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168 Cards in this Set

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Hematology
the study of blood
What type of tissue is blood?
liquid connective tissue
How much of total body weight does blood consist of?
8%
When are fibers present in blood?
only in clotting
What is the matrix of blood?
plasma
What is the salt concentration of blood?
85-90%
Why is blood so high in salt concentration?
because it is used as a medium for osmossis and diffusion
What is higher in temp: blood or your body temp?
blood but only slightly
What is the Ph of blood?
7.35 to 7.45 making it slightly alkaline
What is the volume of blood in the human male?
5 - 6 liters
What is the volume of blood in the human female?
4 - 5 liters
What type of mixture is blood?
heterogeneous
How much of blood is made up of plasma?
55%
Name the componets of blood?
plasma and formed elements
What percent of plasma is made up of water?
90 - 92%
What does the plasma contain?
water, plasma protiens, and solutes
What protiens are found in plasma?
albumin, globulins, fibrogen
What solutes are found in plasma?
respitory gases and nutrients
In blood, how much of it is formed elements?
45%
In blood, what are the formed elements made of?
Erythrocytes, Leukocytes, and Thrombocytes
Erythrocytes
Red Blood Cells
Leukocytes
White Blood Cells
Thrombocytes
platelets
Why do males have more liters of blood than females?
because they have testosterone
Name the functions of blood
transportation, protection, and regulation
What does blood transport?
Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide, nutrients to digestive tract, hormones to target organs, and wastes from cell metabolism to kidneys
What does the blood protect?
blood loss by clotting and infection by phagocytosis and antibody protection
What does the blood regulate?
Ph, body temp, and water and electrolyte balance
What is normal Ph for the human body?
7.4
Name what the "formed elements" of blood are composed of
Erthrocytes, Leukocytes, Thrombocytes
What is another name for Erthrocytes?
Red Blood Cells
What is the function of Erythrocytes?
it transports respitory gases
What is the shape of the Erythrocyte?
bi-concave
Why is the Erythrocyte bi-concave?
because it is anucleate
How many Erythrocytes are there per cubic milliliter?
4.8 - 5.4 million
What is the life span of a Erythrocyte?
120 Days
Why are Erythrocytes flexable?
because they contain spectrin
Spectrin
a protien that allows the Erythrocytes to be flexable
Why is there a need for Erythrocytes to be flexable?
because the capillaries that they travel through are smaller than the actual Erythrocyte
What is the hemoglobin in Erythrocytes composed of?
4 poly peptide chains with an iron containing heme pigment in each
In an Erythrocyte, what is attached to the iron in the heme?
Oxygen
What color is Hemoglobin?
red like the color of blood
What respitory gas does the Erythrocyte specifically transport?
hemoglobin
How much is the Erythrocyte able to carry of the hemoglobin?
200 - 300 million per molecule
Erythropoiesis
The production of red blood cells
Where does Erythropoiesis take place?
in red bone marrow
How fast does the Erythropoiesis take place?
2.4 million are produced per sec
Name the stages of Erythropoiesis
Hemocytoblast, Proerythrocyte, Early Erythrocyte, Late Erythrocyte, Normoblast, Reticulocyte, Erythrocyte
Hemocytoblast
stem cells within the bone marrow multipuly by mitosis to form committed cells called proerythrocytes
Proerythrocytes
they divide by mitosis to produce Early Erythrocytes
Early Erythrocytes
after accumulating large amounts of hemoglobin it becomes a late erythrocyte
What is the difference between the Early and Late Erythrocytes?
the different amounts of ribosomes
Normoblasts
it expels the nucleus and organelles and takes on the shape of bi-concave
Reticulocyte
the non-nucleated cell
When does the Reticulocyte become a Erythrocyte?
after it squeezes through the capillary walls of the bone marrow and mature in circulation
What regulates Erythropoiesis?
hormonal controls and Dietary Controls
What is Erythropoiesis stimulated by?
Erythropoietin
What is Erythropoietin produced by?
the kidney
When is Erythropoietin produced?
