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140 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Innate Immunity
immunity that you are born with
Name the types of innate immunity
surface barriers, cellular defences, inflammatory chemicals, antimicrobial protiens
Name the types Innate Immunity surface barriers
skin and mucous membranes
Why is skin an innate immunity surface barrier?
the stratisfied squamous is hard to penetrate, sweat and sebum is acidic inhibiting bacterial growth
What does the mucous membrane posses that secretes an immunity chemical?
hairs and cillia
What immunity chemical do hairs and cillia produce?
mucus, lysozymes, high acidity, sebum
How does mucus act as an immune chemical?
the sticky chemical traps microorganisms
How does lysozymes act as an immune chemical?
it is an enzyme that destroys bacteria found in saliva and tears
Name the types of cellular defencins of innate immunity
phagocytes and natural killers
Name the types of cellular phagocyte innate immunity
macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, mast cells
Where are macrophages found?
in the bloodstream and tissues
Name the free macrophages
alveolar monocytes and microglia
Name the fixed macrophages
kupffer cells
When do neutrophils become phagocitic?
when they encounter infectious material in the tissues
When are eosinophils important in being a phagocyte?
in defending against parasitic worms
When are mast cells important in being a phagocyte?
in defending against allergic reactions
Where are mast cells found?
in reticular tissues of the respitory tract
Name the process of phagocytosis
alarm is sounded, chemicals are released, vasodialation, margination, diapedesis, chemotaxis, adherence, ingestion, digestion
What do some of the alarm chemicals release in phagocytosis?
chemicals that stimulate leukocytosis
the blood vessel wall becomes sticky so the phagocytes know where the infection is
the neutrophils squeezing through the capillary walls
whats another name for diapedesis?
moving neutrophils towards the infection out of the blood vessel
the neurtophils clinging to the bacteria
coating of the bacteria with complement so that marcophages can adhere to them
the phagocyte engulfs that invading particle
What is the bacteria called once it is engulfed?
the phagosome merges with the lysozymes
What does the phagosome become during digestion?
Natural Killer Cells
non phagocytic cells that attack infected virus cells and cancerous cells
Where are Natural Killer cells found?
in the blood stream
What chemical do Natural Killer cells release?
a chemical that punches holes in plasma membranes
Name the types of chemicals that are released when injured cells sound the alarm
Histamine, Kinins, Prostaglandins, Complement
What is histamine released from?
mast cells and basophils
What is the function of histamine?
to premote vasodilation of arterioles and increased permeability of local capillaries
Name a type of Kinins
What is the function of a kinins
Non phagocytic cells that attack infected virus cells and cancerous cells
What types of cells are prostaglandins produced by?
neutrophils, basophils, mast cells
What are prostaglandins made from?
fatty acids of cell membranes
Name the functions of prostaglandins
amplifies the effects of other inflammatory mediators and induces pain
Name the function of complement
intensifies inflammatory responces by inducing vasodialation, enhancing phagocytosis by opsonization, and lyses cells
What changes as chemicals flood into the blood vessels?
What does increased permeability cause?
increased fluid that leaks
What keeps the infection from spreading?
fibrin forms a network secluding the infection
Name the cardinal signs of inflammation
redness, pain, swelling, and temp
inflammitory response goes out of control due to severe bacterial infection in patients with weakened immune systems
Name the antimicrobial protiens
interferons, complement, pryogens
What are Interferons functions
defend against viral infections by protecting nearby cells and prevents viral replication at the ribosome
Name the functions of complement
lyses microorganisms, enhance phagocytosis by opsonization and enhances the inflammatory response
Name the types of complement
classical pathway and alternate pathway
Classical pathway
involves the formation of antigen antibody complexes
Alternate pathway
involves the interaction of factors B D and P with the cell wall polysaccharrides
What are pyrogens secreted by?
leukocytes and macrophages
What is the function of pyrogens?
to stimulate increased body temperature or fever by denaturing proteins
Name the main characteristics of adaptive immunity
specific, systemic, memory
How do cells of the adaptive immunity recognize specific invaders?
they contain macromolecules or protiens that distinguish the invaders
any substance that can elicit an immune response
MHC protiens
used against exposure to other organisms MHC protiens (self antigens)
Where are MHC-class I found?
on ALL cell types
What do MHC-class I stimulate?
killer cells
Where are MHC-class II found?
only on macrophages
What do MHC-class II stimulate?
helper T cells
Name the types of adaptive immunity
Antibody-mediated immunity and Cell-mediated immunity
What is another name for antibody mediated immunity?
humoral immunity
Why is Antibody mediated immunity called humoral immunity?
because it utilizes antibodies that are commonly found in the bodies fluids
What type of cells is AMI associated with?
B Lymphocytes and the production of antibodies
Where are B Lymphocytes made?
in the bone marrow
Where are B Lymphocytes commonly found?
in the spleen and lymph nodes and circulating blood and lymph
What happens when AMI recognizes antigens?
it directly recognizes it and then undergoes expansion
Name the process of AMI colonial expansion
antiagents are recognized, B Lymphocytes become an army, clones become plasma and memory cells, apoptosis
What is another name for antibody structure?
