Anterior, frontal
Posterior, back side
toward the midline of the body
Medial & lateral
toward the nearest trunk / away from the trunk
Proximal & Distal
outside / inside
divides the body into right and left sides. Midsagittal directly down the center
a length wise plan running from side to side divides
the body or any of its parts into anterior and posterior portions. ( front and
Coronal (Frontal)
(cross sectional or horizontal): a crosswise plane, top and
heavy, rounded physique
muscular physique
thin, fiagile physique
the body tries to maintain balance,
stable internal environment despite external changes.
anythg that has mass and takes up space.
Organized chart separating the atoms.
Periodic Table
smallest units of matter that enter into chemical reactions.
composed of protons (+) and neutrons (0).
composed of electrons (-) in shells around
the nucleus; part of the atom involved in chemical
Electron shells
#Protons + #Electrons = 0.
Neutral Atom
more or less electrons compared to protons.
Charged Atom
number of protons in an atom's nucleus.
Atomic Number
Oxygen (0), Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), Nitrogen (N).
Major atoms found in the human body (4)
the combination of two or more atoms which are held together by chemical bond; atoms are happy when their outer shell is full with electrons.
A chemical bond formed by the transfer of
electrons fiom one atom to another. Many have a single unpaired electron
in the outer shell, making it unstable and losing that electron results in a
more stable structure.
Ionic, or electrocovalent bonds
chemical bond in which atoms share electrons; may be a
single, double, or triple bond.
Covalent Bonds
unequal charge distribution of a molecule, (polar bond)
much weaker than covalent and ionic and are easily broken.
Example: H20
Hydrogen Bonds
the making and breaking of bonds between atoms that
results in the formation of a new molecules or atom.
Chemical Reactions
A) Anabolic reactions (synthesis) - the
combining of atoms or molecules to form new and larger molecules.
These reactions require energy. Examples: Polymers;
glucose + glucose + glucose.. . 9 Starch.
A + B --energy+ AB
Synthesis Reaction
reaction in which a large molecule is broken down into two or more
smaller molecules or atoms. These reactions release energy.
Ex: Food broken down in our digestive system; Glucose broken
down in cells to release energy.
AB + A + B + energy
Decomposition reactions ) Catabolic reactions (decomposition)
A break down or decompose two compounds
and in exchange synthesize two new compounds.
Exchange Reactions
Molecules that do not contain the carbon atoms.
Inorganic Molecules
the most abundant molecule in the body
(60-70% of body weight).
3 Properties of Water
a) An excellent solvent. Allows substances to dissolve to
fonn a solution.
b) Involved in all chemical reactions in the body's cells.
c) Requires a lot of heat to change from a liquid to a gas, therefore, sweating is effective in ridding the body of excess heat.
Acids & Bases
a substance that releases H+ ions when in a
solution; pH less than 7. Taste sour , dyes Litmus
will turn red
a substance that dissociates into
OH- ions (hydroxide ions); pH is greater than 7.
Taste bitter, dyes litmus will turn b.
Bases (Alkaline)
pH Scale

14 is ____, 7 is ____, & 0 is _____
14 is Base, 7 is Neutral & 0 is Acid
substances that minimize changes in the
concentrations of acid and bases.
any compound that results from the chemical interaction
of an acid and a base.
another name for macromolecules
Organic Molecules
compounds that always contain carboncarbon
covalent bonds or carbon-hydrogen covalent bonds.
They are larger and more complex than inorganic compounds.
Organic Compound
compounds that contain the elements carbon, hydrogen, and
oxygen with the carbon atoms linked to one another to form chains of varying
lengths. Carbohydrates include the substances commonly called sugars and
starches, the primary source of chemical energy needed by every body cell.
They are also need in DNA and RNA which is involved in cell reproduction .
Carb. simple sugars. C6H1206.
Glucose; Fructose; Galactose.
Carb. two monosaccharide's bonded together.
Example: Sucrose = glucose + fiuctose (table sugar).
