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115 Cards in this Set

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respiration
involves the exchange of gasses between cells, blood, and the atmostphere
pulmonary ventilation
movement of air IN and OUT of the LUNGS
External respiration
gas exchange between the air filled lungs and the blood of the pulmonary capillaries of the lungs
Transport of Respiration Gases
movement of oxygen and carbon dioxide through out the body by the circulatory system and blood
Internal Respiration
gas exchange between the tissue cells and the blood in the tissue capillaries
Name why diffusion is able to take place in the lungs
walls are thin, moist, large
What is the nose composed of?
dense connective tissue and supported by a hyaline cartilage at the tip
Name the nose's functions
moisten, warm,resonating chamber for speech, and filter the air
What happens when cold air is inhaled through the nose?
nasal cavity begins to dilate so heat can be exerted
Vibrissae
nasal hairs that filter coarse particulate
What is secreted by the respitory mucosa to defend against infection?
defincins and lysozymes
What does the nose house?
olfactory receptors and nerves
Name the anatomy of the nose
external and internal nares, nasal septum, conchae
What supports the nose?
palatine bones
palatine bones
seperates nasal cavity from oral cavity, and is divided into a soft and hard palate
What does the pharynx connect?
the nasal cavity and mouth "throat"
Name the divisions of the pharynx
nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
Where is the nasopharynx located?
upper portion above the soft palate, it is closed when eating
What is located in the same area as the nasopharynx?
the pharyngeal tonsils
Where is the oropharynx located?
posterior to the oral cavity and continuous with fauces
fauces
archway
What type of tissue is in the oropharynx?
stratified squamous
What is found in the oropharynx?
lingual and palatine tonsils
Where is the laryngopharynx located?
posterior to the epiglottis
What type of tissue is in the laryngopharynx?
stratified squamous because it’s a pathway for food and air
What is the function of the larynx?
to prevent food or fluid from entering the respitory system
glottis
slit like opening into the respitory tract
Whats another name for the larynx?
voice box
What type of tissue is the larynx made of?
9 cartilages, membranes, ligaments (dense connective tissue)
Name the unpaired cartilages
thyroid (adams apple), cricoid, epiglottis
Name the paired cartilages
arytenoids (anchors the vocal cords) , corniculate, cuneiform
vocal ligaments and vocal folds
attaches the arytenoids cartilages to the thyroid cartilage and vibrate as air passes over them to produce sound
Vocal folds
true vocal cords
Vestibular folds
false vocal cords
Whats another name for trachea
wind pipe
Where does the trachea lead air to and from?
the tube like structure leading from the larynx to the bronchial tree
mucosa
pseudostratified columnar layer that is in the internal part of the trachea
How does the mucosa provide protection?
by the mucociliary escalator
What type of tissue makes up the submucosa?
connective tissue
Adventitia is composed of what tissue?
connective tissue that has 20 C shaped hyaline cartiliage rings to keep the air way open
What do the C shaped rings attach to in the adventitia?
trachelais muscle
What does the trachea branch into?
two primary bronchi (right and left)
Name the parts to the bronchial tree
primary bronchus, secondary bronchi, tertiary bronchi, bronchioles
What is the conduction zone?
area from the bronchus to the bronchioles
Name the parts of the bronchioles
terminal bronchioles, respitory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli sacs
What is the respitory zone?
all of the bronchioles
What happens as the pathway of the bronchial tree gets smaller
the tissue does too
What is missing in the bronchioles?
cilia and mucus producing cells
Alveoli is also known as:
air sacs
What is the function of Alveoli
functional unit where gas exchange actually occurs
How many alveoli are there?
300 million
Name the types of alveoli
Type 1 and Type 2
Type 1
most common alveoli made up of squamous epithelial cells
Type 2
scattered alveolar sacs made of cuboidal epithelium that secretes surfactant
surfactant
coats the gas exchange surfaces and reduces the hydrostatic forces that otherwise might make the tissues stick together
alveolar macrophages
roam freely among the internal alveolar surfaces
respitory membrane
composed of the alveolar and capillary walls plus their fused basal laminae
What does the respitory membrane act as?
the air blood barrier
Where are the lungs located?
in the thoracic cavity
How many lobes does the right lung have?