RBC count is low, there are insufficient hemoglobin amounts, reduced availability of oxygen
Hypoxia
reduced availability of oxygen
Name the dietary suppliments that are needed for Erythropoiesis
amino acids, lipids, carbohydrates, iron, vitamin B12, and Folic acid
What is needed for hemoglobin production?
iron
What is needed for DNA Synthesis?
Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid
What happens to dying RBC?
they are phagocytized by macrophages
Where are the macrophages that eat dying RBC located?
the liver, spleen, and bone marrow
What part of the dying RBC is broken down for uses in other areas?
hemoglobins
What is hemoglobin broken down into?
heme and globin
What is heme further broken down to?
a) iron b) bilirubin
bilirubin
a yellowish pigment
What is globin broken down into?
amino acids
What happens to the iron after it is broken down?
it is stored in the liver and spleen for re-use
What happens to the amino acids after it is broken down?
they are recycled in the body for re-use
What happens to the bilirubin?
it is secreted into the intestine as a part of bile where it is metabolized and then lost in the feces
What is bilirubin metabolized into while in the intestine?
urobilinogen
Anemia
Decreased RBC counts
Aplastic anemia
failure of bone marrow to function
What is Aplastic Anemia caused by?
ionizing radiation, drug use, some antibiotics, some bacterial toxins, and some poisons
Hemorrhagic
results from excessive blood loss
Hemolytic Anemia
an increase in the rate of destruction of RBCs
Whats another name for Hemolytic Anemia?
hemolysis
Name the types of Anemia in RBC
Aplastic Anemia, Hemorrhagic, Hemolytic Anemia
Name the decreased hemoglobin levels in RBC
Iron Deficiency and Pernicious Anemia
Iron Deficiency
no iron results in small pale erythrocytes
Microcytes
small pale erythrocytes
Pernicious Anemia
Decrease in total numbers because Vitamin B12 deficiency or deficiency of intrinsic factor for Vitimin B12 absorbtion
Name the abnormal hemoglobin levels deficiencys
Thalassemia and Sickle Cell Anemia
Thalassemia
genetically inherited abnormal hemoglobin synthesis
In what race is Thalassemia commonly found?
Mediterranean Ancestry
Sickle Cell Anemia
Genetically inherited abnormal hemoglobin synthesis
In what race is Sickle Cell Anemia found?
African Americans
Polycythemia
excess RBC cause blood to become even more viscous and flows sluggishly
Name the types of Polycythemia
Primary Polycycthemia and Secondary Polycythemia
Primary Polycythemia
often results from bone marrow cancer
Secondary Polycythemia
results from low oxygen concentrations such as high altitudes, lung disease, or smoking
What induces Secondary Polycythemia?
steroids and testosterone
Name the types of tests associated with Erythrocytes
Hematocrit, RBC count, Hemoglobin concentrations, Reticulocytes
What is the normal range for a Hematocrit?
47% for males and 42% for females
What is the function of Leukocytes
fighting infection
How many WBC are there to RBC?
700 to 1
Why can Leukocytes metabilize?
because they have a nuclei
How are Leukocytes able to leave blood vessles?
by diapedesis
Diapedesis
amoeboid movements
What pigment does Leukocytes lack?
Hemoglobin
Name the categories of Leukocytes
Granulocytes and Agranulocytes
Name the types of Granulocytes
Neurtophils, Eosinophils, Basophils
What do Neurtophils do?
phagocytize bacteria
How much of all WBC do Neutrophils account for?
50% - 70%
How much of all WBC do Eosinophils accout for?
2% -4%
What do Eosinophils fight?
allregic reations and paracitic infections
What do Basophils fight?
inflammatory and allergic reations
What do Basophils carry with them??
heparin and histamine
None
What does Heparin and Histamine do while attached to the Basophil?
they dilate the blood vessels while calling other white blood cells to the site
None
What similar cell releases histamine?
mast cells
None
How does a mast cell release histamine?
by binding to an antibody
None
where are mast cells found?
in connective tissues
Name the types of agranulocytes
Lymphocytes and Monocytes
What do Lymphocytes do?
are involved in immunity and the production of B and T Cells
What do Monocytes act as?
phagocytic macrophages
How much of WBC do Monocytes account for?
