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194 Cards in this Set

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Na+ 127 is?

Na+ 140 is?
hyponatremia

normal
What electrolyte, when high, relaxes the smooth muscles?

Is it in extracellular fluid or intracellular?
Mg
intracellular
Normal values for potassium:

a) 1.6 - 2.6
b) 2.7 - 4.5
c) 3.5 - 5.1
d) 8.6 - 10
3.5 - 5.1

a) 1.6 - 2.6 = Mg
b) 2.7 - 4.5 = PO4
c) 3.5 - 5.1 = K+
d) 8.6 - 10 = Ca
Ca+ 8.5 is?

Ca+ 10.2 is?
hypocalcemia

hypercalcemia
Normal values for calcium:

a) 1.6 - 2.6
b) 2.7 - 4.5
c) 3.5 - 5.1
d) 8.6 - 10
8.6 - 10

1.6 - 2.6 = Mg
2.7 - 4.5 = PO4
3.5 - 5.1 = K+
8.6 - 10 = Ca
Normal values for magnesium:

a) 1.6 - 2.6
b) 2.7 - 4.5
c) 3.5 - 5.1
d) 8.6 - 10
1.6 - 2.6

1.6 - 2.6 = Mg
2.7 - 4.5 = PO4
3.5 - 5.1 = K+
8.6 - 10 = Ca
Concentrated urine is high in ______.

Is it in extracellular fluid or intracellular?
Na+
extracellular
PO4 < 2.7 is?

PO4 > 4.5 is?

normal PO4 is?
hypophosphatemia

hyperphosphatemia

normal PO4 2.7 - 4.5
Normal values for phosphorus:

a) 1.6 - 2.6
b) 2.7 - 4.5
c) 3.5 - 5.1
d) 8.6 - 10
2.7 - 4.5


1.6 - 2.6 = Mg
2.7 - 4.5 = PO4
3.5 - 5.1 = K+
8.6 - 10 = Ca
Normal values for sodium:

a) 100 - 120
b) 125 - 135
c) 135 - 145
d) 150 - 165
135 - 145
Normal Values of Na+ are __-__ & assists with generation & transmission of ___ ___ & an important part of the ___-___ pump.
135-145 mEq/L
nerve impulses
Na-K+
Protein norms are?
6 - 8 g
When using Kayexalate, monitor for the loss of:

a) sodium & phosphorus
b) sodium & magnesium
c) calcium & phosphorus
d) calcium & magnesium
d) calcium & magnesium
If patient is taking lithium, it is important to monitor lithium levels because diminished Lithium excretion resulting in toxicity can be the result of:

a) hypokalemia
b) hypomagnesemia
c) hyponatremia
d) hypophosphotemia
hyponatremia
When ______ is out of balance, think neurological/brain problems.
Na+
When you think "Aldosterone" think ____?.
Na+
Chemical Regulation of fluids within the
body occurr by?

a. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
b. aldosterone
c. all of the above
d. none of the above
All of the above
A decrease in HCT & BUN, low Serum Osmolality, low Serum Sodium, Chest X-ray, & arterial Blood gases are all signs of:

a) fluid vol deficit

b) fluid vol excess

Lab findings for
fluid volume excess
A decrease in aldosterone changes ___ level.
sodium
Excess Na+ is secreted by kidneys & when you excrete Na you save ___.
K+
NG suctioning causes the losses of Na+, ___, ___, ___ creating a ___, & K+ deficiency.
K+
H+
Cl-
Na+
Na+, Ca++, & Cl- are intracellular or extracellular fluids?
extracellular
Normal Ca++ lab values are?
Normal Cl- lab values are?
Ca++ 8.6 - 10

Cl- 96-106
/
/
Normal PO4 lab values are?
PO4 2.7 - 4.5
K+, Mg++, & PO4-- are intracellular or extracellular?
intracellular
Vomiting, sweating & only drinking water, D5W, & burns can cause a fluid imbalance called ______.
Hyponatremia
Low fluid volume = ____ blood pressure
which is a sign of __________, a condition called ___________.
low
dehydration
Hypernatremia
Normal Protein lab values are?
Protein 6-8g
Electrolyte having major role in maintaining
the concentration & vol of the ECF is?
Na+
Which of the following electrolytes are extracellular?

Na+
K+
Ca++
Mg++
Cl-
PO4--
Extracellular:
eXtra NCC!

