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74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Edema is excess accumulation of fluid in the:
a) intracellular compartment
b) extracellular compartment
c) intravascular compartment
d) interstitial fluids
interstitial fluids

fluid that is between the cells & blood vessels
Localized edema occurs as a result of?

Name 3
traumatic injury from accidents or surgery

a local inflammatory process

burns
Generalized edema is an excessive accumulation of fluid in the ______ space throughout the body.

This occurs as a result of conditions such as?

Name 3
interstitial space

cardiac failure
renal failure
liver failure
Generalized edema is also known as?
Anasarca
Total body fluid amounts to about ___% of body weight?

a) 10%
b) 20%
c) 60%
d) 80%
60%
Body cells must have fluids & electrolytes in the right compartments & in the right amounts to function properly.

Name the 4 body compartments.
Intracellular
extracellular
Intravascular
Interstitial
All fluids inside the cells are referred to as:

a) intracellular fluid
b) extracellular fluid
c) intravascular fluid
d) interstitial fluid
intracellular fluid
All fluids outside the cells are referred to as:

a) intracellular fluid
b) extracellular fluid
c) intravascular fluid
d) interstitial fluid
extracellular fluid
FLuid that is within blood vessels is referred to as:

a) intracellular fluid
b) extracellular fluid
c) intravascular fluid
d) interstitial fluid
intravascular fluid
Fluid that is between the cells & blood vessels is referred to as?

a) intracellular fluid
b) extracellular fluid
c) intravascular fluid
d) interstitial fluid
interstitial fluid
Each body fluid ______ has a particular composition of electrolytes that are different from other compartments. Body cells must have fluids & electrolytes in the right compartments & in the right amounts.

Whenever an electrolyte moves out of a cell, another electrolyte moves in to ______?

These compartments are separated by ___________?
compartment

take it's place

semipermeable membranes
The accumulation & sequestration of trapped extracellular fluid in an actual or potential body space as a result of disease or injury is called?
Third-spacing
Trapped fluid, also known as third-spacing, represents_____ & is ____ for normal physiological precesses:

a)fluid vol loss & available
b)fluid vol excess & available
c) fluid vol loss & unavailable
d) fluid vol excess & unavailable
fluid vol loss & unavailable
Body fluid that is difficult to assess & may not be reflected in weight changes or I & O records & may not become apparant until after organ malfunction occurs is?

a) Intracellular
b) extracellular
c) intravascular
d) interstitial
intravascular
A loss of ___% of body fluid in an adult is serious & a loss of ___% is fatal:

a) 5% / 10%
b) 10% / 20%
c) 15% / 20%
d) 20% / 30%
10% / 20%
Interstitial fluids are separated from intravascular fluids by ____ permeable cell membranes.

a) permeable
b) selectivley

The greater the number of particles in the concentrated solution, the ____ pull there will be to move the ____ through the membrane.

a) more / particles
b) less / particles
c) more / water
d) less / water
"selectively"
Interstitial fluids are separated from intravascular fluids by SELECTIVELY permeable cell membranes.

" more / water"
The greater the number of particles in the concentrated solution, the MORE pull there will be to move the WATER through the membrane.
If the body loses more electrolytes than fluids, as with diarrhea, then the ____ fluid will contain fewer electrolytes or less solute than the ____.

a) extracellular/intracellular
b) intracellular/extracellular
extracellular / intracellular

If the body loses more electrolytes than fluids as with diarrhea, then the EXTRACELLULAR fluid will contain fewer electrolytes or less solute than the INTRACELLULAR.
When solutions on both sides of a selectively permeable membrane establish equallibrium they are?
isotonic
When a solution has a lower concentration of salt or solutes than other solutions it is?
hypotonic

has less salt or more water than a isotonic solution
A solution with a higher concentration of solutes than another solution it is?
hypertonic
Identify the hypotonic solution:

a) 10% dextrose in water
b) 5% dextrose in 0.225% saline
c) 0.9% saline
d) 0.45% saline
0.45% saline
Identify the hypertonic solution:

a) 10% dextrose in water
b) 5% dextrose in 0.225% saline
c) 0.9% saline
d) 0.45% saline
10% dextrose in water
Identify the 2 different isotonic solutions:

a) 10% dextrose in water
b) 5% dextrose in 0.225% saline
c) 0.9% saline
d) 0.45% saline
5% dextrose in 0.225% saline