Carb. complex sugars :composed of many
monosaccharides bonded together.
form in which the body stores excess glucose.
storage form of plants for energy
molecules that are made up of amino acids subunits.
protein molecules that are bonded together,
(20 commonly occuring)
Amino Acids
kind of protein that makes up hair, keratin of skin, nails
Structural protein
proteins that speed up the rate of metabolic and
chemical reaction but are not used up in the process.
enzyme (protein)
hormones, insulin ____ to the cell
communicate information
Last resort for energy in the body
binding sites of certain protein on
surfaces of cell membranes serve as ______ for
insulin and other hormones.
proteins act as receptors
protein function: Antibodies,
immunoglobulin' s
Defend body against harmful agents
Long carbon chains. NON water soluble, organic biomolecules
Lipid; Function: energy
long-term energy storage,
lipid function; structure
membrane structure
lipid function; vitamins
steroid horomones
lipid function; protection
surrounds and protects organs
lipid function; insulation
under the skin minimizes heat loss; fatty tissue
(myelin) covers nerve cells and electrically insulates them.
lipid function; regulation of _____
steroid hormones.
_____ are the most abundant lipids,
they function as the body's most concentrated source of
energy. made up of fatty acids.
Fats (triglycerides)
3 fatty acids bonded together.
used for the production of Steroid, Hormones & Vitamin D and the Cell Membrane.
Good kind of cholesterol, function to transport cholesterol fiom peripheral cells to the liver where they
are metabolized and excreted. The higher the HDL # the lower the
risk for Cardiovascular disease.
HDL: High Density Lipoproteins: Good for you
Bad kind of cholesterol contain the major
portion of cholesterol (60-70%) and high level suggest a greater
potential for developing atherosclerosis. Less than 130
Cholesterol is made in Liver; dietary cholesterol is NOT essential!
LDL: Low Density Lipoproteins: Bad for you
helps code hereditary information
helps decode hereditary info.
RNA-neuclotides (messenger RNA)
all of the chemical reactions that occur in
the body cells.
the breaking down of larger food molecules into smaller
chemical units and in doing so, releases energy from them. This process is
a chemical reaction called hydroZyssis.
A chemical reaction that join simple molecules together to
form more complex bio-molecules, (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and
nucleic acids)
Energy , the form of energy that cells generally use
ATP = Adenosine triphosphate
uses ATP, catabolism, & anabolism
5 cell types
nerve, muscle, red blood, gland, & immune
4 cell structures
plasma membrane, nucleus, organelles, & cytoplasm
The outer boundary of the cell.
plasma membrane
The gel-like internal substance of cells that
contains many tiny suspended structures.
Hundreds or even thousands of little organs with in the cytoplasm.
Regulates the activities of the cell.
The plasma or plasmic membrane encloses the cell, its nucleus, and a number of organelles. The membrane is composed primarily of phospholipids and protein molecules which perform numerous functions, including identifying the cell as belonging to a particular individual.
cell membrane (plasmic or cytoplasmic membrane)
made of a bilayer of phospholipid molecules arranged wit1
their nonpolar "tails" pointing toward each other. Cholesterol molecules help stabilize the flexible bilaye~
structure to prevent breakage. Protein molecules and protein-hybrid molecules may be found on the outel
or inner surface of the bilayer-or, more likely, extending all the way through the membrane.
plasma membrane
4 functions of a plasma membrane
1. encloses, 2. self defense, 3. flexible, 4. selectively permeable
structure of a cell membrane (3 parts)
lipids, Proteins, & cholesterol
In a cell membrane these are arranged in a double layer, or (bilayer)Very little can pass through
(lipids); heads are water soluble
hydrophillic lipids
(lipids); double tails are lipid soluble. This allows a lipidsoluble,
not water-soluble molecule to pass through easily.
2 kinds of membrane proteins
channel, & transport
proteins that Act like gates that allowing only
specific molecules through.
channel proteins
proteins that are embedded proteins that serve as
passages Na+ ions or glucose.
transport proteins
_____ in the cell membrane, is a steroid lipid, prevents breakage
The fluid surrounding the
nucleus with orangelles floating in it. Is has a gel-like consistency.
Cytoplasm and Organelles Cytoplasm:
1.The fluid portion of the cell that supports all those
2. Chemical reactions occur in the ____.
3.Most sub. are dissolved in the _____
"Little organs" floating in the cytoplasm,
each having a specific task.
cytoplasmic organelles
6 cytoplasmic organelles
ribosomes, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, mitochondria, RER, SER, Cilia/Flagella
Location of Protein Synthesis (Anabolic
Reaction) of the Cell and intracellular
transportation of molecules.
Contains Ribosomes where protein synthesis
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Location of fat Synthesis (Anabolic Reaction) of the
Fat examples: most of the cell membrane is Fat; Sex
hormones such as Estrogen, Progesterone, &
Also the site of Detoxification of alcohol 62 drugs in
Liver & Kidney cells.
Smooth ER
Location of protein & fat modification "Quality Control"
b. Packane the protein or fat and ship it out.