Na+
Ca++
Cl-
Primary roles of Na+ are _____ impulses & ECF _______.
nerve

osmolality
High fluid volume = ____ blood pressure
which is a sign of _____________.
high
Hyponatremia
With the Renin-angiotension System ECF is ____ . Renin is produced by the ______. Angiotensin I is converted to _________ & Aldosterone is secreted. Therefore, Na+ & water are ________ & the Vascular vol goes ___.
decreased
kidneys
angiotensin II
retained
up
Na+ deficiency is ______.

H20 deficiency is ______.

Na+ imbalances usually occur due to an imbalance of_____.
Hyponatremia
low Na+ <135)

Hypernatrmia
low H20 Na+ >145)

ECF
When kidney function is down K+ goes ____?
up
More water than Na+ causes _________.
Hyponatremia
Na+ is regulated by ________ & ADH (antidiuretic hormone) & reabsorption is regulated by ________.
kidneys
Aldosterone
"extra NCC Please" means?
a way to remember "extracellular" electrolytes

Na & Ca & Cl are extracellular electrolytes
When K+ is out of balance think _____ &
think _____.

K+ is extracellular or intracellular?
think muscles
heart (smooth muscle)
intracellular
Na+ exits the body through __,__,__
Urine, sweat, feces
Ca++____

Cl- ____
Ca++ 8.6-10

Cl- 96-106
Increased insulin can cause a shift of ___ into
cells resulting in hypokalemia.
K+
If a patient urine output increases, has a decreased Specific gravity, experiences nausea, abdominal cramps, headache, dry mucous membranes the RN will suspect _______
Hyponatremia
Insulin used to correct diabetic ketoacidosis is associated w/Hypokalemia due to resulting loss of K+ in urine & shift of K+___ cells
into
Normal lab values for intracellular electolytes:

K+ ____

Mg ____

PO2 ____
K+ 3.5 - 5.1

Mg 1.6 - 2.6

PO2 2.7 - 4.5
Proper function of skeletal & cardiac muscle & transmission of nerve impulses are under the influence of ____.
K+
Treatment for hyponatremia is to replace ____.

This should be replaced very, very slowly because it hits the ____cells, the cells swell & the swelling increases pressure in the ___.
Na+
brain
brain
Blood volume & increased Aldosterone cause ____ retention & ___ loss in urine.
Na+
K+
The heart is affected when ______ is high.
K+
The most common cause of hyperkalemia is ___ failure. Massive cell destruction such as ___,___injury, & tumor lysis are also associated w/ hyperkalemia in addition to some _______.
renal
burns
crush injury
diuretics
Potential complications of hyperkalemia is _________.
arryhthmias
An RN ask a patient who is low in K+ if they are on _______.
Diuretics (Lasix)
When you think Na+.....think ________?
neuro
Phosphate is found more abundant in which fluid?
ICF
TX for hyperkalemia is eliminate oral &___ K+ intake, increase elimination via diuretics & ___, force K+ from the ECF
to the ___ w/ insulin or _____ bicarbonate or
administer ___ gluconate, reversing cell
excitability.
parenteral
Kayexalate
ICF
sodium
calcium
Too much Na+ in blood causes the cells to ________.
swell
Why is it important to monitor I & O of a patient with hypermagnesemia?
may indicate renal failure, also may be hypokalemic
If your patient presents changes in LOC check their ___ balance.
Na+
The most common causes of hypokalemia are abnormal losses either from the ___ or the GI tract.
kidneys
If a patient is on Digoxin the concern will be for what electrolyte level?
K+
What to ask a hypermagnesemic client to avoid?
antacids w/ magnesium
The most serious clinical problem assoc. w/hypokalemia is ____ w/potentially lethal ventricular ______. Digoxin ______ occurs when K+ is low. Cramping in legs, _____ GI motility & impaired ______ production are also s/s of hypokalemia.
cardiac
arrhythmias
toxicity
decreased
urine
Clinical manifestations of hypermagnesemia would include:
weakness
lethargy
weak/absent deep reflex
hypotension
flushing
slow arrythmia(Cardiac arrest)
respiratory depression
A RN should perform a ____ check before giving Na+.
neuro
Na+ & Mg deficiency cause hypo________.
hypokalemia
When you drink a gallon of water your urine becomes ______ & specific gravity goes ____ therefore ___ will be low.
dilute
down
Na+

When you drink a gallon of water your urine becomes DILUTE & specific gravity goes DOWN therefore NA+ will be low.
hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, poor GI absorption, alcoholism, can cause what?
hypomagnesemia
Sports drinks cause ________.
dehydration
Fxn of Ca++ is___ transmission of nerve ___, myocardial & muscle____, blood _____, & formation of teeth & bones.

