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123 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name the parts of the blood vessle
Tunica Interna, Tunica Media, Tunica Externa
What type of tissue is the Tunica Interna?
simple squamous epithelium (endothelium)
What does the Tunica Media function as?
vasdilation and vasoconstriction
What is the Tunica Media composed of?
smooth muscle and elastin fibers
What type of tissue is the Tunica Externa made of?
loose connective tissue
What is the function of Tunica Externa?
to anchor, protect, and prevent over streching
Vasa Vasorum
network of vessles that feed the outter layers of the larger vessles
Where is the Vasa Vasorum located?
in the Tunica Externa
What does the Arterial System do?
transports blood away from the heart
Name the characteristics of arteries
thick Tunica Media, Thin Tunica Externa, Small Lumen
Name the types of Arteries
Elastic Arteries, Muscular Arteries, Arterioles
Where are Elastic Arteries located?
near the heart
Why are Elastic Arteries located near the heart?
because they can withstand high blood pressures
What is the diameter of Elastic Arteries?
1 - 2.5cms
What makes the Elastic Arteries look like a holey sheet?
the elastin fibers
What do Elastic Arteries laque in?
the ability to vaso-constrict
What is the function of the Muscular Arteries?
distribute blood to specific organs
What is the diameter of Muscular Arteries?
.3 cm -1cm
What type of tissue does Muscular Arteries have with little elastin?
Smooth muscle
What are Muscle Arteries able to do that Elastin Arteries are not?
What do Arterioles function as?
regulation of blood flow into capillaries
What is the diameter of Arterioles ?
10 micromeeters - .3 cm
What tissue are Arterioles mostly composed of?
smooth muscle
How long does it take for blood to travel the entire body?
one minute
What type of arteries are highest in diameter and fewest in number?
Elastic Arteries
What is the function of Capillaries?
to connect arteries to veins where nutrients and wastes are exchanged
What is the diameter of capillaries?
10 micrometers
What are the layers of capillaries made of ?
simple squamous epithelium and a sparse basal lamina
associated with epithelium; helps stabilize each layer
Name the types of Capillaries
Continuous Capillaries, Fenestrated Capillaries, Sinusoidal Capillaries
What connects Continuous Capillaries?
tight junctions
Where are continuous capillaries found?
skin, muscle, and brain tissues
pores only found in Fenstrated Capillaries
Where are Fenistration Capillaries found?
in areas where filteration and absorbption of dissolved particles is important organ functions
What organs are Fenistration Capillaries found?
Digestive Tract, endocrine glands, kidneys
What is another name for Sinusoidal Capillaries and why?
leaky capillaries because they have few tight junctions
Kupffer Cells
macrophages that extend into the lumen to capture prey
Where are Kupffer Cells found in?
Sinusoidal Capillaries
What is another name of Capillary Beds?
Name the parts of Capillary beds
Precapillary Sphincters, Metarteriole, True Capillaries
Precapillary Sphincters
open and close allowing blood to flow into capillary vessles or to bypass them
vessles that bypass capillary beds
True Capillaries
where exchange occurs within the capillary beds
How many true capillaries are there per bed?
10 - 100
Venous System
transports blood to the heart
What is the muscle like in the Tunica Media of Veins?
little smooth muscle or elastin
What is the muscle like in the Tunica Externa of Veins?
thick and contains collagen and elastin fibers
What do veins act as?
blood resovoirs
How much of blood is carried in veins?
65% of blood's volume
What is the function of Venules?
to join capillaries to veins
What do venules posses?
pores making them more like capillaries than veins
What type of tissue do venules posses?
endotheliem and pericyte congregates while others have scanty tunica media and a thin tunica externa
Venous Sinuses
specialized flattened veins with extremly thin walls
Where are venus sinuses found?
in the coronary sinuses and dural sinuses of the brain
Vascular Anastomoses
junctions of blood vessles
Where are Vascular Anastomoses found?
in heart circulation, joint circulation, brain circulation, and abdominal circulation
Blood Pressure
the force per unit area exerted on the wall of a blood vessle by its contained blood
Peripheral Resistance
the opposition to blood flow and is a measure of the amount of friction blood encounters as it passes through blood vessles
Name things that effect resistance
Blood Viscosity, Total Blood Vessle Length, Blood Vessle diameter
Blood Flow
the volume of blood flowing through a vessel, an organ, or the entire circulation
What effects Arterial Blood Pressure?
how far the elastic arteries can be streched, and the blood volume forced into them
Systolic Pressure
the amount of pressure exerted on the arteries when the ventricles are contracting
What is the normal systolic pressure in a human adult?
120 mm Hg
Diastolic Pressure
the amount of pressure exerted on the arteries when the ventricles are relaxing
What is the normal diastolic pressure in a healthy adult?
70 - 80 mm of Hg
What do veins posses that control backflow?
How do valves form on veins?
when the ventricles are relaxing
Pulse Pressure
systolic minus diastolic pressures
Mean Arterial Pressure
diastolic pressure plus one thrid of the pulse pressure
Capillary Blood Pressure
because of the resistance blood pressure drops 40 mm of Hg when in capillaries
How much does the pressure drop in capillary beds?
