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194 Cards in this Set

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ALU = ____
Arithmetic Logic Unit
The ALU is part of teh CPU that...
that actually processes data
The ALU does what?
Takes data from the CPU registers, processes it, and copies it back into the registers before moving to next batch of data
The CPU is also known as the ?
Microprocessor
Today's desktop CPU market is dominated by what 2 vendors?
Intel & American Micro Devices (AMD)
______ are memory circuits located inside the CPU that hold data before & after processing.
Registers
Pentium I & Pentium MMX used primarily __-bit registers.
32
Modern CPUs use __-bit & ___-bit register sizes.
64
128
FPU = _____
Floating Point Unit
The FPU component handles...
calculations based on the IEEE Floating Point Standard
The FPS (Floating Point Standard) does what?
Defines a set of codes for representing real numbers in CPU calculations. (Includes fractional numbers)
The FPU is the specialized CPU component that processes mathematical calculations for graphics programs & 3-D games.
True
Where is the FPU on modern PCs integrated?
With the CPU
Ancient pre-Pentium CPUs had the FPU chip where & what was it sometimes called.
It was on a separate FPU chip & was often called the mathcoprocessor to handle FPU mathematics.
The term Pipeline refers to...
the series of steps that the CPU follows to process commands.
Early pre-Pentium CPUs had how many pipelines?
Only a single pipeline
A single pipeline can process how many commands at a time?
1
What enabled Pentiums to process 2 commands simultaneously?
The Dual Independent Bus Architecture
The CPU clock speed is a measurement of what?
How many calculation cycles a CPU executes per second.
One calculation cycle per second is equal to ...?
One hertz (Hz) or Millions of calculations per second...megahertz (MHz)
Billions = Gigahertz (GHz)
The clock speed is determined by what 2 things.
The max speed of the CPU
The max speed that the MOBO can handle.
The CPU clock speed is determined....
by the manufacturer & is set at the factory
The MOBOs clock speed is governed by...?
An onboard component called the "System Crystal."
What oscillates at a fixed frequency when fed current?
The System Crystal
What is the System Crystal is usually what material?
Quartz
The timing (charges) from the System Crystal go where?
Onto a special wire called the CLK (or clock wire)
Each beat of the system crystal onto the CLK wire equals what?
One cycle on the CPU
What are the mechanisms the CPUs use to run at even faster speeds that that set by the system crystal clock.
Clock Multipliers
Early CPUs could run internally __x's the speed of the MOBO.
2x's
___ modern CPUs use clock multipliers.
All
Clock Multipliers can range from __x's to excess of __x's and aren't always whole numbers.
2
20
CPUs have 2 clock speeds.
the 1st is _______
the 2nd is _______
Internal
External
When you see an advertised CPU speed of 500 MHz, 1.8 GHz, 3Hz and so on.. you're seeing what?
The multiplied internal CPU speed not the external speed
SRAM = _____
Static RAM
What type of memory aids communication between the CPU & RAM.
Static RAM (SRAM)
Normal RAM is called
Dynamic RAM
DRAM = ______
Dynamic RAM
______ can hold data for only a very short duration before it needs to be refreshed.
DRAM
What type of RAM never has to be refreshed
SRAM
Which is faster SRAM or DRAM and why?
SRAM it never has to be refreshed
What type of memory is the first & fastest type of cache built into the CPU before the Pentium.
L1, Level 1 cache memory
L1 caches tend to run around what speed?
8-32 Kb
Built-in caches are called _____ while caches on MOBOs are called ______.
Internal

External
External Cache is what level cache, and how many bytes is it?
Level 2 L2

256Kb - 1Mb
Which is faster L1 cache or L2 cache?
L1, L2 is bigger but usually slower.
L2 cache was external in the Pentium days, but newer CPUs include onboard L2 cache memory. (T/F)
True
What are the known levels of cache?
L1
L2
L3 (rare) up to 3Mb on high end CPUs.
What is the ceramic package that holds the CPU called?
Die
"On-Die' refers to what?
Components that are incorporated into the package, such as L2 cache memory
Which is cheaper in cost?
SRAM
DRAM
DRAM,

SRAM is usually 10x's more.
What is the chip that is a special memory controller mounted on the MOBO that assists the CPU.
Northbridge
The _____ _____ chip connects the CPU to the system RAM.
Northbridge
What is the collective term for the physical pathways connecting the CPU, Northbridge chip & RAM.
Frontside Bus
What 2 pars does the Frontside bus consist of?
1 Data Bus
2 Address Bus
What is the channel that the CPU uses to access data in RAM.
Data Bus
What is the pathway that the CPU uses to talk to the Northbridge chip.
Address Bus
What bus refers to the pathway that connects the CPU and the L2 cache?
Backside bus
Pentium processors & their equivalents have a __-bit data bus & a __-bit address bus.
64

