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227 Cards in this Set

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database which stores settings and options for the operating system for Microsoft Windows 32-bit versions. It contains information and settings for all the hardware, software, users, and preferences of the PC
: This usually indicates an error with the BIOS itself
This message can be caused by an incomplete BIOS flash
BIOS ROM checksum error
I think this error means that you should probably replace the CMOS battery
CMOS battery failed
This would indicate a conflict between that jumper and the CMOS configuration for video
Display Switch is Set Incorrectly
Floppy disk fail
The BIOS cannot find the Floppy Disk Controller (FDC). Troubleshoot the floppy drive and, if there isn’t one, make sure that the CMOS configuration has the floppy drive set to NONE or OFF
Hard disk install failure
Similar to the floppy disk fail message, troubleshoot the hard drive
I/O card failure
This either indicates that an expansion card has failed or has a parity error
This usually occurs if a key is pressed before the keyboard has gone through the POST
Keyboard error or no keyboard present
This would indicate that an error was detected during memory testing. This error message would normally include the type and location of the memory error as well.
Memory test fail
Primary/Secondary or Master/Slave hard disk fail
Again, this would indicate a hard drive issue
100 error code
200 error code
300 error code
Error code 600
error code 1100
1700 error code
3000 error code
A boot failure is typically what
loose or missing component
this should always be your first step in troubleshooting
Usual problems with the CPU deal with what
improper cooling, lack of power, or incompatibility issues with the motherboard and chipset
Some of the symptoms that a CPU is starting to fail are
- The PC won’t boot.
- The PC boots, but the OS will not start.
- The PC crashes.
- The PC has sudden POST parity problems in multiple devices.
- The PC locks up about the same time after being turned on
Some troubleshooting steps you can use to check out the CPU, heatsink, and fan are
- Examine the heatsink and fan to ensure that they are properly seated, the fan is spinning, and that there is no visible damage or cracks.
- If available, try swapping the heatsink and fan with another to see if the problem persists.
- If the problem does continue, try a known good CPU.
If the PC acts like it’s overheating, but it isn’t what is the problem
the problem may be that the BIOS jumper on the motherboard or the BIOS settings for the system timers are incorrectly set
If the CPU and motherboard are using different clock timings what happens
they may become out of synch and cause the system to halt
If the PC is sounding a POST beep code indicating a CPU fault, chances are what
that the CPU isn’t getting the proper amount of power
What are steps to determine if the floppy drive is defective
- Try to read/write to multiple known good media.
- Reseat the cables and verify jumper settings.
- Test the power cable for voltage.
- Make sure the device is seen by the BIOS.
- Make sure it is seen in the OS.
- Create a boot floppy in another system and attempt to boot from it.
- Try a known good ribbon cable.
- Try a known good floppy drive.
- If none of these steps have resolved the issue, you probably have an issue with the OS. This would especially be true if the device is detected by the BIOS, the system will boot from a disk, but it isn’t seen or operable in the OS.
What are steps to determine if the hard drive is defective
- If possible, back up the hard drive before any serious troubleshooting of this device.
- Reseat the cables and verify the jumper settings.
- Test the power cable for voltage.
- Make sure the device is seen by the BIOS.
- Try swapping the hard drive over to the secondary controller.
- Try a known good ribbon cable.
- Try a known good hard drive.
- Try booting from a boot disk into DOS and see if the hard drive is accessible
- If the hard drive is seen by the BIOS and in DOS, you could run diagnostics available from the hard drive manufacturer or, while in DOS, try running FDISK to see if there is an active partition. If there is, run ScanDisk, and Defrag.
- Reinstall the OS
This is generally a loose power or data cable connection
- Hard disk controller failure
This would either be a loose data cable or the CMOS configuration is incorrect
Hard disk configuration error
This message is generated either by a bad power connection to the hard drive or the CMOS configuration is incorrect
Hard disk 0 failure
troubleshooting SCSI hard drives, you should keep in mind what
- CMOS setup: The hard disk drive settings in CMOS should be set to NONE or AUTO-DETECT.
- SCSI device drivers: Make sure the latest drivers are installed.
