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122 Cards in this Set

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What is a sure way to render a harddrive completely unusable?
Open the casing
Inside a hard drive is a short stack of polished metal disks called _____
Platters
How fast do the platters turn on a modern har drive?
7200 RPM
In order to be useful, data must be organized in a fashion that the system can understand... called what?
The drive's Geometry
What are the 3 main characteristics that make up a disk's geometry?
1 Cylinders
2 Heads
3 Sectors per track
The 3 main characteristics of geometry are collectively called ___ by techs
The CHS settings
Data is recorded onto the platters in a series of magnetic rings called _____.
Tracks
Each platter has tracks where...?
On the top & bottom surfaces
Each track on one platter is matched up to a track on every other platter in the stack. (T/F)
True
A stack of tracks is referred to as a _____.
Cylinder
The term "heads" literally describes what?
The tiny read/write components that put data on or take data off the data tracks on each platter.
How many heads does a platter need to store data?
2
If you have a hard drive that has 4 platters, how many heads must it have?
8 (double the # of platters)
A hard drive's number of heads is always double the # of platters. (T/F)
False, some can have extra heads for special purposes.
If you slice the platters into portions like a cake or pizza, you have just made what?
A sector
How much data does each sector hold. (in bytes)
512 bytes of data
The "Sector" is the largest amount of data on the platter. (T/F)
False, a sector is the smallest amount of data that can be pulled/divided.
Is the total # of sectors on each track a constant for a hard drive or can it change?
It is a constant.
What is the geometry for Drive X if it has 63 sectors?
63 Sectors/track
Modern Mobo chips can recognize IDE drives and set them up in CMOS through a process called ______.
Autodetect
How do you determine a hard drives capacity?
Multiply all the basic drive units together.
If a hard drive has 16,383 cylinders, 16 heads, & 63 sectors/track, what is its capacity?
16,383 x 16 x 63 = 16,514,064. Multiply by 512 (bytes/sector) for a total of 8,455,200,768 bytes (8.4 GB)
Before data can be stored on a hard drive, the drive must be configured with what 2 things?
A partition and a file system.
What is a partition?
It is an electronic, logical division of the physical hard drive space.
How much of the hard drive space can a partition take up?
All or a smaller portion
Partitions are configured to support a specific type of file system through what process?
Formatting
Windows 9x/Me systems support what 2 file systems.
FAT 16
FAT 32
FAT = ______
File Allocation Table
What is the bit width of
FAT 16
FAT 32?
FAT 16 = 16 bits
FAT 32 = 32 bits
What other type of file system not used by Windows 9x/Me?
NTFS
NTFS = ______
New Technology File System
Windows NT Workstation & Server support FAT16 & NTFS but not FAT32. (T/F)
True
Windows 2000 & XP support how many of the 3 file systems?
All 3
What were some early limitations of the IDE?
Designed for Hard drives only, limited capacity, no optical mass storage devices (i.e. CD-ROM) & 1 controller channel IRQ 14
The largest of the original IDE hard drives had _____ cylinders, _____ heads,& ____ sectors & a total capacity of?
1024
16
63
504 MB
IDE = _____

EIDE = ____
Integrated Drive Electronics

Enhanced IDE
Name the 2 possible methods that IDE/ATA2 used to break the 504 MB capacity?
1 Sector translation
2 Logical Block Addressing
LBA = ______

LBA is also known as ____ ___
Logical block addressing

Enhanced CHS or ECHS
EIDE standard supports hard drives up to ____ GB.
8.4
Did the EIDE support any controller channels as the IDE did?
Yes, but it could also use a secondary channel. (IDE uses only 1 channel)
The EIDE could support a wider range of devices including ______.
ATAPI
ATAPI = ______
AT Attachment Packet Interface
Name some ATAPI devices.
CD-ROM, CD-RW, DVD-ROM, DVD-RW
What is the EIDE standard currently up to now?
ATA-6
What are the SMART technologies?
Self Monitoring, analysis, and reporting technology
What technology enables the EIDE device to bypass the CPU to access RAM.
DMA (Direct memory access)
What extension of EIDE standard allowed for a maximum hard drive size up to 137 GB.
INT13
Before INT13 what was the most that could be partitioned or formatted on a hard drive?
8.4 GB
Without INT13 extension support, you won't be able to format & partition more than 8.4GB of your hard drive, regardless of it's size. (T/F)
True
Name a few limits that plagued even the newer versions of IDE/ATA?
Power requirements
Limited device's cable length
Not hot-swappable
Reached the throughput limit
How does the SATA work?
SATA creates a point-to-point connection between the SATA device - hard drive, CD-ROM/DVD-ROM etc. & the SATA controller.
How many wires do the SATA devices need versus the EIDE which results in thinner wires & better CPU cooling.
SATA needed only 7 wires while the EIDE needs 80
What is the power requirement of the SATA wire versus that of the IDE devices.
SATA needs only 500 mV (millivolts) versus IDE's 5-volts
What shape are the connectors of the SATA devices?
Controller?
Power?
Both are rectangular but the power connector is wider than the controller connector.
What is the maximum SATA device cable length?
1 meter (39.4 inches)
What is the maximum length of a standard IDE cable?
18 inches
Are SATA devices hot-swappable?
yes
RAID = _______
Redundant Array of Independant Disks
How do SATA devices transmit data?
In serial bursts.
How do standard IDE devices transmit data?
By parallel streams
Theoretically.. how much faster are the serial bursts of SATA devices vs. the parallel IDE devices?
30xs
What is the current maximum data burst for SATA devices?
150 Mbps
What is the eventual throughput speed for SATA devices?
600 Mbps
SATA is _____ _____ meaning it can work with current IDE standards and no updates are necessary.
backward compatible
Adapters enable you to plug IDE drives into SATA sockets on the mobo, but they slow the throughput by how much?
50%
What are the 3 different settings for IDE/SATA drives?
1 Master
2 Slave
3 Stand Alone
What connects IDE devices to the mobo?
A 40 pin ribbon cable with 3 connectors.
There are 3 plugs on the Ribbon cable, what are they for?
1 IDE controller socket on mobo
2&3 are for IDE devices
How long should IDE ribbon cables be and why?
no longer than 18 inches, to avoid Eletrical noise
All modern mobos provide _ IDE sockets/channels supporting up to _ total IDE devices.
2
4
(1 Master & 1 Slave per channel)
How do you ensure that the ribbon cable is plugged into the IDE device correctly?
Align the stripe on the ribbon cable with "Pin #1"
Typically the red stripe on the ribbon cable will be closest to the red wire on the molex connector. (T/F)
True
How many pins do standard IDE ribbon cables have? How many do the special ribbon cables have?
Both have 40 pins, although the special cable has 80-conductor it still only has 40 pins.
What is the max speed for a standard ribbon cable?
33 Mbps
What is the difference between the 80-conductor cable & the 40-conductor cable?
The 80 has its own ground conductor on every pin.
When you have 2 EIDE controllers on a mobo or controller card, the system labes them as ____ & _____.
Primary