32
The Pentium-pro had a __-bit address bus available, but only __-bits were used.
36

32
Itanium & Opteron CPUs have a __-bit address bus.
64
What defines the max amount of RAM a CPU can theoretically address.
The number of wires on the address bus.
The theoretical amount of RAM a CPU can address is called the ______ ______.
Address Space
With a 32-bit address bus, the max amount of memory the CPU can address is...
2^32 or
4,294,967,296 bytes (4GB)
What is the circuit board on which the microprocessor is mounted?
The CPU Package
PGA = ______
Pin Grid Array
What do PGAs usually look like?
flat, square, and about 2" across with pins arranged in rows on the bottom side.
(Ex ZIF)
PGA CPUs plug into what type of sockets?
ZIF sockets
The type of ZIF socket that a PGA CPU uses is determined by what?
The number of pins on the CPU package.
At one time, PC makers used coded socket numbering schemes, such as Socket 4 to indicate a 273-pin CPU package.
True
A "Socket 370 ZIF" accommodates and Intel ____-pin CPU Package.
370
Who started the "Socket X" concept? X being what?
Intel

X, being the # of pins.
What does a SEC usually look like?
rectangular, roughly 5x2.5" with all pins mounted on the bottom edge.
SECC = ______
Single Edge Contact Cartridge
A fully enclosed design of SEC used by Pentium II & early Celerons was...?
A design called the SECC
(single edge contact cartridge)
The Pentium III & Athlon used a semi-enclosed SEC called the ____.
SECC2
What type of CPU came in a package called the SEPP that did away with the plastic casing?
Celerons
SEPP = ______
Single Edge Processor Package
What was the main difference between the SEPP and the SECC/SECC2.
The SEPP did not come in any type of plastic casing.
Intel SEC CPU packages use the ___ _ MOBO socket, with the exception of the Xeon.
Slot 1
Xeon SEC CPU uses what type of MOBO socket.
Slot 2
What type of CPU came in a package called the SEPP that did away with the plastic casing?
Celerons
SEPP = ______
Single Edge Processor Package
What was the main difference between the SEPP and the SECC/SECC2.
The SEPP did not come in any type of plastic casing.
Intel SEC CPU packages use the ___ _ MOBO socket, with the exception of the Xeon.
Slot 1
Xeon SEC CPU uses what type of MOBO socket.
Slot 2
What variant of Slot 1 does the AMD Athlon use?
Slot A
What was the early Pentium's power requirement?
5 Volts
When the CPUs went to lower voltages, MOBOs remained at 5 volts requiring what?
MOBOs require a built in voltage regulator circuit to control the flow of juice to the CPU
VRM = ______
Voltage Regulator Module
VRMs did what?
on older systems VRMs controlled the amount of power to the CPU (manually congfigured)
What are CPU packages usually made of?
high tech thermal plastics & ceramics that dissipate heat
Name 3 types of cooling elements that can be found in PCs.
Heat Sinks
Fans
Liquid Cooling Systems
What does the Heat Sink look like?
It is a finned alloy block that rests on the CPU package
The heat sink must be affixed securely to the CPU package wth what?
A special Thermal Compound
Liquid Cooling systems are similar to what?
Your car's cooling system, by pumping circulated water through hoses to a metal cooling element on the CPU
In a liquid cooling unit the heated water is pumped through what kind of unit that cools it?
Heat Exchanger Unit
(Like a Radiator)
What type of metal is used as a heat conductor in PC cooling units.
Copper or other metals
Which is better, a fan/heat sink system or a Liquid cooling system.
Liquid, they can keep the CPU at a consistent temp even during peak activity
The Pentium processor was the first PC processor to have what?
A 64-bit data bus
The original Pentium Line had a __-bit data bus, __-bit address bus, and speeds ranging from __ to ___ MHz.
64 32

60-166
In what year was the Pentium-Pro created?
1995
The Pentium-Pro had a ______ socket, ___-pin SPGA format and went into Socket _. With speeds of ___ to ___ Mhz.
rectangular
387
8
150 - 200
All speeds of the Pentium Pro used _._ Volts with the exception of the ___-MHz version which used _._ volts.
3.3

3.1
How many pipelines could the Pentium Pro handle?
It had 4, performing 3 tasks at the same time.
What was the capacity of the L1 & L2 cache on the Pentium Pro?
L1 = 16K
L2 = 256KB, 512KB, or 1MB
(The L2 was onboard)
The Intel Pentium Pro introduced the __-bit address bus but nobody used the extra wires for memory.
36

Used as a 32 bit bus
What was the first Pentium to use the SEC CPU package & when was it introduced?
Pentium II

