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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a group of similar cells that function together to carry out specialized activities and usually have a common embryonic origin
the science that deals with the study of tissues
a physician who specializes in laboratory studies of cells and tissues to help other physicians make accurate diagnoses
epithelial tissue
covers body surfaces and lines hollow organs, body cavities, and ducts; it also forms glands; consists of cells arranged in continuous sheets, in either single or multiple layers
connective tissue
protects and supports the body and its organs; various types of connective tissue bind organs together, store energy reserves as fat, and help provide immunity against disease-causing organisms
muscle tissue
generates the physical force needed to make body structures move
nervous tissue
detects changes in a variety of conditions inside and outside the body and responds by generating nerve impulses that help maintain homeostasis
cell junctions
point of contact between plasma membranes of tissue cells
apical (free) surface
surface of an epithelial cell that faces the body surface, a body cavity, the lumen (interior space) of an internal organ, or a tubular duct that receives cell secretions
lateral surfaces
surfaces of an epithelial cell that face the adjacent cells on either side and may contain cell junctions
basal surface
surface of an epithelial cell that is opposite the apical surface and adheres to extracellular materials
basement membrane
a thin extracellular layer that commonly consists of two layers, the basal lamina and reticular lamina; also form a surface along which epithelial cells migrate during growth or wound healing, restrict passage of larger molecules between epithelium and connective tissue, and participate in filtration of blood in the kidneys
basal lamina
it is closer to the epithelial cells and is secreted by them; contains proteins such as collagen and laminin, as well as glycoproteins
reticular lamina
it is deep to the basal lamina and contains fibrous proteins produced by underlying connective tissue cells called fibroblasts
lacks its own blood supply
covering and lining epithelium
type of epithelial tissue that forms the outer covering of the skin and some internal organs; also forms inner lining of blood vessels, ducts, and body cavities, and the interior of the respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems; classified according to two characteristics: the arrangement of cells into layers and the shapes of the cells
glandular epithelium
type of epithelial tissue the constitutes the secreting portion of glands such as the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, and sweat glands
simple epithelium
it is a single layer of cells of the covering and lining epithelia that functions in diffusion, filtration, secretion (the production and release of substances such as mucus, sweat, or enzymes), and absorption (the intake of fluids or other substances by cells, such as digested food from the intestinal tract).
pseudostratified epithelium
a layer of the covering and lining epithelia that appears to have multiple layers; cells that do extend to the apical surface may contain cilia, others (goblet cells) secrete mucus
stratified epithelium
a layer of the covering and lining epithelia; it consists of two or more layers of cells that protect underlying tissues in locations where there is considerable wear and tear
cell shapes of covering and lining epithelial tissue
squamous cells, cuboidal cells, columnar cells, and transitional cells
simple squamous epithelium
tissue that consists of a single layer of flat cells that resembles a tiled floor when viewed from their apical surface; it is present at sites where filtration occurs or where diffusion takes place; it is not found in body areas that are subject to wear and tear
the simple squamous epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels
the simple squamous epithelium that forms the epithelial layer of serous membranes
simple cuboidal epithelium
found in organs such as the thyroid gland and kidneys and performs the functions of secretion and absorption
simple columnar epithelium
exists in two forms: nonciliated simple columnar epithelium and ciliated simple columnar epithelium
nonciliated simple columnar epithelium
contains two types of cells: columnar epithelial cells with microvilli at their apical surface and goblet cells
are microscopic fingerlike projections of the plasma membrane that increase cell surface area; their presence increases the rate of absorption by the cell
goblet cells
are modified columnar epithelial cells that secrete mucus at their apical surfaces; secreted mucus serves as a lubricant and protective covering for the linings of the digestive, respiratory, reproductive, and most of the urinary tracts
ciliated simple columnar epithelium
contains columnar epithelial cells with cilia at their apical surface; the cilia help move oocytes expelled from the ovaries through the uterine (fallopian) tubes into the uterus and move cerebrospinal fluid through the passageways in the central nervous system
pseudostratified columnar epithelium
this tissue appears to have several layers because the nuclei of the cells are at various depths; when viewed from the side, it appears to look like a multilayered tissue; the cells that extend to the surface either secrete mucus or bear cilia; the mucus forms a film over the airway surface that traps foreign particles
stratified epithelium
has two or more layers of cells; it is more durable and can better protect underlying tissues; two forms are stratified squamous epithelium and transitional epithelium
stratified squamous epithelium
cells are flat; exists in both keratinized and nonkeritinized forms
a tough, fibrous protein that helps protect the skin and underlying tissues from heat, microbes, and chemicals
keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
apical layers are partially dehydrated and contain a layer of keratin; forms the superficial layer of the skin
nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium
does not contain keratin in the apical layers and remains moist