PTH ____ GI & renal absorption.
Calcitonin ___ GI absorption & renal excretion.
nerve
impulses
contractions
clotting

increases
decreases
What are the 4 main functions of Magnesium?
1-neuromuscular activity
2-heart contractions
3-transport Na + K across membrane
4-activates many enzymes for metabolism of carbs, proteins, vit b
With heat exhaustion urine output ____, & Specific gravity ______, in addition to nausea, abdominal cramps, headache, & dry mucous membranes which are S&S of high ____ vol & low ___ a condition called ____________.
increases
decreases
water
Na+
Hyponatremia
K+ is secreted only by the ________ but
levels of K+ are decreased with NG tube _______.
kidneys
suctioning
(Irrigation w/tap water would increase the loss of K+)
Magnesium is the 2nd most abundant electrolyte in what fluid?
ICF
Na+ < 135 is?

Na+ > 145 is?

Normal Na+ is?
hyponatremia

hypernatremia

Na+ 135 - 145
If you correct the potassium levels this usually corrects what other electrolytes?
calcium and magnesium
Ca+ < 8.6 is?

Ca+ > 10 is?

Normal Ca+ is ?
hypocalcemia

hypercalcemia

normal Ca+ 8.6 - 10
Cl- < 96 is ?

Cl- > 106 is?

normal Cl- is?
hypochloremia

hyperchloremia

normal Cl- 96 - 106
Hyperventilation, heat stroke, decrease in fluid intake; use of corticosteroids are all causes of Dehydration also known as __________.

The nurse will restrict ___
Give fluids _____
Check daily _____
Hypernatremia

Na+
slowly
weight
Which type of diuretics can cause hyperkalemia?
Potassium sparing/Aldactone
The ONLY way to get rid of excess K+ is
through the ________.
kidneys
Mg < 1.6 is ?

Mg > 2.6 is?

Normal Mg is?
hypomagnesemia

hypermagnesemia

normal Mg 1.6 - 2.6
Which diuretics can cause hypokalemia?
loop diuretics(lasix)
Thiazide diuretics
Signs & Symptoms of Hypernatremia is S A L T !

S = skin flushed
A = agitation (tremors, weakness, restless,
change in LOC)
L = low grade fever
T = thirst (dry mouth, swollen tongue)

Treatment is:
Treatment:

Restrict Na, give fluids slowly, daily weights, I & O's
K+ 3.1 is ?

K+ 4.4 is ?

normal K+ is?
hypokalemic

normal

normal K+ 3.5 - 5.1
What two meds are given with severe hyperkalemia in order to rid the body of K+ and replentish k+ absorption in cells?
Kayexlate and insulin/dextrose
When kidney function stops ___ goes up
K+
With corticosteroids Na+ goes __ & K+ goes ___.
up
down
When the hormone aldosterone is secreted the kidneys reabsorb _______ and excrete ______?
kidneys reabsorb Na+
and excrete K+
S = skeletal muscle weakness
U = U wave changes (EKG chngs)
C = Constipation
T = Toxicity of digitalis
I = irregular & weak pulse
O = Orthostatic hypotension
N = numbness
Are signs of ______________.
Hypokalemia
If a patient has a K+ of 2.5 what will happen to the patients heart?
Arrythmias
The physician orders Lasix so the nurse expects to give the patient ___.
K+
Treatment for hypokalemia is to administer
___ on a pump & never never by an IV push
at ___mEq/L in ______cc IV fluid.
K+
20mEq/L
1000cc
Kidney troubles, Aldosterone secretion, & excessive intake (blood transfusions) are causes of _______.
Hyperkalemia
Potassium is hard on ____,should be taken after ____, & should not be _____.
veins
eating
crushed
Name some food high in potassium
Avocado Bananas
cantaloupe carrots
Fishy mushroom oranges
potatoes, pork, beef, veal
raisen spinach
strawberry tomatoes
Immobility, bone Ca, excess intake, incr. parathyroid hormone & thiazide diuretics are all causes of _________.
causes of hypercalcemia
If the kidneys are damaged or there is a markedly decrease in urine output what happens to potassium?
k+ concentration increases in the ECF
"Actual" excess: overuse of salt substitutes, rapid IV LR, multiple blood transfusions can cause ____.