20 mm of Hg
What is the range of blood pressure in veins?
20 mm of Hg - 0 mm of Hg
What do veins posses that premotes veinous return?
respitory pump, muscular pump
Respitory Pump
moves blood to the heart from abdominals
Musclar Pump
milks blood toward the heart from extremities
Name some factors of blood pressure
cardiac output, peripheral resistance, blood volume
Cardiac Output
increased heart rate and stroke volume cause an increase of BP
Peripheral Resistance
increased vasoconstriction causes an increase in BP
Blood Volume
increased blood volume causes increased BP
Name some short-term mechanisms that maintain blood pressure
Vasomotor Center, Barorecptor-Initiated Reflexes, Chemoreceptor-Initiated Reflexs, Influence of Higher Brain Centers
Vasomotor Center
sympathetic neurons of the medulla maintain vasomotor tone of the arterioles
Vosmotor Tone
constricts the vessles
Baroreceptor-Initiated Reflexes
high blood pressure causes the baroreceptors to stimulate the cardioinhibitory center causing blood vessles to dialate
Where are Baroreceptor-Initiated Reflexes found?
on the carotid sinuses and aortic arch
Chemoreceptor-Initiated Reflexes
low oxygen or pH causes the chemoreceptors to stimulate the cardioacceleratroy center causing casoconstriction and increased BP
Where are chemoreceptor-initiated reflexes located?
on the aortic arch and in the large arteries of the neck
Influence of Higher brain centers
the Hypothalamus and cerebral cortex can modify arterial blood pressure by stimulating the medullary centers
Name the short-term mechanisms (chemical controls) to maintaining blood pressure
Adrenal Medulla Hormones, Atrial Natriuretic Peptide, Antidiuretic Hormone, Angiotensin II, Endothelin, Nitric Oxide, Inflammitory Chemicals, Alcohol
Adrencal Medulla Hormones
release norepineohrine and epinephrine to the blood stream causing increased heart rate and blood pressure
Artial Natriuretic Peptide
causes blood pressure and volume to decline
Antidiuretic Hormone
causes blood pressure and volume to increase
Andiotensin II
causes vasoconstriction and increased blood pressure
secreted by endothelium in response to low blood flow; vasoconstrictor (increases)
Inflammatory Chemicals
histamine, prostacyclin, kinins and other potent vasodilators
inhibits ADH release, depresses the vasomotor center and promotes vasodilation of the skin
Name the long term mechanisms for maintaining blood pressure
Reninandiotensin Mechanism, blood pressure and volume
Reninandiotension Mechanism
blood pressure declines and renin is released into the blood where it triggers the production of Andiotensin II a vasoconstrictor
What are vital signs of circulatory efficiency?
measuring temperature, respitory rate, pulse and blood pressure
What are ausculatory methods of measuring blood pressure?
sphygmomanometer and stethoscope
Tissue Perfusion
blood flowing through tissues
Name the general paths of blood
aorta, arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins, superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, Cardiac Sinus
Name the functions of the blood flow
delivery of oxygen and nutrients, removal of wastes from tissue cells, gas exchange, absorption of nutrients,urine formation
What is the distribution of blood among the tissues?
Brain 13% Heart 4% Kidneys 20% Abdominal Organs 24% Skeletal Muscles 20%
If there is an increase in cross sectional area what happens to the velosity?
decrease in velocity
Capillaries have a large cross sectional area what is the velocity of the blood?
Arteries are wide and have less cross sectional area what is the velocity of the blood?
local regulation of blood flow
What are some short term regulations of blood flow?
Metabolic Controls, and Myogenic Controls
Metabolic Controls
low levels of oxygen simulates vasodilation resulting in an increased blood flow
Name some examples of substances that cause vasodialaiton in metabolic controls
Nitric Oxide, Endothelins, Potassium, adenosine, lactic acid, histamines, kinins
Myogenic Controls
changes blood pressures and volumes which stimulates vascular smooth muscle to tighten and resist strech and vasoconstriction
long term regulation of blood flow by increasing the number of blood vessles
Circulatory Shock
any condition that blood vessles are not filled and blood can't circulate
Name types of circulatory shock
Hypovolemic Shock, Vascular Shock, Cardiac Shock
Hypovlemic Shock
results from blood loss
Vascular Shock
occurs when blood volume is normal and constant but poor circulation results from extreme vasodialation dropping blood pressure
Cardiac Shock
pump failure occurs when the heart is so inefficient that it cannot sustain adequate circulation
What is cardiac shock common in?
myocardial damage
A. Atherosclerosis
plaque build up (fat and cholesterol) within the vessel. The plaque constricts the vessel causing increased blood pressure and a reduction in elasticity.
B. Hypertension
high blood pressure
C. Hypotension
low blood pressure
D. Aneurysm .
ballooning of blood vessel which increases risk of rupture
E. Varicose Veins
result from incompetent valves allowing blood to pool within the vessel.