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85 Cards in this Set

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How do capillaries exchange respitory gasses and nutrients?
diffusion, vesticular transportation, and moving through clefts and fenistrations
How do capillaries exchange things through vesticular transportation?
endocytosis and exocytosis of lipids
What determines which way fluid moves in and out of the vessel?
Hydolic pressure and Colloid Osmotic Pressure
Hydrolic Pressure
force exerted by a FLUID pressing against the wall
How does filteration occur in Hydrostatic Pressure?
when capillary HP is higher than the interstitial HP on the arterial end forcing the fluids out of the cell
How does reabsorbtion occur in Hydrostatic Pressure?
interstitial HP is higher than capillary HP allowing fluids in on the venous side
Colloid Osmotic Pressure
force created by the presence of large NON-DIFFUSEABLE MOLECULES in the fluid
What is the formula of Net Filteration Pressure?
(HPc - HPif) - (OCc - OCif)
What does the Net Filteration Pressure tell you if it is positive?
that stuff is forced OUT of the ARTERY
What does the Net Filteration Pressure tell you if it is negative?
that stuff is pulled IN the VEIN
Name the functions of the Lymphatic System
Drain Tissue spaces and transport fluids, House phagocytic cells and lymphnodes, and Absorb fats
What types of fluids does the Lymphatic System transport?
fluids that have escaped the blood stream and take them back to the blood
How does the Lymphatic System absorb fats?
through Lacteals
Lacteals
specialized lymph capillaries in the intestine
What do Lacteals transport?
chyle
Chyle
lymph that contain a high volume of fat
Name the componets of the Lymphatic System
Lymphatic Vessels, Lymph Cells and Tissues, Lymphatic Organs
What is the function of lymphatic vessels?
to drain vessels that collect excess lymph
Lymph
protien containing interstitial fluid
What type of tissue makes up Lymph Capillaries?
simple squamous epithelium
How is lymph moved in and out of the Lymph Capillaries?
through Mini-valves
Are Lymph Capillaries able to flow in mulitpule directions?
no they are unidirectional
What is the pressure like in Lymph Capillaries?
low
How are Lymphatic collecting vessels formed?
by merging lymph capillaries
What type of tissue makes up the Lymphatic collecting vessels?
all three tunics
How does Lymphatic Collecting Vessels prevent backflow?
by valves
What do Lymphatic Collecting Vessels drain into?
Lymphatic Trunks
What do Lymphatic Trunks drain into?
Lymphatic Ducts
How many Lymphatic Ducts are there in the body?
two
Name the Lymphatic Ducts
Right Lymphatic Duct and Thoracic Duct
What does the right lymphatic duct drain?
the lymph from the right arm and the upper right side of the body
What does the Thoracic Duct drain?
the abdomin and the extremities of the left side of the body
Where does the right lymphatic duct drain its lymph into?
the right subclavian vein
Where does the thoracic duct drain its lymph into?
the left subclavian vein
Where does the thoracic duct originate?
cisterna chyli
Name the types of lymphoid cells
Lymphocytes, Macrophages, Dendritic Cells, Reticular Cells
Where do lymphocytes originate?
in the bone marrow
What do lymphocytes mature into?
T Lymphocytes and B Lymphocytes
T Cells
attack and destroy foreign cells when activated
B Cells
produce antibodies from plasma cells
Macrophages
engulf and destroy foreign cells
Dendritic Cells
activate T cells
Where are Dendritic cells found?
in connective tissue
Reticular Cells
similar to fibroblast cells that produce reticular fibers or a network that supports other cell types
What is lymph tissue composed of?
loose connective tissue called reticular connective tissue
What does reticular connective tissue contain?
collagen elastin and reticular fibers
What lymph organ does not contain reticular connective tissue?
thymus
what does Diffuse Lymphoid Tissue consist of?
few scattered reticular tissue
Where can you find Diffuse Lymphoid tissue?
in every organ of the body
What is the shape of Lymphatic follicles?
solid spherical bodies
What do Lymphatic Follicles consist of?
tightly packed reticular elements and cells
What is the center of the Lymphatic Follicles?
germinal centers
Name the organs of Lymph organs
Lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, thymus
What is the function of lymph nodes?
filter lymph
Name the main types of lymph nodes
Inguinal reigon, Axillary reigon, and cervical reigon
What surrounds the lymph nodes
a dense fibrous capsule
What divides the lymph nodes into compartments?
connective tissue called trabeculae
The lymph nodes can be divided into two reigons. Name them.
Cortex and Medulla
Cortex of Lymph Nodes
outter part of lymph nodes
What does the cortex contain?
outter part contains B cells and inner part contains T cells
Medulla of the Lymph Nodes
inner part of the lymph nodes
What does the Medulla of lymph nodes contain?
macrophages with T B and plasma cells
What transports dirty lymph to the lymph nodes?
Afferent lymphatic vessels
What transports clean lymph away from the lymph nodes?
Efferent lymphatic vessels
Where is the spleen located?
in the upper left abdomin
What is the function of the spleen?
blood storage, removes debris bacteria viruses and infections, stored iron and platelets, site of erythrocyte production
Where are the tonsils located?
at the palatine, pharyngeal, lingual, and auditory tubes
Crypts
invaginations that trap bacteria on the tonsils
What is the shape of the thymus?
bi lobed
Where is the thymus located?
superior to the thoracic cavity between the aorta and the sternum
What happens to the size of the thymus with age?
it shrinks
What is the function of the thymus?
it’s a site for T cell maturation
Name the types of aggregrates of lymphoid follicals
Peyer's Patches, Appendix, MALT
Peyer's Patches are found where?
in the walls of the small intestine
What are peyer's patches
large clusters of lymphoid follicles
What is the appendix
follicles found in the walls of the junction between the small and large intestine
MALT
patches of lymphoid follicles in the walls of the bronchi or respitory tree
What is the pressure of lymph flow?
low because it has no pump
What pushes the lymph vessels?
new lymph, valves, artery pulsations, peristalsis, muscular pump, and respitory pump
How long does it take for lymph to flow through the entire body?
it takes one day for 3 liters to flow through
Buboes
swollen lymph nodes
Elephantiasis
caused by a paracitic worm known as Wucheria Bancrofti
Hodgkins Disease
characterized by Reed-Sternberg Cells
Lymphoma
tumor of lymphoid tissues
Tonsillitis
inflammation and congestion of tonsils usually due to a bacterial infection