1997
How big was the Pentium II data bus and address bus?
64 bit

36 (effectively 32 bit RAM)
could address 4GB of RAM
The Pentium II came in what speeds?
233, 266, 300, 333 MHz

with a system bus speed of 66 MHz
When the Pentium II started bing made with 100 MHz system buses, what were the speeds?
350, 400, & 450 MHz
How much cache did the Pentium II have? (L1, L2)
L1 = 32 KB

L2 = 512 KB (ran at 1/2 speed of the processor core)
What was the first processor to break away from the PGA form factor & use the SEC?
Pentium II
Where did the Pentium II have its L2 cache?
On a separate part of the SEC package. It was known as on-chip cache
The Pentium III processor was released in?
1999
The Pentium III originally came in a ___ -pin package and later switched to the ___-pin PGA form factor.
242

370
ATC = _____
Advanced Transfer Cache
What was the initial core speed & MOBO speed of the Pentium III?
450 MHz (core)

100 MHz (MOBO)
Intel kept cranking up the speeds until the P-III topped out at _._ ?
1.3 GHz with a 133 MHz system speed
the Pentium 4 had a __ step pipeline and special instruction sets that enhanced grapics to...?
20

8 data transfers per clock cycle
What 2 packages did the P-4 come in?
423-pin with 256 KB L2 cache

478-pin with 512 KB L2 cache onboard
What was the speed range of the Pentium 4s?
1.3 GHz - 3.06 GHz
The first Celerons came in what type of package, and ran at what speeds?
SEC CPU package

266 & 300 MHz
Later Celerons use ___ packages that plug into ____ ___ MOBOs & ran at speeds up to _._ GHz.
PGA
Socket 370
2.4 GHz
Why did the Celeron have a bad reputation (initially) and changed this how?
It didn't have onboard L2 cache.
They added 128 K L2 cache
Xeon is designed for what?
to offer strong multiprocessor support ideally suited for high-performance workstations
What does the Xeon MP incorporate?
On-die L3 cache of 512 KB, 1MB or 2MB size
Name a Xeon only slot.
Slot 2
Xeons based on what pentium models use the slot 2 SEC package. Later versions used what PGA package?
Pentium II based xeon
Pentium III based xeon
603-pin PGA package
The Itanium & Itanium II are separated from all previous Intel CPUs by what? And how many bytes could it address?
The inclusion of a 64-bit address bus.
18 Exabytes (EBs) (6 commas)
I.e 18 quintillion bytes
The Itanium uses a __-bit address bus while the Itanium II uses __-bits, for max address space of 17.5TB & 1.1PB.
44
50
TB = Terabytes (4 commas)
PB = Petabytes (5 commas)
What type of package does the Itanium use to help house it's big L3 cache.
418-pin PAC (Pin Array Cartridge)
PAC = ______
Pin Array Package
The Itanium II uses a ___-pin form of PGA that Intel calles OLGA.
611 pin
OLGA = Organic Land Grid Array
What does the Xeon MP incorporate?
On-die L3 cache of 512 KB, 1MB or 2MB size
How many pipelines could the Pentium Pro handle?
It had 4, performing 3 tasks at the same time.
What was the capacity of the L1 & L2 cache on the Pentium Pro?
L1 = 16K
L2 = 256KB, 512KB, or 1MB
(The L2 was onboard)
The Intel Pentium Pro introduced the __-bit address bus but nobody used the extra wires for memory.
36

Used as a 32 bit bus
What was the first Pentium to use the SEC CPU package & when was it introduced?
Pentium II

1997
How big was the Pentium II data bus and address bus?
64 bit

36 (effectively 32 bit RAM)
could address 4GB of RAM
The Pentium II came in what speeds?
233, 266, 300, 333 MHz

with a system bus speed of 66 MHz
When the Pentium II started bing made with 100 MHz system buses, what were the speeds?
350, 400, & 450 MHz
How much cache did the Pentium II have? (L1, L2)
L1 = 32 KB

L2 = 512 KB (ran at 1/2 speed of the processor core)
What was the first processor to break away from the PGA form factor & use the SEC?
Pentium II
Where did the Pentium II have its L2 cache?
On a separate part of the SEC package. It was known as on-chip cache
The Pentium III processor was released in?
1999
The Pentium III originally came in a ___ -pin package and later switched to the ___-pin PGA form factor.
242

370
ATC = _____
Advanced Transfer Cache
What was the initial core speed & MOBO speed of the Pentium III?
450 MHz (core)

100 MHz (MOBO)
Intel kept cranking up the speeds until the P-III topped out at _._ ?
1.3 GHz with a 133 MHz system speed
Itanium 64-bit CPUs weren't backward compatible with 32-bit applications. (T/F)
True
An Itanium can run 32-bit applications, but only through special 64-bit emulation programs. (T/F)
True
When was the K5 introduced, what type of form factor did it have and what was it's socket?
1995
PGA 296-pin
Socket 7
The K5 speeds ran from __-__MHz and had a __-bit-wide data bus and a __-bit address bus enabling _ GB of RAM.
75
116
64, 32
4
The K5 processor ran on _.__ volts of DC power and supported only _ KB of L1 cache.
3.52 volts

