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70 Cards in this Set

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What are the two types of SCSI termination?
Internal and External
FRU
Field Replaceable Unit

A computer element a tech can replace/upgrade w/o send to manufacturer
BINARY
NUMBERING
All system elements are defined as strings of 1's and 0's read from right to left and each position is based on powers of 2.
DECIMAL
NUMBERING
Base 10: Each position is based on powers of 10, read from left to right.
BIT
Acronym for single binary digit (b). Represents a binary value of 1 or 0 (computer sees presence/absence of data)
NIBBLE
4 bits or 1/2 of a byte.
BYTE
8 bits (Capital B)
The stand unit for measuring memory, file size, etc.
WORD
The amount of data that a microprocessor can handle at one time. Usually 16 bits (two bytes).
OTHER DATA AMOUNTS
Kilo-1024 bits or bytes
Mega-1024 Kb/KB or million B
Giga-1024 Mb/MB or billion B
HEXADECIMAL
NUMBERING
Base 16 (contains sixteen elements)

0-9 and A-F
ASCII
American Standard Code for Information Interchange: A standard code for storing text values. Orig 7 bit/128 values, now ext character set adds another 128.
UNICODE
An international 16-bit encoding standard that can represent the 65,536 characters in major world languages.
COM
Communication
PC serial ports with max transmission of 115kbps, one bit at a time.
LPT
Line Printer Port

PC parallel ports
PARALLEL
COMMUNICATION
More than i bit at a time. Usually 8 bits (a byte) or 16 bits (a word). Each bit requires separate line plus one controller (9 or 17 tot)
SERIAL
COMMUNICATION
One bit at a time over a single line. Only 1 bit b/c a single line can only have 1 value (on or off).
RELATIVE
COMMUNICATION
SPEEDS
Serial--115 Kbps
Parallel--500Kbps
USB 1.0/1.1: 12 Mbps (1.5 MBps
USB 2.0: 480 Mbps (60 MBps)
SYNCHRONOUS
COMMUNICATION
Uses a timing signal to keep conversation synched. More efficient but harder to implement due to additional control overhead.
ASYNCHRONOUS
COMMUNICATION
Communication occurs at anytime, requiring use of start/stop bits to identify start/end of data stream.
BUS
A circuit or path that carries data between computer components. Can have varied spees and data capabilites, wires can't cross!
GUI
Graphical User Interface (gooey)
An environment that uses sophisticated graphics to represent system elements such as files, directories, and hard drives (Windows).
CLI
Command Line Interface--An environment that uses command lines to interface between machine/operator (DOS)
Name two machine to user interfaces and give an example of each
GUI--Windows
CLI--DOS
ISA
Industry Standard Architecture--A 16-bit bus standard that has been largely replaced by faster ones. Based on original IBM PC AT bus structure.
EISA
Extended ISA

Uses a 32-bit bus. Also considered a legacy standard and often referred to as ISA.
PCI
Peripheral Component Interconnect

The current standard for desktop computers. Originally a 32-bit bus and also supports 64-bit bus. This is the most currently used expansion slot type.
System
Bus
Width
The amount of data the bus can accomodate at one time, measured in bits. Common widths are 16, 32, and 64.
System
Bus
Speed
The measurement of how quickly the bus can transport data, measured in MHz or GHz. Common ones are 750MHz, 2 and 3 GHz.
Desktop
Form
Factors
Tower
Mini-tower
Desktop
Low-profile (more for servers)
Chassis
Metal frame that holds and acts as a ground for all components.
Front Cover
Plastic piece that covers openings otherwise occupied by peripherals.
Slots
Designed for holding expansion cards, including ISA and PCI cards.
Slot
Cover
Thin metal plate that covers the slots normally occupied by PCI or ISA cards.
Bays
Areas in the chassis designated for holding drives and other internal components. Also called "storage bays."
Eurocard Industry
Standard System
System used for measuring server cases. Basic unit is "u" which is 1.75 inches high. Impt for rack server assemblies. 1u often called a pizza box.
Proprietary
Component
A device that is only compatible with equipment made by a particular manufacturer.
Infrared
The use of red-spectrum light to send data. Based on line of sight.
Three basic functional
blocks of a computer
I/O, storage, and processing.
Touch
Screen
Video display used as an input device.
I/O
Card
A special computer card that coordinates all I/O devices. Usually integrated on the Mobo.
LCD
Liquid Crystal Diodes