0.9% saline
All of the following are hypertonic solutions except:

a) 10% dextrose in water
b) 5% dextrose in 0.9% saline
c) 5% dextrose in 0.45% saline
d) 5% dextrose in 0.225% saline
5% dextrose in 0.225% saline
(this is isotonic)
All of the following are isotonic solutions except:

a) 0.9% saline
b) 10% dextrose in water
c) 5% dextrose in LR
d) 5% dextrose in 0.225% saline
5% dextrose in LR
(this is hypertonic)
Identify the approximate daily amount of body fluid lost or excreted by diffusion from the skin:

a) 400ml
b) 100ml
c) 350 ml
d) 150 ml
e) 1500ml
400ml
Identify the approximate daily amount of body fluid lost or excreted by perspiration from the skin:

a) 400ml
b) 100ml
c) 350 ml
d) 150 ml
e) 1500ml
100ml
Identify the approximate daily amount of body fluid lost or excreted by the lungs:

a) 400ml
b) 100ml
c) 350 ml
d) 150 ml
e) 1500ml
350 ml
Identify the approximate daily amount of body fluid lost or excreted by feces:

a) 400ml
b) 100ml
c) 350 ml
d) 150 ml
e) 1500ml
150 ml
Identify the approximate daily amount of body fluid lost or excreted by the kidneys:

a) 500ml
b) 1000ml
c) 1500ml
d) 2000ml
e) 2500ml
1500ml
Water enters the body orally, water from foods, & water formed by the oxidation of foods. The avg total amount of water taken into the body daily is approximately:

a) 500 ml
b) 1000 ml
c) 1500 ml
d) 2000 ml
e) 2500 ml
2500 ml
The amount of water released by the metabolism of each 100 calories of fat, carbohydrates, or proteins is approximately:

a) 2ml
b) 5ml
c) 10ml
d) 15ml
10ml
Kidneys play a major role in controlling all types of balance in fluid & _______.
Electrolytes
The secretion of aldosterone, from the adrenal glands, aid in controlling ____ fluid volume by regulating the amount of Na ______ by the kidneys.

a) intracellular/reabsorbed
b) extracellular/reabsorbed
c) intracellular/excreted
d) extracellular excreted
extracellular/reabsorbed

The secretion of aldosterone, from the adrenal glands, aid in controlling EXTRACELLULAR fluid volume by regulating the amount of Na REABSORBEED by the kidneys.
ADH from the pituitary regulates the osmotic pressure of extracellular fluid by regulating the amount of _____ _____ by the kidney.

a) electrolytes/excreted
b) electrolytes reabsorbed
c) water/excreted
d) water/reabsorbed
ADH from the pituitary regulates the osmotic pressure of extracellular fluid by regulating the amount of WATER REABSORBED by the kidney.
When the body's fluid intake is not sufficient to meet the body's needs it is called?
dehydration / fluid vol deficit
The goal of fluid vol deficit is to?