3
How many lobes does the left lung have?
2
hilus
an indention on each lung where blood vessels leave and enter the lungs
What is the smallest subdivision of the lungs that is visible to the naked eye is:
lobules
Name the pleural membranes
parietal pleura, visceral pleura, pleural cavity
parietal pleura
membrane that covers the thoracic wall and the diaphragm
visceral pleura
membrane that covers the external lung surfaces
pleural cavity
space between the parietal and visceral pleura and contains pleural fluid
pleural fluid
lubricates the lungs so that they glide over the thorax wall during breathing
Atmosoheric Pressure
the force exerted by air surrounding the body
Alveolar pressure
the force exerted by the air within the alveoli of the lungs and it rises and falls as the phases of breathing progress
Whats another name for alveolar pressure
intrapulmonary pressure
intrapleural pressure
the pressure within the pleural cavity and it is always lower than the atmospheric pressure and the alveolar pressure
What is the atmospheric pressure at sea level?
760 mmHg
What is the alveolar pressure when someone inhales?
758 mm Hg
What is the alveolar pressure when someone exhales?
762 mm Hg
What is Boyle's Law?
more volume in= less pressure; less volume=more pressure
What factors influence pulmonary ventilation?
airway resistance, surface tension, compliance
Airway Resistance
friction, or drag, is encountered in the nonelastic portions of the airway
Surface tension forces
the liquid molecules keeping the respitory membrane moist are attracted to each other because of their polar nature
What keeps the lungs from collapsing?
surfactant
Compliance
the lungs are strechy
Anatomical dead space
the volume of air that is always in the lungs
alveolar dead space
when some alveoli cease to act in gas exchange because they become obstructed or they collapse
Total Dead Space
the sum of all non useful air
Medullary Respitory Center
controls basic rhythm of respiration
Whats another name for the Medullary Respitory Center?
eupnea
Doesal Respitory Center
the pacesetter
Ventral Respiratory center
comes into play with more strenous breathing and forcable expiration
Pontine (Pneumotaxic) Center
influences and modifies the activity of the medullary neurons to inhibit inspiration
Where is the Pontine Center located?
in the pons
Hypothalamus
strong emotions and pain activiate symphathetic centers in the hypothalamus that can modify the respitory rate and depth
What does the hypothalamus act through?
the limbic system sending information to the medulla and pons
What does oxygen bind to?
98% is bounded to hemoglobin as oxyhemoglobin, and dissolved in plasma
How many oxygens can hemoglobin attach to?
4 (one for each iron)
Name how carbondioxide is transported
70% plasma; 23% globin; 7% dissolved in plasma
Bicarbonate Ion
CO2 in plasma
Caraminohemoglobin
CO2 attached to globin
partial pressure of oxygen
increase in PO2 = increase in % of saturation (higher affinity of oxygen to hemoglobin)
pH
an acid enviorment = decreased % saturation (lower affinity of oxygen to hemoglobin)
Bohr Effect
pH
Temperature
higher the temp = decreased % of saturation (lower affinity of oxygen to hemoglobin_
Partial Pressure of Carbon Dioxide
an increase in Pco2 = decrease in % of saturation (lower affinity of oxygen to hemoglobin)
A. Sinusitis
inflamed sinuses from a nasal cavity infection.
B. Laryngitis
inflammation of the vocal cords.
C. Pleurisy
inflammation of the pleural membranes.
D. Atelectasis
lung collapse.
E. Pneumothorax
air in the intrapleural spaces.
F. Dyspnea=
difficult or labored breathing.
G. Pneumonia=
infectious inflammation of the lungs (viral or bacterial).
H. Emphysema=
permanent enlargement of the alveoli due to destruction of the alveolar walls.
I. Chronic bronchitis=
inhaled irritants lead to chronic excessive mucus production as well as inflammation and fibrosis of the mucosa.
J. Asthma=
bronchoconstriction prevents airflow into the alveoli.
K. Tuberculosis=
an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis resulting in fibroid masses in the lungs.
L. Cystic Fibrosis
genetic disorder that causes an increase in mucus production resulting in clogged respiratory passages.
M. Hypoxia
inadequate oxygen delivery