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164 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are LANs and WANs?
Local Area Networks
Wide Area Networks
________ or _______ are units for information sent over a network.
Packets or Frames
NIC stands for ____
Network Interface Card
The unique binary address that is built into every NIC is a ____
MAC address
How long is the Mac address?
48 bits long or
12 hexadecimal characters
What are the four features common to any packet of information sent over a network?
1. MAC address of receiving NIC
2. MAC address of sending NIC
3. the data
4. Some type of data check
What are the two hardware protocols that are widely used?
Ethernet and Token Ring
What is Ethernet?
A hardware protocol that defines everything needed to transfer data between computers.
What are the three main categories of Ethernet?
coaxial
unshielded twisted pair (UTP)
fiber optic
True or False: Devices that use different types of Ethernet send different kinds of packets, so they cannot communicate with each other.
False, every Ethernet device sends the same type of packet
Who developed the Token Ring networking protocol?
IBM
What is the general term for the data check found at the end of a packet?
Cyclic Reduncancy Check (CRC)
What is Thicknet?
What's another name for Thicknet and what does it mean?
The original Ethernet specification. Uses a specific kind of coaxial cable. (RG8)
10base5 is another name for it.
10 mbps and max cable length 500 m
Every PC in a Thicknet network connects to a ______ or a ______.
Segment or bus
How many devices can be linked to one segment of Thicknet?
100 devices
What is CSMA/CD?
Carrier Sense Multiple Access/ Collision Detection. It's a networking scheme. Collisions are detected and NICs decide which one resends first.
All PCs on a bus network share a common wire, and thus share its _____________.
Bandwidth
What is a requirement of a bus network that prevents a packet storm?
All segments must be terminated with a resistor to prevent signals from reversing direction at the end of the cable.
What are two key weakness of a bus network topology?
All ends must be terminated.
If a single cable breaks, the whole network is down because the termination is no longer in effect.
How would a new device connect into Thicknet?
Through a vampire connector inserted into the bus at a connection mark.
AUI
Access Unit Interface
The external tranceiver utilized by a Thicknet connection site to send and receive data.
What type of connector does a Thicknet NIC use?
15-pin DB
What is a key disadvantage of using Thicknet?
costly
Thinnet is also called ____ or ____
Cheapernet or 10base2
In 10base2 Ethernet networks, what are the 10 and the 2?
10 is for 10 mbps
2 is for a maximum segment length of 185 meters (originally thought of as 200 m)
True or False: Thinnet is a UTP network.
False, Thinnet uses coaxial cable. (RG-58)
Limitations of Thinnet?
Only 30 devices per segment. Max segment length of 185 meters
Advantages of Thinnet?
cabling is easy, thinner and more flexible. Tranceivers built into NICs
How do Thinnet devices connect to the segment?
T connector
What type of connection does a Thinnet cable use?
BNC connectors
What are 10baseT and 100baseT?
Both are UTP networks. T stands for Twisted (Untwisted pair...Hmmm...) 10 and 100 stand for 10 mbps and 100 mbps respectively.
What topology does a 100baseT network use?
star bus topology
What's the difference between hubs and switches?
Switches are superior because they stop collisions and make the entire bandwidth available to each networked PC rather than requiring them to share.
True or False: When a cable in a star bus network breaks, the whole network is down?
False, only the PC(s) on that segment.
How are the different kinds of UTP cables categorized?
CAT 1 through CAT 6 + CAT5e.
Difference is max speed.
What type of UTP cables are currently used in most star bus networks?
CAT 5e and CAT 6. 1 gbps and 10 gbps, respectively
True or False: 10xbaseT networks require a pair of wires, one for sending, one for receiving.
False, they require two pairs of wires,one for sending, one for receiving.
What connectors are used with most UTP cables?
RJ-45
What connector is used for dial-up networking?
RJ-11
What are two main differences between PVC and Plenum UTP cables?
Plenum is more fire retardant but 3 to 5 times as expensive.
What do you have to do to a NIC running on a 10 mbps speed Ethernet network to put it on a 100 mbps network?
Usually nothing. Most NICs will automatically detect what speed the network is running at.
How do you add a device to a star bus network?
Plug another cable into the hub or switch.
In a 10xBaseT network, what is the maximum distance from the hub to the device?
100 meters
What is a repeater?
It's a function of a hub in which signals are amplified in order to send them longer distances.
How do you connect two computers to each other?
If they have 10xBaseT NICs, you can simply use crossover cable
What is full duplex mode?