"Relative" excess: CRF, overuse of K-sparing diuretics, tissue damage, acidosis
hyperkalemia
Excess IV saline, hypertonic tube feeds w/o enough water can cause __________.
hypernatremia (Na+)
A pancreatic or small intestine disease, acute renal failure, vit D deficiency, hypoparathyroidism, & hyperphosphatemia can lead to ____________.
hypocalcemia
What are the functions of Potassium?
1-contraction of skeletal/smooth muscle

2-transmission/conduction of nerve muscles

3-strengthens heart muscle contraction/conduction
A loss of intestinal fluids, malnutrition, renal probs, loop diuretics, parathyroid hormone deficiency can cause __________.
hypomagnesemia
Phosphate imbalance is assoc. w/ ___ & parathyroid probs
Ca++
Potassium is predominantly in what fluid?
ICF
Constiptaion - N/V & lethargy, polyurea & renal stones, decreased reflexes - muscle tone & deep bone pain & coma are all S&S of:

a) hypercalcemia
b) hyperkaemia
c) hypernatremia
d) hypercalcemia
hypercalcemia
A pt is experiencing parasthesia & muscle weakness. What are they suffering from?
Hyperkalemia
Diarrhea & abd cramps, muscle twitch, cardiac irregularities & respiratory failure are S&S of:

a) hyperphosphotemia
b) hyperkalemia
c) hypermagnesemia
d) hypercalcemia
hyperkalemia
Respiratory depression, decreased reflexes, hypotension & cardiac arrest are
s/s of:

a) hyponatremia
b) hyperkalemia
c) hypermagnesemia
d) hypophosphotemia
hypermagnesemia
A pt who is taking loop diuretics is experiencing leg cramps and muscle weakness. What are they suffering from?
Hypokalemia
Thirst, low urine output, dry M&M's, rubbery skin & elevated temp, tachycardia - restlessness - seizures, muscle twitch & a fast thready pulse are symptoms of:

a) hyperkalemia
b) hypokalemia
c) hypernatremia
d) hyponatremia
hypernatremia
Sodium is found predominantly in what fluid?
ECF
Tetany & tingling/numbness in xtrmitys, facial muscle spasm (Chovstek's sign, carpopedal spasm (Trousseau's sign,)
laryngospasm & dyspnea, hyperactive reflexes, seizures & arrhythmias are s & s of:

a) hyperkalemia
b) hypernatremia
c) hyponatremia
d) hypocalcemia
hypocalcemia
What are the two most important extracellular solutes?
Sodium and protein
What electrolye imbalance usually results from kidney dysfunction & also results in cardiac dysfunction from hypoaldosterone secretion?
hyperkalemia

plasma postassium is above 5.1
Anorexia - N/V - cramps, muscle weakness & lethargy, confusion &
seizuress are s/s of:

a) hypocalemia
b) hypokalemia
c) hyponatremia
d) hypermagnesemia
hyponatremia
What are the clinical manifestations of Hypervolemia ??
Edema
Full bounding pulses
Moist breath sounds (crackles, rhonchi)
Distended neck veins
Moist skin
Elevated osmolarity is indicative of what?
Increased solute (sodium) and decreased fluid (water)
Muscle weakness - leg cramps - decresed or absent reflexes,
constipation - hypactive bowel sounds postural hypotension, irritability, confusion & shallow resp, irregular pulse & heart block are s/s of:

a) hypokalemia
b) hypercalemia
c) hypocalcemia
d) hypercalcemia
hypokalemia
Does aldosterone directly regulate plasma potassium concentration?
yes
confusion
hallucinations
Seizures, increased reflexes
parasthesias, tremors, spasms
& arrhythmias are s/s of:

a) hypomagnesemia
b) hypokalcemia
c) hypermagnesemia
d) hyperkalemia
hypomagnesemia
Magnesium (Mg) levels are Normal @ 1.6 – 2.6 mEq/L & excreted by ___ , & assists in metabolism of CHO & ______, maintains _______ activity in nerves & ___.

Mg is important for __________ function.
Kidneys
proteins
electrical
muscles

neuromuscular
________ keeps calcium in the bones.
Calcitonin
Treatment for Mg+ deficit
Seizure and safety precautions
monitor airway
aspiration precautions
increase Mg+ rich foods
Mg sulfate IV
what is ketoacidosis?
increased glucose & ketones

breath smells fruity & sweet
What stimulates the release of aldosterone?
low plasma sodium
high plasma potassium
What happens in Hypervolemia?
Retain water & Na+ so serum lab values remain normal.

