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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
2 main features of neuron:
1. Dynamic polarization
2. Connectional specificity
2 parts to neuron soma:
-Nucleus/cytoplasmic organelles
-Axon hillock
What is in the cytoplasm/nucleus??
-Nissl substance
What type of nucleus do glial cells have?
What is nissl substance?
Stacked RER that stains with nissl stain - indicates active protein synthesis.
What is not in the axon hillock?
Nissl substance
What type of neurons have basal dendrites?
2 Types of dendrites:
-Apical - extends away from axon
-Basal - off the sides of soma
Characteristics of the Axon cytoplasm:
-No Ribosomes
What occurs at the initial segment of the Axon
Initiation of APs
What are varicosities?
Presynaptic swellings at the terminals of axons that pass impulse to OTHER NEURONS - not the target.
Unipolar or pseudounipolar neurons are usually:
Sensory ganglion neurons
Bipolar neurons are usually:
Retina or olfactory
Multipolar neurons are:
(3 examples)
The most common ones...
-Pyramidal neurons in cerebral cortex
-Purkinje cells in cerebellum
-Motor neurons in SC
Type of axons in:
-Golgi type I neurons
-Golgi type II neurons
I: long/project

II: short/connect
How many can a neuron have?
one or many dendrites
only one axon
Organelles that dendrites can have:
All except golgi
Organelles that axons can have
Shape of Dendrites
taper w/ spines
Shape of axons
cylinder with branches
What is myelinated?
Axons not dendrites
What type of neurons don't have dendrites?
What uses the most energy; axons or dendrites?
Energy use in axons:
LOW energy consumption
3 Main features of Neuron cell membranes:
-Maintains resting Em
-Electrically excitable
-Has ion pumps/channels
What color is nissl substance and where is it found?
Basophilic - anywhere EXCEPT axon hillock or axon.
Is nissl substance seen in dendrites?
3 constituents of the Neuron cytoskeleton:
1. Actin microfilaments
2. Neurofilaments (intermediate)
3. Microtubules
Microfilament features
made of what
-Where in neurons
5-8 nm diameter - made of 2 Actin strands braided together (G->F)
-associated w/ membrane
Neurofilament features
-what are they
-where in neuron
Neuron-specific intermediate filaments
10 nm in diameter
-in soma, dendrites, & axons.
What important disease is associated with intermediate neurofilaments?
Alzheimer's disease - neurofibrillary tangles
What are Neurofibrils?
Aggregates of neurofilaments seen at light microscope level
25 nm diameter
-Tubulin chains
-Function in axonal/dendritic transport of stuff
Function of microtubules
GTPase for transport
What are MAPs
Microtubule associated proteins
3 High MW MAPs:
What is Kinesin?
Motor/ATPase that propels organelles along microtubules.
What stabilizes microtubules?
What depolymerizes Microtubules?
What is the function of lysosomes in neurons?
Membrane turnover
What is lipofuscin?
Indigestible lysosome material - pigented inclusions associated with aging and dementia
Why do neurons need special transport mechanisms?
B/c no protein transport in axons, and junk needs to be returned from axons too.
3 types of neuron transport:
1. Slow axonal - only antero
2/3. Fast axonal - antero/retro
Stuff transported by SLOW axonal transport:
-Microtubules, neurofilaments, soluble proteins (slower)
-Proteins, metabolic enzymes, Calmodulin (faster)
Major difference between slow and fast anterograde transport:
Fast needs ENERGY
Main protein needed for fast anterotransport:
KINESIN -> a MAP that is an ATPase to motor junk along
What inhibits kinesin?
What gets transported by fast anterotransport?
-Subcellular organelles
-Synaptic vesicle precursors
-Smooth ER vesicles/contents
Major protein for fast RETROgrade transport:
Stuff that gets transported by Dynein/retrotransport:
-Stuff that's dying
-Stuff for being reused
-Stuff endocytosed at nerve terminal
What's a bad thing about retrograde transport?
Viruses and toxins take advantage of it
What is HRP
Horseradish peroxidase - a retrograde tracer to see where the cell body is of a long axon
Towards which end of the MT and neuron does dynein go?
Towards the neg end of MT at the neuron's cell body.
Towards which end of the MT and neuron does kinesin go?
Towards the pos end of MT at the neuron's axon terminal.