Secondary
Some mobos have 2 different speeds of hard drive controllers, which is faster.
The primary (IDE1)
To get the top speed out of your hard drive, which type of cable should be plugged into the primary (IDE1).
The 80-conductor plug.
Usually the faster hard drive controller is colored a ____ ____ or ___ rather than white, brown or black.
bright blue

red
If you are installing only a single hard drive on a drive controller cable you should set the jumpers as...?
"Stand alone" if it is supported but to set it as "Master" is better.
If you install 2 drives on a controller cable 1 must be set as _____ and the other must be set as ______.
Master

Slave
You can have 2 master devices or 2 slave devices on the same controller cable. (T/F)
False, you can not have either.
Does it matter what order you install devices on the IDE cable?
No,... but if you are using a Cable select cable it does matter.
If you have only one device, which section of the cable should it be attached? Middle or End, and why?
The End... if the end is open it can act like an antenna for Electrical Noise.
If you have 2 IDE devices set to cable select, which plug is the master & which is the slave?
The end plug assigns the Master, the middle is the slave.
C/sel

cs
Both mean

Cable select
In order to select the cable select configuration, what must you have?
A cable select cable
How are cable select cables different from normal IDE cables?
By a tiny hole through one pin.
If your mobo doesn't have SATA controller sockets & you want to use SATA devices, what can you do?
Get special host adapters via a PCI card. Some offer up to 8 SATA drives and some offer both ATA & SATA
When installing SATA hard drives which should be master/slave?
Neither, there are no jumper settings to mess with, SATA supports only a single device per controller channel
What should you do after installing a hard drive?
Enter its geometry into the CMOS through the CMOS setup program.
What 2 settings can you set in CMOS to detect a new hard drive?
1 Auto

2 User
How does the Auto function work in CMOS?
Every time the system is booted it askes the hard drive for its geometry every time.
How does the User function work in CMOS?
It asks the new hard drive only once for its geometry and stores it for future use, saving time during boot up.
If you install & configure a drive but it fails to show up in "Autodetect" this means what?
That something is wrong with the physical setup. Ensure cables are connected & jumpers are set properly
Partitioning, does what?
Establishes the framework upon which your file system is built.
How many partitions can you configure in your hard drive?
4 Total Partitions
(4 primary, or 3 primary & 1 Extended)
Partitioning creates a ____ ____ and a ____ ____ for each partition.
partition table

drive letter
Only a ____ _____ can be made bootable by setting it as the _____ partition.
primary partition

active
An extended partition can be made active and configured to boot. (T/F)
False, it can't be made active or bootable
How many partitions can be made active?
Only 1
The subdivisions of an Extended partition are known as _____ _____.
Logical Drives
What is the total # of Logical drives an Extended partition can have?
24
Are Extended partitions of a hard drive formatted?
No, but the logical drives of the extended partition must be formatted for use.
A PC must have at least __ primary partition, and Extended partitions are _____.
1

Optional
What utility does Windows 9x/Me use for partitioning?
FDISK (located on the system boot disk supplied with the setup CD-ROM.)
What utility does Windows NT use for partitioning?
Disk Administrator
What utility does Windows 2000/XP use for partitioning?
Disk Management
MMC = ____ ____ ____
Microsoft Management Console
Formatting, does what?
creates a file system for the drive- a big spreadsheet that tracks what piece of data is stored in which location.
Windows supports 3 different types of file systems, name them.
1 FAT16
2 FAT32
3 NTFS
Is FAT supported by all Microsoft Operating systems?
Yes
FAT does not support disk partitions larger than _._ GB, and offers no local, file-level what?
2.1 GB

Security
1.44MB floppy disks, Zip disks, & USB drives are always formatted with what?
FAT
FAT32 is the __ bit version of FAT.
32 bit
Up to what size file partitions does FAT32 perform?
Up to 2 TB
Do either FAT16 or FAT32 have any type of mechanism for controlling security?
No
With Windows 2000 what is the maximum FAT32 partition you can create without using FORMAT?
32GB
Windows 2000/XP uses ____ to partition 2TB, & has security.
NTFS
What type of partitioning system enables disk quotas & dynamic disk configuration settings?
NTFS
What is a disk quota?
A method of limiting the amound of disk space a user can use.
Name 3 tools used to format a partition.
1 FORMAT (command)
2 Rightclick partition in MY COMPUTER/EXPLORER
3 Disk Management Utility