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72 Cards in this Set

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Name the types of PNS
Sensory and Motor division
Sensory Division
detects stimuli both internal and external
Motor Division
responds to stimuli by movements (muscles) or secretions (glands)
Name the types of Motor Division
Somatic Nervous System and Autonomic Nervous System
Somatic Nervous System
responses that are voluntary
Autonomic Nervous System
responses that are involuntary
What is the Autonomic Nervous System sometimes called?
General Visceral Motor System
(SNS) Effectors
Skeletal Muscle
(SNS) Efferent Pathways and Ganglia
cell bodies of the motor neuron are in the central nervous system and their axons extend in spinal nerves all the way to the skeletal muscles.
(SNS) Utlized Neurotransmitters and their Effectors
acetylcholine is released in the synaptic cleft (neuromuscular junction) where it always excites or stimulates the fibers to contract.
(ANS) Effectors
cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands
(ANS) Efferent Pathways and Ganglia
the motor unit of the ANS is a two neuron chain
(ANS) Utilized neurotransmitters and their effects
Norepinephrine, Epinephrine, Ach
Norepinephrine and Epinephrine and Ach
effect varies according to target tissues
Name the types of ANS
Sympathetic (fight or flight) or Parasympathetic (rest and digest)
How do the Para and sympethic divisions work together?
dual innervations, in other words the two divisions counterbalance each other’s activities in an attempt to maintain homeostasis
None
What are Parasympathetic and Sympathetic seperated by?
Origin and Length of Fibers and location of Ganglia
Origin of Fibers (para)
brain and sacral spinal cord
Origin of Fibers (sym)
Thoracic and Lumbar reigon
Lengths of Fibers (para)
long preganglionic and short postganglionic fibers
Lengths of Fibers (sym)
short preganglionic fibers and long postganglionic fibers
Location of Ganglia (para)
visceral offector organ
Location of Ganglia (sym)
near spinal cord
What is another name of Parasympathetic NS?
Craniosacral Division
Name the nerves of the Cranial Out flow
Oculormotor, Facial, Clossopharyngeal, Vagus
Where does the Oculomotor nerve synapse?
ciliary ganglia
What does the Oculomotor nerve innervate?
causes the pupils to constrict and the pupils to bulge
Where does the Facial nerve synapse?
in two places: pterygopalantine ganglia and Submandibliar ganglia
In the facial nerve, what does the ptergopalantine ganglia innervate?
both the nasal and the lacrimal gland
In the facial nerve, what does the submandibluar ganglia innervate?
the submandibluar and sublingual salivary glands
What does the Glossopharyngral nerve innervate?
parotid salivary gland
Where does the Glossopharyngeal nerve synapse?
otic ganglia
Where does the Vagus nerve synapse?
in the intramural ganglia
intermural ganglia
organs including: heart, lung, gall bladder, stomach, intestine
Whats another name for preganglionic fibers?
pelvic splanchinc nerves
What are the sacral outflow orgins?
preganglionic fibers
Where do preganglionic fibers synapse?
in the intramural ganglia
Name the organs in the Sacral out flow
intestines, bladder, genitalia
Whats another name for Sympathetic System?
Thoracolumbar Division
Name the outflow patterns for an eye in the sympathetic system
ventral root, white ramus, gray ramus, go up/down, synapse in another ganglia
Name the outflow patterns for the heart in the sympathetic system
ventral root, white ramus, synapse in own ganglia, gray matter ventral ramus
Name the Outflow pattern of the stomach in the sympathetic system
ventral root, white ramus, passes through paravertebral, synapse in collateral organ
Name the types of ganglia with in the paravertebral ganglia
superior cervial ganglion, stellate ganglion
What does the superior cervical ganglion influence?
muscles of the iris, nasal and salivary glands, steating,arrector pili muscles, blood vessles, carotid, larynx, pharynx
What does the Stellate Ganglion influence?
heart, aorta, bronchioles, esophagus, and spincter
Name the places that a nerve can synapse outside the ganglia
thoracic splanchnic nerves, lumbar and sacral splanchnic nerves
Name the parts of Thoracic Splanchnic nerve
Celiac and superior mesenteric ganglion
What does the Celiac Ganglion influence?
stomach, adreanal medulla, liver, kidneys, intestines
What does the Superior mesenteric ganglion influence?
decreases; small intestines
Name the parts of the Lumbar and Sacral splanchnic nerves
Inferior Mesenteric ganglion and Hypogastric Ganglion
Name the organs of the Inferior Mesenteric ganglion
large intestines (decresases)
Name the organs of the Hypogastric ganglion
bladder, genitailia
Name the major neurotransmitters of the ANS
Acetyocholine and Norepinephrine
What is the Acetyocholine released by?
all ANS preganglionic axons, parasympathetic postganglionic axons
Cholinergic Fibers
all ANS preganglionic axons, parasympathetic postganglionic axons
What do most sympathetic postganglionic axons release?
NE and are adrenergic fibers
Cholinergic Receptors
bind to Ach and are based on the drug that the mimic
Name the types of Cholinergic Receptors
Nictinic receptors and Muscarinic receptors
Nictinic Receptors are found where?
on all ganglionic neurons, the adrenal medularry cells and skeletal muscles
Where are Muscarinic Receptors found?
found on all parasympathetic target organs and select sympathetic organs (Eccrine sweat glands and blood vessels of skeletal muscle
What does Ach always stimulate?
Nocotinic receptors
What does Ach stimulate or inhibit?
Muscarinic Receptors
What does Adrenergic Receptors bind to?
Adrinaline
Name the types of Aderenergic Receptors
Alpha and Beta
Where is Alpha located?
blood vessles, mucosae, visceral organs, kidneys, salivary glands, and all sympathetic organs except the heart
Where is the Beta located?
within the heart, coronary bloodvessles, kidneys, liver, adipose tissue, lungs
What happens when NE binds to alpha?
it is stimulatory
What happens when NE binds to beta?
its inhibitory
Atropine
an anticholinergic drug blocks parasympathetic effects and is routinely administered to prevent salivation, cause pupil dilation, and to dry up respiratory secretions.
Neostigmine
inhibits acetylcholinesterase. Therefore ACh accumulates in the synapse and muscle contraction is impaired
Ephedrine
is a sympathetic-mimicking drug that stimulates alpha adrenergic receptors
Beta Blockers
are drugs that inhibit the cardiac Beta1 adrenergic receptors. These help to reduce heart rate and arrhythmias without disrupting other sympathetic effects