Laptop screens and flat panels.
NIC
Network Interface Card

AKA "network adapters." Combination I/O device between and computer and a LAN (local area network).
Volatile
Storage
Short-term storage of programs and data. Lost when power goes off or system resets. Most obvious example is RAM (random access memory).
Nonvolatile
Storage
Long-term storage of data and programs. Once written, it will remain until erased, over-written, or lost due to failure. Floppies, CD, DVD...
DVD
Digital Video Disc

Storage technology often seen as replacement for CD-ROM devices. Usually for video storage and sometimes called "Digital Versatile Disc".
<Control> + <Shift> + <Escape>
Straight to Task Manager.
Virtual
Memory
When RAM is insufficient, the OS tricks the computer and "borrows" space from the hard drive. Data is temporarily stored in C:\pagefile.sys (swap file). Much slower than real RAM.
Multi-tasking
Operating
System
An OS that allows you to run multiple concurrent applications (Windows).
Superscalar
Ability of a micro-processor to perform multiple operations in parallel (simultaneously) to save processing time.
Software
A series of program steps that can be executed by the micro-processor.
Two types of
software
OS-Required to make the computer start/run. Controls hardware, provides user interface, provides environment for running apps.

Applications--Everything else
Hardware
Everything you can physically see and touch in the computer, including external peripherals.
Motherboard
MoBo

The main circuit board in a computer. The micro-processor, physical memory, and support circuitry are located on the MoBo.
Firmware
A hybrid between hardware and software. It is a chip that has executable programs "burned" into it. it is nonvolatile and can be upgraded. BIOS is a good example.
BIOS
Basic Input/Output System

Firmware that contains the software programs required to help the system begin loading the OS into memory. Runs system diagnostics during startup.
ACPI
Advanced Configuration and Power Interface

Power control and management system designed to help minimize system power requirements. Allows for hibernation, etc.
Chipset
Set of integrated circuits that provides the MoBo support and device interface circuitry.
DMA
Direct Memory Access

Memory management method in which devices can read and write directly to system memory w/o going thru the CPU.
EIDE
Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics

Most common HDD, CD-ROM, CD-RW, and DVD/DVD-RW disk drive interface. Integrated into the MoBo circuitry as part of the chipset
Expansion
Slots
MoBo slots into which adapter boards are installed.
I/O
Address
Small area of memory used for communication between the micro-processor and peripheral devices, including adapter boards and standard serial/parallel ports.
IRQ
Interrupt Request

Signal used for controlled communications between the microprocessor and other devices installed on the MoBo (like raising your hand)
Jumper
Conductive device used to complete the circuit betweeen exposed pins and used for device configuration
POST
Power On Self Test

Series of diagnostic tests that are run during system start-up.
SCSI
Small Computer System Interface

Device interface used for connecting both int/ext devices.
Socket
Means of attaching ICs to a printed circuit board that allows removal/replacement by technicians.
SEC
Single-Edge Connector

Another way to connect an IC to the MoBo. Most modern Pentiums use this form. SECs are also called "slot connectors".
System
Bus
Data and control signal pathway on the MoBo that connects the micro-processor, memory, and expansion bus slots together.
USB
Universal Serial Bus

Two standards for attaching peripherals:
1.0/1.1--Nominal 12Mbps, slow 1.5 Mbps
2.0--Up to 480 Mbps
PnP
Plug and Play

A component that is seen and installed by the computer automatically (auto-detect). PCI cards are PnP, ISA cards are not.