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94 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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Provide the major force for producing a specific movement
Prime movers
Oppose or reverse a particular movement
Antagonists
Synergists
Add force to a movement
Reduce undesirable or unnecessary movement
Synergists that immobilize a bone or muscle’s origin
Fixators
Muscles of Facial Expression
-Insert into the skin
-Important in nonverbal
communication
-All innervated by cranial nerve VII (facial nerve)
Epicranius
bipartite muscle consisting of the Frontalis and Occipitalis
Alternate
-actions of pulling the scalp forward and backward
Four pairs involved in mastication
Prime movers of jaw closure
-Temporalis and masseter

Grinding movements
-Medial and lateral pterygoids
Buccinator muscles
help by holding food between the teeth
Deep (intrinsic) back muscles
-Erector spinae (sacrospinalis) group—prime movers of back extension and lateral bending

-Semispinalis - extension and rotation
—more superficial muscles that elevate ribs for inspiration
external intercostals
internal incostals
—deeper muscles that aid forced expiration
Diaphragm
Partition between thoracic and abdominal cavities
Most important muscle in inspiration
Pectoralis minor
Serratus anterior
Subclavius
Anterior extrinsic shoulder muscles
Posterior extrinsic shoulder muscles
Trapezius
Levator scpulae
Rhomboids (major and minor)
Produces butterfly curl movement
Moves arms anteriorly
Pectoralis major
Moves arms interiorly from reached positions
Latissimus dorsi
Abduction of the arm
Deltoid
Supraspinatus
Infraspinatus
Teres minor
Subscapularis
Four muscles are rotator cuff muscles
chief forearm flexors
Brachialis and biceps brachii—
Brachioradialis
synergist and stabilizer
prime mover of forearm extension
Triceps brachii
weak synergist
Anconeus—
Flexor carpi radialis
Palmaris longus
Flexor carpi ulnaris
Flexor digitorum
Flexors of the forearm
Extensors of the forearm
Extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis
Extensor digitorum
Extensor carpi ulnaris
Most anterior muscles flex the femur at the hip and extend the leg at the knee (foreswing of walking)
Muscles crossing hip and knee joint
Medial muscles all adduct the ?
thigh
Most posterior muscles extend the thigh and flex the leg
(backswing of walking)
thigh flexors pass in front of the hip joint
iliopsoas: prime mover of flexion
-tensor fasciae latae
-rectus femoris
Quadriceps femoris
sole extensor of the knee
flex the knee, and are antagonists to the quadriceps femoris
hamstring muscles
primary toe extensors and ankle dorsiflexors
-tibilais anterior
-extensor digitorum longus
-fibularis tertius
extends knee and flexes thigh at hip
rectus femoris
vastus lateralis
extends and stablizies knee
vastus medialis
extends and stabilizes knee
sartorius
flexes, adducts, and laterally rotates thigh; flexes knee
adductor longus
adducts and medially rotates as well as flexes thigh
gracilis
adducts thigh; flexes and medially rotates leg
adductor magnus
adducts, medially rotates, and flexes thigh
semimembranosus
extends thigh, flexes knee medially, and rotates leg
semitendinous
extends thigh and flexes knee
bicep femoris
extends thigh; laterally rotates leg, flexes knee
gluteus maximus
complex, powerful thigh extensor, antagonist of iliopsoas, laterally rotates and adducts thigh
gluteus medius
adducts and medially rotates thigh, steadies pelivs during walking
illipsoas
flex trunk and thigh
prime mover of dorsiflexion;inverts foot
tibialis anterior
extensor digitorium longus
prime mover of toe extension, dorsiflexion foot
fibularius longus
plantar flexes and everts foot, helps keep foot flat on the ground
gastrocnemius lateral medial
plantar flexes foot when knee is extended can flex knee
soleus
plantar flexion
flexor hallucis longus
flexes great toe; plantar flexes and inverts foot
flexor digitorum longus
flexes toe; plantar flexes and inverts foot
popliteus
flexes and rotates leg medially to allow extended knee into flexion
deltoid
prime mover of arm abduction
infraspinatus
lateral rotation of humerus, stabilizes shoulder
teres minor
later rotation of humerus, stabilizes shoulder
teres major
extends medially, rotates, and adducts humerus; synergist to lats
supaspinatus
assists adduction of humerusm stabilizes shoulder
biceps brachi
flexion at elbo, supination of forearm
brachialis
major flexion of forearm
triceps brachii
powerful forearm extensor and antagonist to forearm flexors
brachioradialis
synergist in forearm flexion
extensor carpi radialisiongus
extends and adducts wrist
extensor carpi radialis brevis
extends and adducts wrist
pronator teres
pronation of forearm and weak elbow flexor
flexor carpi radialis
powerful flexor of wrist, adducts hand
palmaris longus
flexes wrist, tenses skin and fascia of palm
flexor carpi ulnaris
powerful flexor of wrist, abducts hand
extensor carpi ulnarius
extends and abducts wrist
extensor digiti minimi
extends little finger
extensor digitorium
prime mover of finger extension
supinator
acts with biceps brachii to supinate forearm antagonist to pronator muscles
pronator quadratus
pronates forearm
pectoralis major
prime mover of arm flexion;adducts, medially rotates arm
rectus abdominis
flexes and rotates vertebral column, fixes and depresses ribs, stabilizes pelvis during walking
serratus anterior
moves scapula forward toward chest wall; rotates scapula, abduction and raising of arm
externa oblique
same as rectus abdominus; also aids in trunk rotation and lateral flexion of the trunk
transverus abdominis
compresses abdomen
internal oblique
same as external oblique
trapezius
extends head, raises , rotates, and retracts scapula and stabilizes it, shrugging
infraspinatus
lateral rotation of humerus, stabilizes shoulder,
teres major
extends medially, rotates, and adducts humerus; synergist to "lats"
latissimus dorsi
prime mover of arm extension; adducts and medially rotates arm, depresses scapula
diaphragm
prime mover of respiration
epicranius
frontal raises eyebrows while occipital pulls scal posteriorly
orbicularis oculi
closes eyes, produces blinking, and allows squinting
temporalis
closes jaw, elevates and retracts mandible
orbicularis oris
closes mouth; purses and protrudes lips
zygomatic major
smiling muscle
risorius
synergist to zygomaticus major
mentalis
protrudes lower lip and wrinkles chin
zygomaticus minor
same as zygomaticus major
sternodeidomasetoid
forward flexion of neck and rotates head
omohyoid
depresses larynx and hyoid bone
sternohyoid
depresses larynx and hyoid bone