- Host adapter and hard disk Ids: The host adapter is always device 7 on the SCSI chain, and the first SCSI hard disk drive on the channel should be assigned SCSI ID 0. If there are two or more SCSI hard disks, or other SCSI devices on the same cable, each must have a unique SCSI ID number. This ID is usually set through a three-pole jumper.
- Termination: Remember that both ends of the SCSI chain must be terminated.
If a PC is using both SCSI and IDE hard disks, what must you choose
which is going to be the boot disk
Memory problems on a PC are usually one of three general types of errors
- CONFIGURATION: The amount of memory installed is more than the PC or the OS supports. Or, the CMOS settings are incorrect.
- HARDWARE: Either one of the memory modules is defective or the memory modules being used are incompatible.
- INSTALLATION: The memory chip or modules are not properly seated, a memory slot is bad, or the contacts need to be cleaned
Memory problems typically occur in one of five instances
- When a new PC is turned on the first time
- Immediately after new memory is added
- Immediately after new software or OS is installed/removed
- Immediately after new hardware is installed/removed
- No apparent reason at all
PC doesn’t boot and gives a beep code
Make sure that the memory is correctly seated and that the configuration of the CMOS is as it should be
The PC boots, but no video
The video card isn’t seated correctly, memory isn’t seated correctly, or a incompatible memory module will most commonly cause a blank screen
The PC gives the wrong memory count
This is either memory not being seated properly or, a bad or incompatible memory module.
1. Memory mismatch error
2. Memory parity interrupt at ……..
3. Memory address error at ………
4. Memory failure at …….., read ………., expecting ………
5. Memory verify error at ……..
These errors usually occur after adding new memory to the older memory or a memory module has gone bad
Errors usually occurs when Windows writes part of the registry to a defective portion of a memory module or there is file corruption like a virus
registry error
Exceptions and faults are caused almost entirely by what
an OS or software conflict
These can be caused by dozens of different reasons, including overheating, corrosion, bad power supply, bad CPU, bad motherboard, OS issues, and especially ESD.
Intermittent reboots or system shut downs
If the numbers end –60, the “-“ would indicate that this is what memory
If the numbers end /32, the “/” would indicate that this is what memory
Once configured properly, these types of hardware problems are either caused by device drivers, changed connection settings, another device causing resource conflicts, bad or improper phone line.
you should follow these steps to troubleshoot the video card
- Try your Display Settings (refresh rate and resolution)
- Reseat the video card
- Update the drivers
- Try another video card if possible
- If video issue continues, try known good memory and CPU
- If issue continues still, reinstall OS
- If this still has not resolved the problem, you probably have a bad motherboard
To troubleshoot sound
- Check device manager for any resource conflicts.
- Try to eliminate the speakers as a point of failure.
1. Make sure that the speakers have power to them and
are plugged into the correct port on the sound card.
2. Make sure the volume is turned up on the speakers, and in the audio control panel in Windows.
3. Make sure there are no crimped or pinched wires.
4. If possible, try a known good set of speakers.
- Update the device drivers.
- Check for EMF: Sound cards are susceptible to Electromagnetic Field emissions from other devices. If it is located too close to the power supply or one of the disk drives, the sound card may have problems. Try moving the card to the furthest slot.
- Try a known good sound card if possible.
- Reinstall/repair the OS.
In its’ most basic form, This provides an interface to the hardware and software that makes the system and its’ resources available to the user.
The OS
This mode limist an application to its’ own memory space, but that space can include memory above the 1MB barrier. It gets its’ name from the fact that programs in this mode are protected from other programs desiring its’ memory
Protected Mode
restricts applications to addressing only the first 1MB of RAM
Real Mode
This means that the operating system supports more than one program running at a time
This supports what is called cooperative multitasking, which means that the programs running on the PC are expected to give way when another program requests use of a resource. If a program hogs a certain resource, there is no way of policing it. The other programs have to wait until the program releases the resource needed.
Windows 3.x
This support preemptive multitasking, which gives the OS the authority to suspend a program that is monopolizing a needed resource.
Windows 95 and 98
This means that a PC has more than one processor.
This means that a single program has the ability to create (spawn) several activities under its’ control, all running concurrently.
