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78 Cards in this Set

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Peripherals attach to the PC via the _______ bus.
Expansion
_______ _____ is collectively used to describe the pathways to gain access to the systems CPU & RAM.
Expansion Bus
What are included in the term "System Resources?"
I/O Address
IRQ Settings
DMA Channels
Name 2 internal buses.
AMR = Audio/Modem Riser

CNR = Communication Network Riser
Peripherals that plug into the PCI bus include 5 things (or more).
Video Adapters, Sound Cards, NICs, Modems; I/O Cards
The PCI bus is aka the "_______" bus.
Mezzanine
Whay is the PCI bus called the Mezzanine Bus?
Because it sits between the frontside bus & any other expansion bus
The Southbridge is sometimes referred to as the ___ ______.
PCI Bridge
The PCI does not use IRQs in the classic sense, it uses shareable "_____ _____" labeled what? (4)
Interrupt Channels
IntA, IntB, IntC, IntD which allow several devices to use the same IRQ
What does Bus Mastering (for the PCI card) do/mean?
That the devices attached to the PCI bus are able to talk directly to each other instead of through the CPU.
What is the special accelerated transfer mode that the PCI bus uses to communicate with system RAM?
Burst Mode
What is the latest AGP specification?
AGP 3.0
AGP slots today run at __ bits & __ MHz, and use clock multiplying (called _______) to increase performance.
32 bits
66 MHz
Strobing
AGP currently resides alone on its own personal data bus, connected directly to the ______ ____.
Northbridge Chip
What does the Sidebanding feature of AGP do?
It enables the video card to send more commands to the Northbridge while receiving commands @ the same time.
How many AGP devices are supported by the APG 3.0 standard?
More than 1, although Mobo mfgs make only 1 slot.
Video processors use pre-made sets of ______.
Textures
AGP video adapter cards come equipped with massive amounts of onboard video memory of ____ or more that ....
256 MB or more memory that store 3-D textures.
What is System Memory Access?
a pathway provided by the AGP to the PC's main system memory so the video card can use it to store more textures
Mobos that have both ISA & PCI sockets onboard are aka _______ ______.
Transitional Motherboards
AMR = ____ _____ _____

CNR = ____ _____ _____
Audio/Modem Riser

Communication & Networking Riser
AMR & CNR slots look like ___ slots but only smaller.
AGP
(Typically)
AMR slots have __-pin socket
CNR slots have __-pin socket
AMR = 46

CNR = 30
AMR & CNR slots are easily interchangeable. (T/F)
False they are not interchangeable at all.
What is the safest thing to do when installing a USB device?
Be sure to install the device drivers first, not all PnP devices are super safe.
Name the "system resources"
1 I/O Addresses
2 IRQs
3 DMAs (channels)
What is the collective name for I/O addresses, IRQs, & DMAs?
System Resources
The CPU uses the external data bus to....
Transfer lines of programs between memory & the CPU.
What wire is used by the CPU when it uses the address bus to talk with a device & not the RAM?
IO/MEM wire