It is a function of a NIC allowing it to both send and receive at the same time. Contrast with half duplex.
What are two advantages of fiber optic networks?
They are immune to electrical problems. They can send signals further distances, up to 2000 meters.
How far can a signal travel over a fiber optic cable?
2000 meters
What are three disadvantages of a fiber optic network?
Delicate, Expensive, Difficult to Use
True or false: A Token Ring network and an Ethernet network are compatible.
False
What topology does a Token Ring network use?
Ring topology
How do Token Rings avoid collisions?
A token is passed around the ring in one direction. A computer cannot send information until it receives that token.
What are two names for the kind of cable originally used in a Token Ring network?
IBM Type 1 cable
Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)
What is one key advantage of the High Speed Token Ring (HSTR) Network over Ethernet?
Does not require collision detection. Thus even at the same speed of packet transmission, a Token Ring network will be faster.
What kind of connectors does a Token Ring cable use to plug into the network?
IBM-type data Connector (IDC) or a Universal Data Connector (UDC). hermaphroditic
What is the connector between a Token Ring cable and the NIC?
A 9 pin connector, female side on NIC
True or False, in addition to STP cabling, Token Ring networks can also use UTP cabling.
Yes, they can be connected with CATs 3,4,5,5e,6.
True or false: Token Ring networks use the same hubs as Ethernet networks.
False, Token Ring hubs are called MAU (multistation access unit) and are not interchangeable with Ethernet hubs.
Token Rings using STP can support how many PCs? How about using UTP?
260, 72
What are the maximum distances from MAU to PC on a STP network and a UTP network?
100 meters and 45 meters, respectively
What's a NOS?
Network Operating System
True or False, all Windows OS's are also NOS's.
True
What are the three things you need to do to configure a Windows NOS to a network?
Install a network protocol to communicate with hardware
Enable server software to share resources
Install client software to access shared resources.
What are the three basic organization groups of NOS's?
Client/Server
Peer-to-Peer
Domain-based
What are three features of a dedicated server?
Powerful caching
high levels of protection
organization that permits extensive control of data.
What is the most common NOS for dedicated servers?
Novell Netware
What is the built-in limit Windows has for a P2P network?
10 users
When your network contains multiple servers, one potential problem is that ________ to multiple computers
you need to log in
How does a domain controller eliminate the need for multiple log-ins?
It has a security database for all systems. If you log in, the request goes to this controller, which stores it and eliminates the need for multiple logins.
True or False: If you change your NIC, your computer has a new MAC address.
True
True or False: If you change your NIC, you will no longer be connected to the network.
False, the server or domain controller will recognize your computer by its name, and will update your MAC address in the catalog.
What are the three protocols used most often by networks?
NetBIOS Extended User Interface (NetBEUI from Microsoft)
IPX/SPX (from Novell)
TCP/IP (from UNIX/Internet)
Who developed NetBEUI?
IBM
What is the chief limitation of the NetBEUI protocol?
cannot be used for routing, thus limited to networks of under 200 nodes
What is IPX/SPX? What does it stand for?
Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange. It is a networking protocol developed by Novell.
What is TCP/IP? What does it stand for?
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. The networking protocol used by UNIX systems and by the Internet.
What networking protocol is used by the Internet?
TCP/IP
What is AppleTalk and why would you need it?
AppleTalk is the Apple proprietary networking protocol. You need it to communicate with old Apple computers.
What software would a client on a Microsoft network need to install? How about on a Novell network?
Client for Microsoft Networks
Client Service for Netware
How does one usually go about installing Client for Microsoft Networks software on a computer?
Windows installs it when you install a NIC.
How do you turn a Windows PC into a server?
You check a box under Local Area connection properties enabling 'File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Networks'.
In addition to the cabling connections and hubs and whatnot, what three things do you need in a computer for network connectivity?
NIC, Protocol, Network Client Software (and software that allows filesharing if you want computer to also be server).
What do you have to consider when purchasing a NIC?
You need to consider what network type you are running on.
How do Windows 2000 and Windows XP install NICs?
It will be detected, installed, and configured automatically.
What do you need to do to install a NIC on older versions of Windows or with older versions of NICs?
Use a driver. If you didn't get it from the manufacturer, you can usually find it on the Internet.
What do you need to connect a Windows PC to a Novell Network?
Client Service for Netware. You may also need Nicrosoft Service for NetWare Directory Services (NDS).
How do you install a protocol?
Depends on the version of Windows. Under the Local Area Connection properties menu or the Network applet.
What is NWLink?