This divides the work and assigns tasks to each of the different processors, which results in each processor getting better utilization.
Symmetrical Multiprocessing (SMP):
This assigns a particular program or portion of a program to a particular processor that runs the program to its’ end
Asymmetrical Multiprocessing (ASMP):
what are two very distinctive command line formats used for a majority of operating systems:
DOS/Windows command line prompt; and, the shell prompt of the Unix/Linux OS.
what are the differences between 3x and 95
- SETUP AND CONFIGURATION: Windows 95 could be installed from a network server or from a CD-ROM and included auto-detection of hardware and Plug and Play support during setup.
- Improved GUI
- Protected mode
- 32-bit application support
- Peer-to-peer networking
- Virtual Machine: Windows 95 implemented the concept of the virtual machine, which allowed it to run applications from other operating systems (mainly DOS and Windows 3.x) in a nearly native environment
This file contains the essential operating system functions, including memory, file, and I/O management, and application support
This file controls the user interface including the mouse, keyboard, I/O ports, and the desktop layout.
This manages graphics and controls printing.
The primary components of the Windows Application Programming Interface (API)
a utility that is available on Windows 9x, monitors
the utilization of Windows’ resources by all the applications,applets, and utilities running on the system
Resource Meter
Differences between 98 and 98SE
device support, and added a few new features, including Internet Connection Sharing (ICS).
Windows 98 included support for several new devices, including what
1. USB
2. IEEE 1394 (FireWire)
3. DVD Drives
4. TV Tuners
5. Multiple Monitors
6. On Now and ACPI, which allow for sleep and standby modes instead of powering down.
is actually an updated version of Windows 98 that some refer to as Windows 98 TE (3rd Edition).
Windows ME
four distinctive versions of Windows 2000
Professional, Server, Advanced Server, and Datacenter Server. We only need to focus on Professional and Server.
before installing Win 2K on any system, check what
Win 2K hardware compatibility list (HCL).
order to display the version number of the OS installed, go to
System Properties window and look on the general tab. . If you are not familiar with this, right click on My Computer, and left click on Properties. On Win 2K, you can also click on Start – Run, and type winver in the Run box, and press Enter
This file is used to load real-mode drivers when a protected-mode driver is unavailable.
- is mostly empty with its’ functions covered by the IO.SYS file.
A logged record of the Windows 9x boot sequence that is created when a logged boot is requested
Like the AUTOEXEC.BAT file, this file is used only on Windows 9x systems to load real-mode device drivers. Most of what the file did for DOS and Windows 3.x is now performed in the IO.SYS file.
This log tracks the automatic hardware-detection processes in Windows 9x. Each time a new piece of hardware is detected, an entry is made to this file. If the system crashes during the detection process, Windows uses this file to determine the source of the problem.
This file is the Windows 9x equivalent of the DOS IO.SYS, MSDOS.SYS, CONFIG.SYS, and AUTOEXEC.BAT files, all rolled into one
This is actually the 320 x 400 bit-mapped wallpaper that is displayed during the boot sequence
Unlike its’ DOS predecessor, the Windows 9x file is a text file that contains the paths of other Windows’ files and any modifications made to the boot process.
A log file that records the results of the most recent ScanDisk operation that is overwritten each time the disk utility is used
A log file record that is created and updated during the installation process of Windows 9x by the Setup program. Should Setup crash, Windows uses this file to help identify the problem
This file is not used on Windows NT or Windows 2000 systems
This indicates that DOS should be loaded into the high memory area.
This enables real-mode memory managers, specifically EMM386.EXE.
This must be loaded before Windows 9x can start up.
This command enables file and print sharing and 32-bit disk access.
This command allows the OS to appear to be whatever OS version a legacy application requires, which is typically a DOS version
This sets the number of File Control Blocks (FCBs) that the system can have open at one time
This sets the permanent (/P) command interpreter for the system. This prevents the command interpreter from being unloaded from memory.
This command sets the number of DOS file handles.
This commmand sets the highest drive letter that can be assigned to a device or a network drive
This sets the number of file buffers the system should create
This sets the number and size of stack frames.
To override any setting in the IO.SYS file, enter the command into what
This command assigns the folder for temporary files.