3% - 8%
Leukopoiesis
formation of White Blood Cells
Where does Leukopoiesis occur?
in red bone marrow
When there is infection and a need of more WBC, what initiates Leukopoiesis?
cytokines
None
Hemocytoblasts diferenciate into what during Leukopoiesis?
Myeloid cells and Lymphoid stem cells
What do Myeloid cells turn into during Leukopoiesis?
Granulocytes and Monocytes
What do Lymphoids turn into during Leukopoiesis?
agranulocytes called Lymphocytes
Leukopenia
abnormally low white blood cell count
What is Leukopenia induced by?
drugs, glucocorticoids, and anti-cancer agents
Leukocytosis
increase in white blood cell count
Infectious Mononucleosis
"Kissing Disease" caused by Epstein-Barr virus resulting in excessive numbers of atypical agranulocytes
Leukemia
cancerous condition of WBC and is named after the predominate cell type Acute Leukemia and Chronic Leukemia
Acute Leukemia
quick advancing cancer dervied from lymphoblasts (young)
Chronic Leukemia
Slow advancing cancer dervied from late stages of myelocytes (old)
What is the function of thrombocytes?
blood clotting
What is the size of a thrombocyte?
half the size of a RBC
How many thrombocytes are there?
250,000 - 400,000 per milliliter
What are thrombocytes larger fragments of?
Megakaryocytes
What is the life span of a Thrombocyte?
5 - 9 days
Name the main stages of Blood Clotting
Vascular Spasms, Platelet Plug, Coagulation
What happens in Vascular spasms>
smooth muscle contraction constricts the blood vessles to reduce blood flow in damaged area
What are Vascular Spasms stimulated by?
endothelin and serotonin
How is the Platelet Plug formed?
platelets stick to the exposed collagen fibers
What is the platelet plug stimulated by?
prostagladins
What stimulates Coagulation?
PF3
Coagulation
formation of a clot which invloves two chemical pathways
Name the pathways involved in Coagulation
Intrinsic and extrinsic
Coagulation is what type of feedback?
positive
Intrinsic
inside the blood vessle
Extrinsic
outside the blood vessle
What type is faster of intrinsic and extrinsic
extrinsic
Name the steps of conversion from insoluable to soluable form
Prothrominase causes cascade of prothrombin to turn into thrombin which calls on the conversion of soluable fibrogen into soluable fibrinogen
After the initial platelets stick to collagen fibers, what calls other platelets to the damaged area?
Thromboxane A2
None
Whats another name for Clot Retraction?
syneresis
Clot Retraction
platelets contract to pull on the surrounding fibrin strands compacting the clot
PDGF
Platelet Derived Growth Factor
What does PDGF do?
stimulates smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts to divide and rebuild the vessle wall
Fibrinolysis
fibrin strands are broken by plasmin
plasmin
a protien that is an inactive enzyme
Thrombus
a clot that develops in an unbroken blood vessel
Embolus
a thrombus that is freely floating in the blood stream
Hemophilia
inability to clot because of missing clotting factor (sex linked) "free bleeders"
Thrombocytopenia
low numbers of circulating platelets causing spontaneous bleeding
Impaired Liver Function
results in vitamin K deficiencies
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
wide spread clotting that occurs in intact vessles and the residual blood becomes unable to clot
Asprin
an antiprostoglandin drug prevents platelet aggregration by inhibiting thromboxane A2
Hemarin
an anticoagulant that inhibits thrombin and its abitily to convert fibrinogen into fibrin
Warfarin
interferes with the action of vitimin K in the production of some clotting factors
Whats another name for Warfarin?
Coumadin
What is Heparin produced by?
basiophills