Golgi Apparatus
Used to "clean-up'.' the cellular parts- that are dead I- . .
b. A tiny membranous sac that contains enzymes that degrade
c. White blood cells use these to kill Bacteria and Virusinfected
Methods of movement for some cells.
b. Cilia: on cells in the throat, digestive system, fallopian
-c. Flagella: on sperm cells.
Many of them are attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum
b. Some are scattered through the cytoplasm
c. Protein synthesis "protein factories"
catabolism ATP synthesis:
b. Cell's "power plants"
Brain of the cell & Contain the DNA
the "blueprint" for all proteins 1 enzymes made by
the cells; contain the genes that code for your traits.
DNA Structure
double-stranded helix
Sugar, Phosphate, & Base are parts of what
4 Different Bases are
Thymine, Adenine, sosine, Guanine.
*Different base arrangements make different genes
DNA double-strand wraps around into a ____
__ chrosomes inside a human cell
46; (23 pairs) 1/2 from mom & 1/2 from dad
____acts as a framework to support the cell & its organelles
functions in cell movement
forms cell extensions (flagella, cilia, & microvillie)
contain microtubules, microfilaments, & intermediate fibers
Spot welds, that hold adjacent cell together; fibers on the outer
surface of each desmosomes interlock with each other anchored internally by
intermediate filaments of the cytoskeleton.
desosome cell connection
membrane channels of adjacent plasma membranes adhere to each
gap junction
cells are joined by collars of tightly fused materials
tight junction
encircles entire cell like a collar
belt desosome
Does not require any energy expenditure or activity of
the cell membrane. The particles move by using energy that they already have.
passave transport
Movement of molecules from a high concentration to a low concentration, across the
cell membrane.
simple diffusion (no energy involved)
Gated channel proteins from tunnels through which specific
molecules may pass-as long as the "gates" are open. Notice that the transported molecules
move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
Membrane channels
a. Movement of particles when a channel (protein gate) is used.
b. Uses a carrier molecules
c. Example: glucose molecules into most cells
facilitated diffusion
a. Difision of small solute particles
b. Selective permeable membrane
c. Example: periotoneal dialysis, small solutes not proteins.
Same as Passive Diffusion, but it is .the movement of WATER.
Water moves from an area of high concentration (lots of water) to an area of low
concentration (less water).
water pressure that develops in a solution as a result of osmosis in
osmotic pressure
the solution has low osmotic pressure
hypotonic solution
constant pressure in a solution
isotonic solution
the solution has a high osmotic pressure
Example: water molecules into and out of cells to correct
imbalances in H20 concentration.
hypertonic solution
Separate substances due to pre$sure.
Separate the small molecules fiom the large molecules.
Example: Small molecules & ions are pushed out of the
bloodstream due to high blood pressure
filtration (passive transport)
Requires the expenditure of metabolic energy
by the cell. In active processes the transported particles are actively pulled
across the membrane.
Active transport process
(requires energy)
movement of molecules from a low concentration to high concentration
active transport.
(opposite of diffusion)
Bunch of large particles are enmlfed into the cell.
Examples: bunch of cholesterol swallowed up; white blood
cells engulfing bacteria
Movement of cells or other large particles by trapping it in a section
of plasma membrane that pinches off to form an intracellular
A type of endocytosis
Example: Trapping of bacterial cells by phagocytic white blood cells.
Movement of fluid and dissolved mo1ecule by trapping them in a
section of plasma membrane that pinches off to form an intracellular
A type of endocytosis.
Example: Trapping of large protein molecules by some body cells.
Bunch of large particles are removed out of the cell.
Examples: T-cells spilling out enzymes on virus-infected cells;
breast cells secreting out milk; glands secreting a bunch of hormones.
Chemical reactions of the cell.
cell metabolism
kind of reaction that Stores energy; gain weight.
anabolism reaction
kind of reaction that Burns energy; lose weight.
catabolism reaction
____ are functional proteins
3 roles of enzymes
1. Specific proteins that speed up the reaction!!!
2. Enzymes are used to make or break molecules.
3. Found in ALL CELLS and is REQUIRED for cell survival.
Many disorders & toxicities occur because of malfimctioned or inoperable enzyme! ! !