This command and its’ two parameters adds the two pathnames to the DOS search path.
This command specifies the location of the command interpreter file.
(NT Loader) This is the bootstrap loader program
This contains information on the operating systems that the PC could boot to
This file Contains information on operating systems other than Windows 2000
This collects data on the current hardware configuration for use in building the Registry key
This loads the Windows 2000 kernel.
This is the Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) data libraries.
This file is the native DOS/Windows device driver for the CD-ROM drive
Simply pressing F8 key after the message “Starting Windows 9x” appears does what
boot into safe mode
If Windows won’t boot into safe mode, one of the following problems may exist
- The CMOS settings are incorrect.
- A hardware conflict exists, such as advanced BIOS settings, IRQ conflicts, duplicated COM ports, or defective memory modules.
- The MSDOS.SYS file contains an erroneous setting.
- The video drivers are not compatible
This command is used to display and modify a file’s Attributes
This attribute indicates a file that is marked to be backed up.
two or more PCs that have been connected together for the purposes of exchanging data and sharing resources
This type of network includes two or more PCs connected to share data, printers, or other resources.
Peer-to-Peer Network
A small business or corporate department may install this network interconnecting anywhere from two to hundreds of PCs, using permanently installed cabling or even wireless technologies.
Local Area Network (LAN)
A corporation may maintain this network using dial-up, leased, or other dedicated communication means.
The geometric arrange of any network
any communications-based system must have an established set of rules called this
These are data, messages, and tokens that are transmitted on any network must conform to the size and format prescribed under the network’s protocol.
Data Packets
Nodes on a network are connected by twisted-pair copper wire, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, or wireless radio wave connection
A network computer from which workstations (clients) access and share files, printers, communications, and other services.
A personal computer that runs application or utility software and uses data stored locally or provided by a network server to which it is connected by a cable or media.
A group of network servers and devices that appear to end-users as a single network
Windows NT/2000 domain
An element of the Domain Name Server (DNS) naming hierarchy.
Internet Domain
The memory segment within NetWare used to separate NetWare Loadable Modules (NLMs) from the OS.
NetWare Domain
On a domain, one server is designated as what
the Primary Domain
Controller (PDC)
This server
maintains the user account database for the
Backup Domain
Controller (BDC)
access any resource on a domain, a user needs two things
appropriate access permissions and the share name of the device.
This server Stores network users' data files
File Server
Manages the printers connected to the network and the printing of user documents on the network printers
Print Server
This server Handles many common communications functions for the network, such as e-mail, fax, or Internet
Communications Server
This server shares network-enabled versions of common application software and eliminates the need for software to be installed on each workstation
Application Server
This server manages a common database for the network, handling all data storage, database management, and requests for data
Database Server
is used to extend the signal distance of the cable by regenerating the signal
receives a signal from one port and passes it on to all of its other ports and therefore to the device or workstation attached to the port
This routes data across networks using the logical or
network address of a message to determine the path it should take to arrive at its’ destination
This is used to connect two different LANs or two similar network segments to make them operate as though they were one network.
This device sends it out only to the port on which the addressee workstation exists based on a MAC table created by listening to the nodes on the network.
A combination of hardware and software that enables two networks with different protocols to communicate with one
Three different types of gateways exist
Address gateway; Protocol gateway; and, Format gateway.
Connects networks with different directory structures and file management techniques
Address gateway
Connects networks that use different protocols. This is the most common gateway type.
Protocol gateway
This type of gateway Connects networks using different data format schemes, such as ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) and EBCDIC (Extended Binary-Coded Decimal Interchange Code).
Format gateway
is a physical and logical link for a PC to a network.
Each NIC is physically encoded with a unique identifying address that is used to locate it on the network.
This address is 48 bits long.
MAC Address
A NIC commonly uses IRQ 3, 5, or 10, and an I/O address of what
The NIC card must be compatible to what
to the data speed of the network
This topology contains a laser or diode transceiver that converts its’ digital data into light to be transmitted on a fiber-optic network or back to a digital signal from incoming light impulses for use by the PC.