8
Aside from the markings on the hip, the __ looked identical to a Pentium.
K5
The K6 series of the AMD had a ___-pin PGA form factor, but used an enhanced Socket 7 ZIF socket called a ___ ___ 7.
Super Socket 7
The K6 initially was available in speeds of ___-___ MHz and used _._ volts DC.
166-266 MHz

3.3 Volts
By the End of the K6 series, its core speed was 550 MHz with 1 MB of L1 and ran on only 2.2 DC Volts.
True
The Athlon was introduced in ____ and with a speed of ____.
1999

500
What was the first x86 processor to break the 1 GHz mark?
Athlon
Athlons have ___ KB of L1 cache, and either ___ KB or ___ KB of L2 cache.
128
256 or 512
Early Athlons were packaged in the ____ _ SEC CPU package.
Slot A
Slot 1 & Slot A are pin-compatible and can be interchanged. (T/F)
False, they are not compatible and are not interchangeable
The Socket A PGA packaged version of the Athlon can not be plugged into an Intel Socket 370 MOBO. (T/F)
True
Athlon speed ratings are advertised according to their equivalent Pentium CPU speed, this is called a ______ ___?
P-Rating
The AMD CPUs effectively double the communication speed with the Northbridge (T/F)
True, a natural match for the DDR SDRAM
The Duron from AMD has 128 KB of L1 cache but only has 64 KB of L2 cache. (T/F)
True
The Duron has a ___-MHz frontside bus and debuted at ___-MHz & come in a Socket _ PGA form factor.
200
600
A
The ______ is AMD's server-level 64-bit CPU.
Opteron
The Opteron uses an internal processing technology called ____ _____.
Hyper Transport
Hyper Transport is more/less an onboard Northbridge chip that enables the Opteron to transfer data at 6.4 GB.
True
Is the Opteron backward compatible with 32-bit applications?
Yes unlike the Itanium
When upgrading a CPU you must make sure it is compatible with what 4 things.
1 Motherboard (model&brand)
2 Right speed
3 Voltage
4 RAM
Typically upgrading the CPU means what?
Upgrading the heat sink & fan assembly to match the new CPU.
Thermal Compound is sometimes called what?
1 _____
2 _____
Thermal Paste

Heat Dope
What is the key fo a successful CPU installation? How do you find this info?
Make sure the processor & mobo are compatible, from the mobo's documentation.
Sometimes you can upgrade the speed of CPU that a mobo can handle by updating (flashing) the BIOS. (T/F)
True
When purchasing a new CPU you generally have a choice of what..._____ or _____.
Boxed

Unboxed
A "Boxed" CPU means...
that the package includes all documentation & drivers, heat sink & fan assembly preinstalled.
A "Unboxed" CPU means....
when purchased ONLY the CPU itself is obtained. You must download documentation & drivers & provide cooling sys.
Heat Sinks are usually made of what, and with what kind of vanes?
Copper or Aluminum Alloy

Thick or Thin vanes
Before Installing a Heat Sink you should always do what?
Apply some Thermal Paste
CPU fans are ratedin ____ or CFM.
Cubic Feet per minute
Typical fans for PGA CPUs are rated around __ CFMs.
22
You can not over-cool a PC. (T/F)
True
Testing CPU Installation
If the system is on but the fan doesn't spin for 5+ seconds, do what?
Turn the system off and make sure the fan is plugged in correctly.
Testing CPU Installation
If the fan is spinning but the system doesn't boot...
Make sure the jumpers governing speed/voltage are set correctly.
Testing CPU Installation
If after a few minutes you hear a loud alarm...
Turn off system NOW! check fan installation, ensure good CPU/heatsink contact & fan is working.
Testing CPU Installation
If the system does not boot & and the fan does not spin...
Check that the CPU is seated properly and that no other components or cables have been unseated or disturbed
The frontside bus does what?
connects the CPU, Northbridge chip, and RAM
The backside bus does what?
connects the CPU & L2 cache memory.
Modern Mobos have built in _____ ____ to control the flow of electricity to the CPU. Older mobos had ____.
Voltage regulators.

Voltage regulatory modules (VRM)
The Itanium CPU is the 1st to have a 64-bit address bus, but actually only 48 or 52 bits are used. (T/F)
False!, they actually use either 44 or 50
What must be compatible when installing CPUs.
CPUs form factor
speed, and voltage