Manifests as edema & increase in fluid volume.
Condition usually secondary to elevated Na+ content in the body from excessive intake of Na+ Cl-Na+ containing IV fluids renal failure, cirrhosis, heart failure & Cushings
Alcoholism can cause what?

a) Hypophosphatemia
b) Hypomagnesemia
c) Hypokalemia
d) Hypocalcemia
ALL of these

Hypophosphatemia
Hypomagnesemia
Hypokalemia
Hypocalcemia
Characteristics for Mg+ deficit
mental changes, disorientation, mood changes, intense confusion, hallucinations
When Mg is out of balance THINK ____ problems & the effect that could occur on the ____ system.

Mg & ___ levels tend to increase & decrease together.

Mg makes the vascular system ____.
muscle

nervous

K+

vasodilate
What are the 3 functions of phosphate
1-acid base balance
2-muscle contractions
3-nerve conduction
What does aldosterone act on?
The renal cortical collecting duct cells to promote the movement of sodium from the filtrate back into the blood
Ca+ has an inverse relationship w/ ____.

You must have vitamin ___ to utilize calcium.
PO4

D
What is Sodiums job in the body?
Controls and regulates water balance
Phosphate has a relationship with what other electrolyte?
Calcium & vit D
PO4 Helps acidify ______ to decrease stones & has an inverse relationship w/_____
urine

Ca++
What are the two most important intracellular solutes?
Potassium and protein
Causes of hypomagnesemia are
____, ____, ___, & bulemia.
Diarrhea
alcoholism
anorexia
bulimia
Causes of Hypochloremia are ____ salt intake, exclusive D5W, Diuresis, prolonged N&V, diarrhea, ____ suctioning & ______ fibrosis
low
NG
Cystic
Phosphate Imbalances in the body are usually related to??
Imbalances are usually related to treatment for other disorders such as glucose or insulin administration which forces phosphate into the cells from the ECF
If blood Ca++ is _____, phosphorus level is high

a) high

b) low
low
Ca+ functions are ___ impulse transmission (muscle contraction and relaxation), helps w/blood ______, is needed for vitamin ____ absorption, & must have for strong bones & teeth.
nerve
clotting
B12

Ca+ functions are NERVE impulse transmission (muscle contraction & relaxation), helps w/blood CLOTTING, is needed for vitamin B12 absorption, & must have for strong bones & teeth.
What are the clinical findings of Hyperphosphatemia?
Hyperphosphatemia can be caused by damage to cells which forces PO- into ECF,

overuse of laxatives PO4

infants fed cow’s milk

causes numbness & tingling in fingers & around mouth

muscle spasms & tetany
Treatment for hypomagnesaemia is to administer ___ Sulfate, keep _____ gluconate & ____ tray at bedside, assess ______ reflexes & take __ precautions
Treatment for hypomagnesaemia is to administer MG Sulfate, keep Ca gluconate & ____ tray at bedside, assess ______ reflexes & take __ precautions

Calcium
trach
swallow
seizure
What are the clinical signs of Hypochloremia??
Hypochloremia-related to loss from GI tract causes:

twitching - tetany - tremors
Hypophosphotemia is caused by ___ & ___ administration in addition to _____ alcohol ______, & diuretic use.
Glucose and insulin withdrawal
Causes for hypocalcemia are hypo __, radical neck, thyroidectomy, __, & __. removal.
HYPOparathyroidism
alcoholism
parathyroid removal
S & S of Hypochloremia are agitation & ___, hyperactive deep-tendon reflexes, muscle ____ & tetany, weakness & _____
irritability
cramps
seizures
Imbalances are usually related to
Imbalances are usually related to changes in the sodium(Na+) level.
Causes of hypermagnesaemia are ____ use, ______ failure, & hyper________.
laxative
renal
hyperparathyroidism
S & S of hypocalcemia are muscle tone; ___ & Trousseus sign, arrhythmias, deep ____ relfexes, mind changes, &___ difficulties.
Chvostek’s
tendon
swallowing
THINKING Sedative? THINK ____?
Hypercalcemia
Treatment for hypophosphotemia is to ____.
Encourage phosphorus foods
Caution about clients and Magnesium...
Any one who cannot take in Magnesium orally or parenterally is at risk for Magnesium deficiency.

Clients with altered renal function are at risk for hypermagnesemia
Treatment for Hypocalcemia is Vitamin __, Amphogel, IV w/___ gluconate, __ tray, ____ bag
Treatment for Hypocalcemia:
Vitamin D
Amphogel
IV calcium gluconate
trach tray
ambu bag
THINK Hypermagnesemia
THINK ________________?
think Sedative
What is Magnesium used for in the body?
DNA and protein synthesis

ATP production

neuromuscular & cardiac fxn
Treatment for Hypochloremia is IV chloride & ___ replacements.