Fiber Distributed Data Interface FDDI
A Ring topology, which is created when a PC is connected directly to the next PC in line, forming a circle in cable.
As a PC receives a signal, it either acts on it, or regenerates it and passes it along.
A small packet, called a token, is passed around the ring to each PC in turn.
Token ring
This is the most common on a bus topology
This combines the address of the network and the node into a 32-bit address that is expressed as 4 8-bit octets.
IP (Internet protocol) address
This is a protocol used to automatically configure a network workstation with its
IP address data.
DHCP: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
This is used to resolve (translate)Internet names to their IP address equivalents
DNS: A Domain Name System
This is Microsoft’s network name resolution software that converts NetBIOS names to IP addresses.
WINS: The Windows Internet Naming Service
When a new workstation is added to an Ethernet network, it identifies itself using its’ what
MAC address and computer name
Used to connect and manage network communications over a modem
Point-to-Point Protocol
The backbone protocol suite of the Internet
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
The standard protocol of the Novell NetWare OS
Internet/Sequenced (Packet Exchange) IPX/SPX
A MS protocol used only by Windows systems for LANs with no external connections (non-routable)
NetBIOS Extended User Interface NetBEUI
Used to send and receive files in client/server mode, to or from a remote host
File Transfer Protocol FTP
Used to send WWW documents, which are usually encode in HTML, across a network
Hypertext Transfer Protocol HTTP
Allows the network node to access network drives as if they were local
Network File Services NFS
Used to send e-mail across a network
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol SMTP
Used to connect and login to a remote host
Telnet Telnet
converts the digital data signal of the PC into the analog data signal used on the POTS (plain old telephone system), which is also known as PTSN (public telephone switched network).
This type of modem is an internal PnP device that requires a device driver provided by the Windows OS to
function properly.
The modem code that Dials the telephone number represented by x.
AT DT xxx-xxxx
Hang up (on hook
Speaker loudness (volume)
Resets the modem to its’ default settings
If the internal modem will not begin the dial-up process, the problem is probably what
either a resource conflict or a device driver problem
Any Windows 9x PC that uses a modem to connect to a network (LAN, WAN, or Internet), uses what
dial-up networking (DUN).
This will allow a PC to communicate with specific network operating systems
These include specialized drivers that enable specialized abilities, like File and Print Sharing, and
support for file systems on non-Windows systems.
This command line utility displays the current configuration for a PC connected to a TCP/IP network.
This is an Internet utility that is used to determine whether an IP address is online or reachable.
PING: The Packet Internet Groper
This TCP/IP utility is used to determine the path in use between one network point and another and if any problems exist along that path
The highest possible IP address is
This is an included feature in Windows 98 SE and 2000 Pro that allows home and small office users to share a single Internet connection.
Internet Connection Sharing (ICS)
This file is not required for DOS or Windows to start up
This file displays the DOS command prompt, contains the internal DOS commands, and is required for DOS and Windows 3.x to boot
This file enables expanded memory and the use of upper memory as system memory.
The boot sequence for a DOS system is
DOS memory is divided into
conventional memory (640K), expanded or upper memory (384K), and extended memory (over 1,024K) areas.
- To boot to a DOS command prompt, only these files are required to load
Program icons are arranged in what type of files in 3x
Group files (GRP)
Thes files in 3x are initiation files that contain startup parameters for Windows and application.
This file in 3x controls how the desktop looks and how file types are associated
Device drivers in 3x are identified in what file
The desktop windows in 3x are defined in what file
Windows 3.x filenames are limited to what
eight characters plus a three-character extension
A feature concerning filenames of both FAT16 and FAT 32 on Windows 9x is
long filenames (LFNs).
Before installing or upgrading any Windows version, it is always a good idea to create what
full backup
An internal file used by Win 9x to recover from a crash during installation
This file, found in the Windows directory, contains the results of auto-detecting a modem on the PC
This lists the results of the network software startup.
This contains a log of Setup’s actions before and after hardware detection
What should be aware of when creating a dual-boot in 9x
Enough disk space must be available to support both operating systems.
Win 9x must be in its’ own directory with no other version of Windows present
To select which OS should boot, what command prompt should be added to MSDOS
This file is the command processor for DOS and Windows 9x.