___ fluid volume

___ electrolytes as needed

___ the cause of fluid vol deficit
restore fluid vol

replace electrolytes

eliminate the cause
Patient's undergoing GI suctioning & GI irrigation is at risk for?

a) fluid vol deficit
b) fluid vol excess
fluid vol deficit
Patient's experiencing ileostomy or colostomy drainage is at risk for?

a) fluid vol deficit
b) fluid vol excess
fluid vol deficit
Draining wounds, burns, or fistulas put a patient at risk for?

a) fluid vol deficit
b) fluid vol excess
fluid vol deficit
Increased hematocrit & increased specific gravity of the urine is indicative of:

a) fluid vol excess
b) fluid vol deficit

Tx is?
fluid vol deficit

treat cause
LR, 0.9% NS
VS, weight, turgor, membranes
I&O's & test specific gravity
hematocrit & electrolytes
Increased heart rate, a thready pulse, and postural hypotension are indicative of:

a) fluid vol excess
b) fluid vol deficit

Tx is?
fluid vol deficit

treat cause
LR, 0.9% NS
VS, weight, turgor, membranes
I&O's & test specific gravity
hematocrit & electrolytes
A patient experiencing rapid weight loss, dizziness, weakness, & confusion may be experiencing:

a) fluid vol excess
b) fluid vol deficit

TX is?
fluid vol deficit

treat cause
LR, 0.9% NS
VS, weight, turgor, membranes
I&O's & test specific gravity
hematocrit & electrolytes
A patient with increased hematocrit, increased specific gravity of the urine, & increased heart rate with a thready pulse & postural hypotension is indicative of?

a) fluid vol excess
b) fluid vol deficit

TX for this patient is?
fluid vol deficit

treat cause
LR, 0.9% NS
VS, weight, turgor, membranes
I&O's & test specific gravity
hematocrit & electrolytes
Increased heart rate, specific gravity & hematocrit with a decreases urine vol that is dark & concentrated is indicative of:

a) fluid vol excess
b) fluid vol deficit

Tx is?
fluid vol deficit

treat cause
LR, 0.9% NS
VS, weight, turgor, membranes
I&O's & test specific gravity
hematocrit & electrolytes
A patient with increased respirations, heart rate, blood pressure & a decreased hematocrit is experiencing:

a) fluid vol excess
b) fluid vol deficit

Tx is?
fluid vol excess

semi-Fowlers
VS, check for edema, I&O's
Daily weight & low sodium
restrict fluids
hematocrit & electrolytes
Cough & dyspnea, crackles, pitting edema & weight gain are all signs & symptoms of:

a) fluid vol excess
b) fluid vol deficit

Tx is?
fluid vol excess

semi-Fowlers
VS, check for edema, I&O's
Daily weight & low sodium
restrict fluids
hematocrit & electrolytes
JVD, a decreased hematocrit, & bounding pulse are signs & symptoms of?

a) fluid vol excess
b) fluid vol deficit

Tx is?
fluid vol excess

semi-Fowlers
VS, check for edema, I&O's
Daily weight & low sodium
restrict fluids
hematocrit & electrolytes
Increased heart rate & blood pressure, a decreased hematocrit & confusion are signs & symptoms of:

a) fluid vol excess
b) fluid vol deficit

Tx is?
fluid vol excess

semi-Fowlers
VS, check for edema, I&O's
Daily weight & low sodium
restrict fluids
hematocrit & electrolytes
Neck & hand vein distention is a sign of:

a) fluid vol excess
b) fluid vol deficit

Tx is?
fluid vol excess

semi-Fowlers
VS, check for edema, I&O's
Daily weight & low sodium
restrict fluids
hematocrit & electrolytes
Potassium:

a) 1.6 - 2.6
b) 2.7 - 4.5
c) 3.5 - 5.1
d) 8.6 - 10
e) 96 - 106
f) 135 - 145
Potassium 3.5 - 5.1

Mg 1.6 - 2.6
PO4 2.7 - 4.5
K+ 3.5 - 5.1
Ca+ 8.6 - 10
Cl- 96 - 106
Na+ 135 - 145
Magnesium:

a) 1.6 - 2.6
b) 2.7 - 4.5
c) 3.5 - 5.1
d) 8.6 - 10
e) 96 - 106
f) 135 - 145
Magnesium 1.6 - 2.6