Three stages are glycolysis, citric acid cycle, and electron
transport system
6 carbon atom per molecule
end results in pyruvic acid which contains 3 carbon atoms
anaerobic reaction in the cytoplasm
2 ATP's produced
Loss of one carbon atom
Pyruvic acid is converted to acetyl coenzyme A
C02 is a waste byproduct
Occurs in the mitochondrion
A release of H+ ions
High energy electrons are carried away for NADH
Aerobic respiration
citric acid cycle (Kreb's cycle)
Take place in the cristae of the inner mitochondria1 membrane
34 ATP's
Aerobic respiration
Byproduct is water
electron transport system
The energy carrier when a nutrient,
like glucose breaks apart it releases energy and ___ grabs this energy.
Large molecule that stores the energy for you
Acts as a bank; gives you energy when you need it.
ATP grabs the energy when food is broken down and energy is
released form the food.
Decomposition reaction, release of energy
Occurs in the organelles called Mitochondria,
Oxygen is used
Complete breakdown of food: Food + oxygen = energy.
36 ATP's are made fi-om one glucose
Running a marathon you can keep doing due to all those ATP's
being made, because jogging is Aerobic (allowing 0 2 to your cells)
C6H1206 (food) + H20 = C02 + H20 + energy (ATP).
Aerobic respiration
No oxygen available
Muscle cells can't get oxygen.
Glucose broken down into 2 Lactic Acids and stop there. (feel the burn)
Only 2 ATP's are made from one glucose molecule
anerobic respiration
This simplified summary of cellular respiration represents one of the most
important catabolic pathways in the cell. Note that one phase (glycolysis) occurs in the cytosol,
but that the two remaining phases (citric acid cycle and electron transport system) occur
within a mitochondrion. Note also the divergence of the anaerobic and aerobic pathways of
cellular respiration
Building pathway that occur in human cells. Using Protein synthesis
in producing the genetic code.
molecule is a polymer. This means that it is a large molecule
made up of many smaller molecules joined together in sequence. .
b. Its shape is a double spiral or double helix.
c. Millions of pairs of nucleotides.
d. Hydrogen bonds (polar bonds) very week and broken easily
e. Adenine goes with thymine, and cytosine with guanine
f. 1000 pair of nucleotides for 1 human gene
a. RNA fonn along a segment of DNA = Messenger RNA
b. Synthesis of a mRNA molecule is called transcription
c. Carried out of the nucleus to a ribosome
A cell ready to interpret or translate the genetic code, forming a specific
sequence of amino acids
A DNA molecule "unzips" in the region of the
gene to be transcribed. RNA nucleotides already present in the nucleus temporarily attach
themselves to exposed DNA bases along one strand of the unzipped DNA molecule
according to the principle of complementary pairing. As the RNA nucleotides attach to the
exposed DNA, they bind to each other, forming a chainlike RNA strand called a messenger
RNA (mRNA) molecule. Notice that the new mRNA strand is an exact copy of the base
sequence on the opposite side of the DNA molecule. As in all metabolic processes, the
formation of mRNA is controlled by an enzyme- in this case, the enzyme is called RNA
transcription of messenger RNA (mRNA)
process of cell life (2)
1. cell growth
2. cell reproduction
skin, intestinal, bone marrow, & sperocytes
cells that constantly & rapidly divide
1. During this phase newly formed cell produces new molecules.
2. DNA replication .
3. Produce additional cytoplasm and plasma membrane.
cell growth
When two new chromosomes replaced the original chromosome.
is the name for the point of attachment of the Chromatids
pinching of the cell in halves
one pair of tiny cylinders in the Centrosome of a cell
believed to be spindle fibers formed during mitosis
to make two identical cells fiom one mother cell; mother
cell splits in half to two daughter cells.
cell reproduction
1. interphase
2. mitosis
2 phases of of cell reproduction
Cell is getting prepared for Mitosis ( Replication of DNA)
Separation of the chromosomes after they double in number 46 to
phases of mitosis
1. prophase 2. metaphase 3. Anaphase, 4. telophase
"before phase" of mitosis
the center of cell divide
Chromosome shorten and thicken
Nuclear envelope disappears.
Centrioles move to opposite poles
Position-changing phase
chromosomes are no longer trapped within the nucleus and aligned along center plane
centrioles are at opposite poles
Apart phase,
chromatids splits to form chromosome. Chromosomes are pulled to opposite poles
end phase,
DNA is returned to it original form.
Nuclear envelop re-appears.
Spindle fibers disappear
cell division that occurs only in primitive sex cell during the process of their becoming mature sex cells.
mature sex cells
spennatogognia - spermatozoa (XY chromosome
oogonia - ova (XX chromosomes)
46 chromosomes per cell
diploid number
23 chromosomes per cell
haploid number