This file is the device driver for extended and high memory. If it is not loaded during startup, Windows 9x displays an error message and boots to a command prompt
This file contains many of the commands and actions that were previously run from the CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT files in DOS and Win 3.x.
This text file contains a number of startup and configuration variables and settings, including the BootMulti and BootMenu parameters used to indicate a system with multiple operating systems.
This is the Registry file that is used with Win 3.x systems.
These are the two files in the Registry for a Win 98 and NT/2000 system
System.DAT User.Dat
This system initialization file describes a PC’s system environment, including device drivers, how DOS applications are executed, and internal Windows settings
This file is created during the Win 9x setup. It includes all virtual device drivers (VXDs) required by the system. It is much faster at startup to load this one large VXD file than each of the individual drivers.
Whenever a driver cannot be loaded or Win 9x simply skips loading a driver, it is recorded in a log file. This command displays the log file
Automatic Skip Driver
This utility can be used to check FAT and directory errors on a disk. The /F option is required to fix any errors found.
This is a DOS/Windows utility that can be used to modify or create a text file.
This is a command line utility, which means that it doesn’t have a GUI display; it’s used to extract and uncompress a file or multiple files from a compressed disk
This command line utility opens a window that displays about everything you’d ever want to know about the hardware configuration and utilization of your PC.
This Win 9x command, which is started from the Run box on the Start menu, opens a window that contains a variety of tabs. Each tab shows the data and current selections of a number of system files. The General tab of this window controls the process used during the OS startup.
This command, which is executed from the Start menu’s Run box, is the Registry editor for 16-bit Windows systems
This is the Registry editor for 32-bit Windows systems
This is used to find and repair errors on the disk, including the file system structure, and rebuild the file allocation table, as well as the directory tree structure.
Win 98 and ME include a very flexible Registry tool that can be used to backup and restore Registry files.
This is short for system configuration editor. This utility is used to view or edit system files, including the AUTOEXEC.BAT and CONFIG.SYS files, and the WIN.INI, SYSTEM.INI, and PROTOCOL.INI initialization files. Each file is opened in a separate window.
This Win 98 and 2000 utility enables you to run scripts in Windows.
The DOS PATH= statement that is placed in the AUTOEXEC.BAT file establishes what
where the OS is to look for the command-line files
Missing operating system error
The MBR can’t find a bootable partition. Either the disk hasn’t been formatted and had the OS copied to it, or a virus has infected the partition table or MBR. It is also possible that the partition just may not be marked as active.
Non-system disk or drive, replace and press any key to continue error
This normally means that you forgot and left a floppy disk in the drive when you rebooted the PC
Incorrect DOS version error
The COMMAND.COM file in the root directory of the boot disk is an incorrect or incompatible version. Either replace it with the correct version or use the SETVER command.
Bad or missing DRIVER.DRV error
If the CONFIG.SYS file can’t load a device driver, it issues this message, replacing DRIVER with the name of the missing driver.
HIMEM.SYS not loaded
Win 3.x will not run unless
HIMEM.SYS is loaded
. Correct the CONFIG.SYS statement that loads this file.
If Win 9x won’t boot into Safe Mode, the system may have
- The CMOS settings are incorrect.
- There is a hardware conflict, such as advanced BIOS settings, IRQ conflicts, duplicated COM ports, or a defective memory module.
- The MSDOS.SYS file contains an erroneous setting.
- You need to set the video drivers to either VGA.DRV or VGA.VXD.
OE errors refer to what
bad memory
OD errors are what
video problems
What two errors produce blue screen of death
OE or OD
To avoid problems with BSOD, what should you do
boot in safe mode
General Protection Fault in USER.EXE error
The User core component has run out of file space. Add the line FILES=100 to the CONFIG.SYS file.
Out of memory error
This error is caused by memory leaks (programs that end without releasing their memory allocations). Reboot the system and reduce the activity on the system.
The startup stops at a point after the POST, but before Windows starts error
Run FDISK from a command line prompt with a /MBR option to rebuild the MBR. You may want to scan the disk with an anti-virus program first, because it is likely that the problem is a boot virus or some other issue with the MBR.