Microsoft's implementation of IPX/SPX protocol.
What two pieces of information must a network address provide for TCP/IP?
IP address (identifies PC)
subnet mask (identifies subnet in which PC resides)
What is the makeup of an IP address? How many characters?
4 sets of 8 binary characters separated by periods. Usually written in a format like this rather than binary: 202.34.16.11
What three classes does TCP/IP divide networks into?
Classes A,B,C.
Class A = huge companies
Class B = smaller companies?
Class C = small LANs
How do the IP addresses for class A,B, and C differ?
Class A: first octet is the network address, remaining three identify host.
Class C: first three octets identify LAN, last octet identifies host.
What is a subnet mask and what does it look like?
It indicates which part of the IP address is the network and which is the host. 255.0.0.0 is for Class A IP addresses, 255.255.255.0 is for Class C
What is the most famous TCP/IP service?
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
What is TELNET?
A TCP/IP service with which you can access a remote system as if you were in front of the machine.
What is ping?
Ping is a TCP/IP service with which you can check connectivity with any other computer quickly via its IP address.
What is a router?
A router is a computer specialized to make connections between a LAN and a phoneline.
What is the key function of a router? How does it save money?
A router's key job is to decide which packets on the LAN need to go to the WAN. This saves money by reducing traffic on the WAN, which requires more expensive connections.
How does a router determine which packets need to go onto the WAN?
Through the IP address.
In Windows XP, how do you get to the TCP/IP settings?
Click on your connection.
Go to properties.
Click on TCP/IP and then Properties.
What is a Default Gateway?
It is a computer that you connect to when you want to send outside the LAN, identified by its IP address. It is usually the local router.
What is Domain Name Service (DNS)?
It is a type of server that can convert IP addresses to easier to use domain names. The internet uses domain names of a very specific form.
'.com', '.edu', and '.net' are all examples of what?
Top level domains
What is the organization that creates top level domain names, and domains that indicate a country?
The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). www.icann.org
What is DHCP?
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. It gives you a new IP address each time you connect to the Internet
True or False: When you install a NIC card, it usually provides you with a static IP address.
False, the default is DHCP, which assigns you a new IP address each time you log on.
What is WINS?
Windows Internet Name Service. It is a requirement of a TCP/IP service that associates computer names such as SERVER1 to an IP address.
True or False: Windows 2000 and Windows XP don't use WINS.
True, their 'dynamic' DNS supports both Internet names and Windows names.
What command lets you see your TCP/IP settings on the command prompt for Windows NT/XP/2000?
ipconfig
for more: ipconfig/all
What is the command for seeing TCP/IP settings on Windows 9x/Me?
winipcfg
What commands can you use with Windows XP/2000 to get a new IP address when you are having difficulty connecting to the Internet?
ipconfig/renew and
ipconfig/release
What's the command that lets you know the name of the DNS server on Windows XP/2000/NT?
nslookup
What's the command for tracing the path of information from one computer to another?
tracert
How do you share a file, drive or a folder with others on the network?
Right click on what you want to share, click on properties, and use the sharing tab to control sharing options.
What is special about the icon for a Windows folder or drive that is shared?
It has a picture of an open-palmed hand on the icon.
How do you administer filesharing across Windows partitions?
Network permissions
What two sets of permissions do you have to set to let others access your resources over NTFS systems?
network permissions and NTFS permissions
Where do you go to get to shared resources on Windows NT and 9x?
Network Neighborhood
Where do you go to get to shared network resources on Windows Me, 2000, and XP?
My Network Places
If you find yourself accessing a particular network resource or drive often, what can you do to make it easier to access?
'Map' the resource name to a local drive. (But don't forget that you are still accessing a network when you are troubleshooting)
What is UNC?
Universal Naming Convention. It defines how resources on a network are named. An example is \\server1\fredc for Fred's C Drive on the system server1
How do you share a printer?
Under the Printers folder in the Control Panel, change the properties for a particular printer using the 'Sharing' tab.
How is information transmitted on wireless networks?
radio waves or beams of infrared light
What are the two main types of wireless networks in use today?
Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) and Bluetooth.
What hardware can you use to connect a Laptop to a wireless network?
A wireless PC card that goes into add on PCI adapter slot or an external Wireless network card that connects via a USB connector.
What is the wireless network equivalent to a hub?
A WAP or wireless access point. They also can often act as switches or routers.
What networking scheme is used by wireless devices for data transmisssion?
CSMA/CA or Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance. Wireless nodes listen to the network before sending. If someone is sending, the device will check again in a bit until it finds an open network.