Use NS NOT _____ water to irrigate NG
K+

tap
Hypercalcemia is caused by Hyper____, thiazides, & _____.
Hyperparathyroidism
immobilization
Causes for hyperphosphotemia are ____ therapy, ____ failure, ____ enemas, & a large intake of Vitamin __
Chemo
Renal
Phosphate
Too much Vit D
S & S of Hypercalcemia are kidney ____, deep tendon ____, muscle tone, LOC,change in ____ ____.

Treatment is fluids, hospho____, Lasix, & get patient _____ & mobile ASAP!

Must have _______ gluconate & _____ tray at ____side.
stones
reflexes
vital signs
soda
up

Calcium
trach
bed
Where is Magnesium found in the body?
Found mostly in the skeleton and intracellular fluid
S & S of Hypermagnesaemia are reflexes ___, EKG changes, ___ & vomiting, __ appearance caused by ____ & lethargy.

Treatment is ______ gluconate
decreased
nausea
flushed
vasoldilation
Calcium
Causes of Hyperchloremia are ____ intake, excess ___, metabolic ___, & ___ renal failure
Increased
salt
acidosis
renal
What are the Mg norm values in a adult?:
1.6 - 2.6
Your patient presents w/ cardiac irregularities, hyperreflexia (Chvostek’s & Trousseau’s sign), is eating poorly, exhibits muscle weakness, parethesia, oliguria & numbness. You suspect hyper________.
Hyperphosphotemia
What supports & maintains bones & teeth in conjunction w/ Ca++?
Phosphorus
S & S of low CL are ____ & lethargy, hyper___, Kussmaul’s ___, tachycardia & _____.
weakness
natremia
breathing
edema
__________ is associated with Na.
Chloride
Treatment for Hyperchloremia is ___ vital signs, & ___ considerations
monitor
safety
The parathyroid pulls ______from bones & is found in bones & ___.
calcium
teeth
Treatment for Hyperphosphotemia is?
Monitor for signs of hypocalcemia
Adequate hydration
With hyperchloremia DO NOT not use ___ water.
tap
When Na+ is up ___ is down.
K+
If Ca+ is up then ___ is down.
PO4
Mg decreases ___ pressure, causes vaso___, is found in ___, & causes ____ in pregnant women.
blood pressure
vasodilation
bone
hypertension
If a patient presents a positive Chetwicks sign, check ___ & ___ reflex.
gag & swallow
If Ca+ is down, ___ is up.
PO4
Treatment for hyperkalemia is ___ which is usually given by enema b/c it binds to K+ in the ____ intestine to decrease K+ level
Kaexelate
large
The number one cause for hypophosphotemia is _____.

What foods should the RN order in the patients diet in response?
alcohol

Vitamin D rich foods
yogurt
milk
organ eats
nuts
pork, beef, chicken
whole grain breads & cereals
With fluid volume excess what electrolytes would a patient be low on?
Na+

also:
Cl- imbalances are affected by Na+ imbalance due to their close relationship
Renal failure & excess use of magnesium-containing antacids can cause _____________.
hypermagnesemia (rare)
What hormone controls glucose levels and also causes K+ to move into the cells?
Insulin
When a patient presents changes in LOC check their _____ balance.
Na+
What electrolyte causes a neurological/sedative effect?
Mg
When urine excretion decreases ___ & ___ go up.
Mg & K+
Our daily fluid intake should equal __/__ of our body weight in ounces.
1/2
Extracellular fluid in between cells is called ____ fluid that bathes cells & includes ________.
interstitial fluid
lymph
H20 deficiency is ______.
Hypernatremia
Edema is excess accumulation of fluid in the:

a) intracellular compartment
b) extracellular compartment
c) intravascular compartment
d) interstitial fluids
interstitial fluids

fluid that is between the cells & blood vessels
Localized edema occurs as a result of?
traumatic injury from accidents or surgery

a local inflammatory process

burns
Generalized edema is an excessive accumulation of fluid in the __________ space throughout the body.

This occurs as a result of conditions such as?
(name 3)
interstitial space

cardiac failure
renal failure
liver failure
Generalized edema is also known as?
anasarca
total body fluid amounts to about ___% of body weight?

a) 10%
b) 20%
c) 60%
d) 80%
60%