Mg 1.6 - 2.6
PO4 2.7 - 4.5
K+ 3.5 - 5.1
Ca+ 8.6 - 10
Cl- 96 - 106
Na+ 135 - 145
Phosphorus:

a) 1.6 - 2.6
b) 2.7 - 4.5
c) 3.5 - 5.1
d) 8.6 - 10
e) 96 - 106
f) 135 - 145
Phosphorus 2.7 - 4.5

Mg 1.6 - 2.6
PO4 2.7 - 4.5
K+ 3.5 - 5.1
Ca+ 8.6 - 10
Cl- 96 - 106
Na+ 135 - 145
Calcium:

a) 1.6 - 2.6
b) 2.7 - 4.5
c) 3.5 - 5.1
d) 8.6 - 10
e) 96 - 106
f) 135 - 145
Calcium 8.6 - 10

Mg 1.6 - 2.6
PO4 2.7 - 4.5
K+ 3.5 - 5.1
Ca+ 8.6 - 10
Cl- 96 - 106
Na+ 135 - 145
Chloride:

a) 1.6 - 2.6
b) 2.7 - 4.5
c) 3.5 - 5.1
d) 8.6 - 10
e) 96 - 106
f) 135 - 145
Chloride 96 -106

Mg 1.6 - 2.6
PO4 2.7 - 4.5
K+ 3.5 - 5.1
Ca+ 8.6 - 10
Cl- 96 - 106
Na+ 135 - 145
Sodium:

a) 1.6 - 2.6
b) 2.7 - 4.5
c) 3.5 - 5.1
d) 8.6 - 10
e) 96 - 106
f) 135 - 145
Sodium 135 - 145

Mg 1.6 - 2.6
PO4 2.7 - 4.5
K+ 3.5 - 5.1
Ca+ 8.6 - 10
Cl- 96 - 106
Na+ 135 - 145
Hypokalemia is a potassium level below:

a) 1.6
b) 2.7
c) 3.5
d) 8.6
e) 96
f) 135
K+ normal range is 3.5 - 5.1
Hyperkalemia is a potassium level above:

a) 2.6
b) 4.5
c) 5.1
d) 10
e) 106
f 145
K+ normal range is 3.5 - 5.1
Potassium is:

a) intracellular
b) extracellular
Remember: "Enter Camp"

this means: intra KMP
K+, Mg, PO4

Remember: "extra NCC please!"

this means: extra cellular NCC
Na, Ca+ Cl
Hypocalcemia is below:

a) 1.6
b) 2.7
c) 3.5
d) 8.6
e) 96
f) 135
Hypocalcemia is below 8.6

Mg 1.6 - 2.6
PO4 2.7 - 4.5
K+ 3.5 - 5.1
Ca+ 8.6 - 10
Cl- 96 - 106
Na+ 135 - 145
Hypercalcemia is above:

a) 2.6
b) 4.5
c) 5.1
d) 10
e) 106
f) 145
Hypercalcemia is above 10

Mg 1.6 - 2.6
PO4 2.7 - 4.5
K+ 3.5 - 5.1
Ca+ 8.6 - 10
Cl- 96 - 106
Na+ 135 - 145
Hypophosphotemia is below:

a) 1.6
b) 2.7
c) 3.5
d) 8.6
e) 96
f) 135
Hypophosphotemia is below 2.7

Mg 1.6 - 2.6
PO4 2.7 - 4.5
K+ 3.5 - 5.1
Ca+ 8.6 - 10
Cl- 96 - 106
Na+ 135 - 145
Hyperphosphotemia is above:

a) 2.6
b) 4.5
c) 5.1
d) 10
e) 106
f) 145
Hyperphosphotemia is above 4.5

Mg 1.6 - 2.6
PO4 2.7 - 4.5
K+ 3.5 - 5.1
Ca+ 8.6 - 10
Cl- 96 - 106
Na+ 135 - 145
Hypomagnesemia is below:

a) 1.6
b) 2.7
c) 3.5
d) 8.6
e) 96
f) 135
Hypomagnesemia is below 1.6

Mg 1.6 - 2.6
PO4 2.7 - 4.5
K+ 3.5 - 5.1
Ca+ 8.6 - 10
Cl- 96 - 106
Na+ 135 - 145
Hypermagnesemia is above:

a) 2.6
b) 4.5
c) 5.1
d) 10
e) 106
f) 145
Hypermagnesemia is above 2.6

Mg 1.6 - 2.6
PO4 2.7 - 4.5
K+ 3.5 - 5.1
Ca+ 8.6 - 10
Cl- 96 - 106
Na+ 135 - 145
Hypochloremia is below:

a) 1.6
b) 2.7
c) 3.5
d) 8.6
e) 96
f) 135
Hypochloremia is below 96

Mg 1.6 - 2.6
PO4 2.7 - 4.5
K+ 3.5 - 5.1
Ca+ 8.6 - 10
Cl- 96 - 106
Na+ 135 - 145
Hyperchoremmia is above:

a) 2.6
b) 4.5
c) 5.1
d) 10
e) 106
f) 145
Hyperchoremmia is above:

Mg 1.6 - 2.6
PO4 2.7 - 4.5
K+ 3.5 - 5.1
Ca+ 8.6 - 10
Cl- 96 - 106
Na+ 135 - 145
Identify the hypotonic solution:

a) Lactated Ringers
b) 0.9% saline
c) 0.45% saline
d) 5% dextrose in water
e) 5% dextrose in 0.225% saline
f) 5% dextrose in LR
g) 5% dextrose in 0.45% saline
h) 5% dextrose in 0.9% saline
i) 10% dextrose in water
Hypotonic is 0.45% saline

Isotonic are:
Lactated Ringers
0.9% saline
5% dextrose in water
5% dextrose in 0.225% saline

Hypertonic are:
f) 5% dextrose in LR
g) 5% dextrose in 0.45% saline
h) 5% dextrose in 0.9% saline
i) 10% dextrose in water
ADH from the pituitary regulates eXtracellular fluid by regulating the amount of ____ that is ____ by the kidney.

a) Na / excreted
b) Na / reabsorbed
c) water / excreted
d) water / reabsorbed
water / reabsorbed

ADH from the pituitary regulates eXtracellular fluid by regulating the amount of WATER that is REABSORBED by the kidney.
Aldosterone from the adrenals control eXtracellular fluid volume by regulating the amount of ____ that is ____ by the kidneys.

a) Na / excreted
b) Na / reabsorbed
c) water / excreted
d) water / reabsorbed
Na / reabsorbed

Aldosterone from the adrenals control eXtracellular fluid volume by regulating the amount of NA+ that is REABSORBED by the kidneys.
Interventions for fluid vol deficit include administering:

a) 10% dextrose in water
b) 5% dextrose in LR
c) LR or 0.9% saline
d) 0.45% saline & 5% dextrose
deficit = LR or 0.9% saline
Kayexalate (sodium polystyrene sulfonate) is administered when K+ levels are ___ because it releases ___ in exchange for K+ which is then absorbed by the GI for excretion.

a) low / chloride
b) high / chloride
c) low / Na+
d) high / Na+
high / NA+

Kayexalate (sodium polystyrene sulfonate) is administered when K+ levels are HIGH because it releases NA+ in exchange for K+ which is then absorbed by the GI for excretion.
When administering potassium it is important to monitor the IV site & if phlebitis or infitration occurs:

a) stop the IV immediately & restart at another site

b) Stop the IV & call the doctor

d) flush the IV with NS & restart because potassium is not harmful to tissues
stop the IV immediately & restart at another site
Keep calcium gluconate available for:

a) patients suffering from hyperphosphtemia

b) patients with acute magnesium imbalances

c) patients with acute calcium deficits

d) patients with severe hyperkalemia
patients with acute calcium deficits