(Input/Output Memory Wire)
(I/O Addresses)
Every device gets only one # pattern.
False, they all get a number of patterns, not just one.
What are I/O Addresses?
All the different patterns used by the CPU to talk to devices inside your computer are known as I/O Addresses.
I/O Addresses function inside the PC as long strings of 1's & 0's but tech people use _____ _____.
Hexadecimal Notation
What are the 3 rules of I/O Addresses?
1 All devices must have one
2 All devices use >1
3 No 2 devices can have the same I/O.
If 2 devices share an I/O address, what will happen?
The PC will lock up!
What company made a list for public use of the I/O Addresses that is still used today?
IBM
What refers to the I/O Base Address?
The first I/O address in a range for a device.
Since Sound/Network cards don't have mapped I/O addresses, what range(s) can you assign?
Between 210h & 278h. None of these are pre-assigned
PCI devices don't use classic IRQs, but they do use dynamically assigned channels __-__.
A-D
What Windows feature makes peace b/t PCI & Legacy expansion cards for IRQ addressing?
IRQ Steering
For SERIAL devices, the preset combinations of I/O & IRQ addrewsses were called _____ ports.
COM
For Parallel devices, the preset combinations of I/O & IRQ addrewsses were called _____ ports.
LPT
When you assign a COM or LPT port, you are actually setting what?
The IRQ & I/O Address
Is it possible for 2 devices to use the same IRQ?
Yes, but ONLY when they do not "talk" at the same time.
If they do, the computer will lock up.
PCI devices don't use classic IRQs, but they do use dynamically assigned channels __-__.
A-D
What Windows feature makes peace b/t PCI & Legacy expansion cards for IRQ addressing?
IRQ Steering
For SERIAL devices, the preset combinations of I/O & IRQ addrewsses were called _____ ports.
COM
For Parallel devices, the preset combinations of I/O & IRQ addrewsses were called _____ ports.
LPT
When you assign a COM or LPT port, you are actually setting what?
The IRQ & I/O Address
Is it possible for 2 devices to use the same IRQ?
Yes, but ONLY when they do not "talk" at the same time.
If they do, the computer will lock up.
____ & ____ are preset combinations of IRQs and I/O addresses.
COM & LPT
What is the standard I/O_IRQ for COM 1?
3F8 IRQ 4
What is the standard I/O_IRQ for COM 2?
2F8 IRQ 3
What is the NON-standard I/O_IRQ for COM 1?
3F8 IRQ 5
What is the NON-standard I/O_IRQ for COM 2?
2F8 IRQ 5
What is the name of the process of accessing memory without using the CPU?
Direct Memory Access (DMA)
What wire does the chipset link to the cpu?
HRQ wire
What is the point of the HRQ wire?
To inform the CPU when the external data bus is going to be busy.
The chipset has 8 wires, aka what?
DMA requests (DRQs)
DRQs are aka ___
DMA Channels
Most devices todqay that use DMA do so without accessing the chipset or the CPU. These devices are known as ___ ___.
Bus Masters
Bus Mastering devices skip the chipset altogether how?
They have circuitry that enables them to watch for other devices accessing the external data bus & get out of the way on their own.
What is another term for bus mastering in relation to hard drives?
Ultra DMA
For PnP to work properly, the PC needs 3 items, what are they?
1 PnP Bios
2 PnP OS
3 PnP Device
NON-PnP devices are known as _____ devices.
Legacy
What 2 ways can you tell if a device is PnP?
1 Plug it in, recognized? Yes PnP, No? could still be PnP
2 Look for jumpers for I/O IRQ settings = legacy
All devices are either Legacy or PnP. (T/F)
False, some can switch by moving a jumper or running a special configuration program.
ESCD = ____ ____ ___ ___
Extended System Configuration data
What is the ESCD?
a list of all system resources used, usually on the CMOS or Flash ROM.
Some PnP devices come with a built-in list of what system resources they can use. (T/F)
True, PnP devices can you any or only a specific IRQ or address.
When installing a newer version of an older device what is a good idea before installing the new one.
Remove any currently installed drivers before installing the new ones to prevent conflicts.
What is a good idea to check before installing a Legacy Device?
Check the "Device Manager" to see what resources are available & adjust the jumpers accordingly.
After running the Add/Remove Wizard & your USB/IEEE device is unrecognized, what could be the problem?
1 Physically damaged device
2 The device is Legacy & misconfigured jumpers or resources
What does the BLACK EXLAMATION POINT with a YELLOW CIRCLE in the device mgr mean?
A missing device, an unrecognized device, or a device driver problem. The device MAY work.
What does the RED X indicate in the device mgr?
A disabled device. Usually points to a system resource conflict or damaged device. The device WON'T work.
What does the BLUE I on a WHITE FIELD indicate in the device mgr?
A PnP device on which someone has configured the system resources manually. (For info only, not an error)
What does the GREEN QUESTION MARK indicate in the device mgr? (Windows ME only)
That Windows doesn't have the correct driver, but has installed a compatible driver. Device MAY work but lack certain functions.
The "!" symbol is the most common error & usually the easiest to fix. How?
1 Check devices connections
2 Reinstall driver with the UPDATE BUTTON
How do you find the UPDATE BUTTON when updating a devices driver?
Click the desired device, select properties, Driver tab, click update driver.