What is RTS/CTS protocol?
Request to Send/Clear to Send

It is used by wireless networks. The sending node sends an RTS frame to receiving node, which send a CTS frame back before transmitting.
How do you configure a wireless networking device on a modern version of Windows?
You don't have to. It will automatically recognize the wireless network card.
What is SSID?
Service Set Identifier, also called a network name. You have to set this up when you install a wireless connection.
What are the two modes of wireless networks?
Infrastructure and Ad-Hoc
What is the Ad-Hoc wireless mode?
Every computer is connected to every other computer. Decentralized.
When two wireless nodes on an Ad-Hoc network communicate with each other, what do they need to first form?
Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS)
What is the infrastructure mode for networking?
It has one or more central WAPs. Nodes are connected to each other only through these WAPs
What are the advantages to infrastructure wireless networking mode?
More control over how network operates.
What is the advantage of Ad-Hoc mode for Wireless networking?
Easier to set-up and configure.
What is the first step to setting up a new wireless network?
Change the default SSID.
True or False: Wireless network devices are configured with any kind of security when they come out of the box.
True
What is the most basic thing you should do to increase security on your wireless network?
Configure a unique SSID name
What is MAC filtering?
A wireless network security solution that stores the MAC addresses of authorized computers and rejects any unauthorized MAC addresses.
What are three protocols that are used to make wireless networks more secure? Which is best?
WEP, WPA, and WPA2 (best)
What is WEP?
Wired Equivalent Privacy protocol. It has a 40-bit encryption to scramble data packets. Knowledgeable intruders are not phased by this.
What is WPA? WPA2?
Wi-Fi Protected Access Protocol
It's a protocol that provides improved encryption to packets sent on wireless networks. WPA2 is more advanced yet.
What factors affect speed of data transmission over wireless networks?
Wireless device standards, distance between nodes, interference
What are some types of interference to wireless networks?
Other devices that operate in the same signal range, such as cordless telephones. Also large metal objects such as refrigerators can block signals.
True or False: Wireless transmission range usually is pretty close to the device's max range?
False, it's usually closer to half the max range.
What are two ways to increase your signal range?
Installing multiple WAPs, or install a signal booster for a WAP.
What is IEEE 802.11?
It is an Ethernet standard that defines how wireless network devices communicate with each other.
What are the three later variations of the now defunct IEEE 802.11
802.11a, 802.11b, and 802.11g
Which wireless Ethernet standard transmits at a frequency 0f 5 GHz?
802.11a
Which wireless Ethernet standard is backward compatible with slower standards?
802.11g devices are backward compatible with 802.11b
Which wireless Ethernet standard used today is slowest?
802.11b is slowest, at max speed of 11 Mbps
Compare and contrast 802.11a with 802.11b
802.11a is newer. Its speed of 54 Mbps is faster than b's 11. It's max range is less than b's (150 ft < 300 ft). A operates at frequency of 5 GHz, b is 2.4 GHz
Compare and contrast 802.11b and 802.11g
b's speed of 11 Mbps is slower than g's 54 Mbps. Max range for both is 300 ft. Both use a frequency of 2.4 GHz. g is backward compatible with b.
Compare and contrast 802.11a and 802.11g
They operate at the same speed of 54 Mbps. a's frequency is 5 GHz, while g's is 2.4 GHz. The max range of a is 150 ft, while g is 300 ft. Only g is backward compatible with b.
What is the max range for a connection using infrared waves?
1 meter, and many things can block it.
What would be the advantage of an infrared wireless connection.
If you want a quick file transfer or print job without having to mess around too much.
What is the max speed for an infrared connection?
about 4 Mbps
What are the main functions of Bluetooth?
Bluetooth is used to replace the mess of wires attached to most towers. It can also be used for a quick ad-hoc connection at short range or for a wireless connection to a printer for a small network.
What is the data transfer speed and range for Bluetooth?
up to 1 Mbps and about 10 meters. Some high-powered devices can get up to 2 Mbps and 300 ft.
What are the two requirements for configuring an ad-hoc wireless connection?
Both nodes must use same SSID and they cannot share an IP address.
What is the main requirement for configuring an Infrastructure wireless network?
All nodes and devices must be configured with the same SSID.
How do you configure a WAP?
You enter the IP address of the WAP into your internet browser, and then provide your user name and password.
What do you need to configure on your modern Windows PC to enable it to make an Infrared connection?
Not much, just make sure the IrDA protocol is installed an enabled and everything else should work smoothly.