Name the anitbody structure
4 polypeptide chains, 2 heavy chains and 2 light chains
Name the five types of constant antibodies
Which antibody is important in the activation and maturity of B cells?
Which antibody is commonly found in body secrections?
Which antibody protects against bacteria viruses and toxins?
Which antibody indicates initial infection and is active in stimulating complement?
Which antibody readily binds to basophils?
Which antibody is most common?
Which antibody helps prevent attachment of pathogens to epitheliel cell surfaces
Which antibody is diverse in antibody plasma?
Which antibody causes the release of histamine and other chemicals that mediate inflammaton and allergic reaction?
Which antibody has the ability to cross the placenta?
Name the antibodies that are monomers
Name the antibodies that are pentamers
Name the antibodies that are dimers
Name the antibody functions
Precipitation, Lyses, Agglutination, Neutralization
soluble molecules clump forming large complexes that settle in solution making it easier for phagocytosis to occur
complement is used to punch holes in bacterial cells
antibodies bind to the foreign cells causing them to clump together making phagocytosis easier
antibodies block the binding sites that are found on foreign cells and toxins which are normally used to incade tissue cells to cause injury
Active Naturally Acquired Humoral Immunity
natural exposure to infection by contact with a pathogen
Passive Naturally Acquired Humoral Immunity
antibodies pass from mother to fetus via the placenta or to infant milk
Active Artificially Acquired Humoral Immunity
vaccination using dead pathogens
Passive Artificially Acquired Humoral Immunity
injection of immune serum directly into the patient
What type of cell is cell mediated immunity associated with?
T Lymphocytes
Where are T Lymphocytes produced?
in bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland
What happens when MIA finds a antigen?
it is processed by Antigen Presenting Cells
Name the types of Antigen Presenting Cells
dendritic cells, langerhans, macrophages, and b lymphocytes
Name the T Lymphocytes types
Helper T Cells, Cytotoxic T cells, Suppressor T cells, Memory T cells
What do Helper T Cells produce?
cytokines such as interleukin 1 and 2 that stimulate the cloning of B and T cells
What is another name for Cytotoxic T Cells
killer T cells
What are cytotoxic T cells functions
to help APCs and helper T cells attack virus infected body cells and cancer cells
Whats another name for Suppressor T Cells?
regulatory T cells
What is the function of Suppressor T Cells
to slow activity of T and B cells once the infection is gone
How do Cell Mediated Immunity clone eachother
engulf, expose antigen MHC Class 2, CD4 calls on helper T cells, B and T cells are alerted
What happens if a cell becomes infected?
MHC Class 1 will attach to the antigen, CD8 calls on cytotoxic cells
tissues from the same person
tissues from identical twin
tissues from non genetically identical persons
tissues from organisms of different species
deficits in immune system cells
Severe Combined Immunodeficiency
syndrome is a songenital condition that results from a genetic disorder leading to dificients in both B and T cells
Aquired immunodeficiency
not genetic and can result from cancer drugs or a viral infection
Name examples of Aquired Immunodeficiency
Hodgkins Disease, AIDS, HIV
Hodgkins Disease
cancer of the B cells within the lymph nodes
caused by HIV
a condition that destroys the helper T cells thus depressing cell mediated immunity
Autoimmune Disease
occurs when the body recognizes its own MHC's as foreign and begins attacking its own cells
Multipule Sclerosis
degradation of the white matter of the brain and spinal cord (attacks swann cells)
Rheumatoid Arthritis
destroys joints
Systemic lupus Erythematosus
affects various organs including the kidneys heart lungs and skin
Graves Disease
thyroid tissue produces excessive amounts of thyroxine
Type 1 Diabetes mellitus
destroys pancreatic cells that produce insulin
impairment of the renal function
Myasthenia Gravis
impaired communication between nerves and skeletal muscle
occurs when immune response causes tissue damage as it fights off an infection that would otherwise be harmless to the body
Immediate hypersensitivity (type 1)
begins within seconds of exposure to the allergen and lasts half to one hour
Name examples of Type 1
atopy and anaphylactic shock
fever or asthma attack
Anaphylactic shock
spider bite or bee sting
Subacute hypersensitivity
onset is 1 - 3 hours after exposure and the duration is 10 - 15 hours
Name examples of subacute
Cytotoxic Hypersensitivity (Type 2) and Immune Complex Hypersensitivity (Type 3)
Cytotoxic Hypersensitivity
mismatch blood
Immune Complex Hypersensitivity (type 3)
associated with wheat
Delayed Hypersensitivity (Type 4)
occurs within 3 days and last for a week
Name examples of Delayed Hypersensitivity
Contact dermatitis and Tuberculosis Skin Test
Contact Dermatitis
poison ivy