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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the exoskeleton made up of?
*called the cuticle
What are the functions of the exoskeleton?
-muscle attachment
-prevents water loss
-temperature regulation
What are the layers and their descriptions of the exoskeleton?
-epicuticle (waxy, very thin, prevents water loss, outermost layer)
-exocuticle (rigid)
-endocuticle (flexible)
What are setae?
-grow through holes in exoskeleton, attached to nerces, gives sense of touch
What are spines?
-channels for glands to excrete chemical defenses such as in the saddleback caterpillar
What types of mouths are there?
What is the upper lip and lower lip called?
-Labrum (r for upper)
What is the tongue called?
What is the maxilla and what does it have?
-second jaw which has palp which is used for tasting
What are some examples of sucking mouthparts?
-mosquito for piercing and sucking
-honey bee for sucking and handling wax and pollen
-butterfly for siphoning like a straw
What are some examples of sponging mouthparts?
-house fly which dissolves sugar and then sucks up liquid
-horse fly which slashes skin and drinks from pool of blood
What types of insects don't need eyes?
-eating machines such as maggots
What type of eyes do the Praying Mantis have?
-well developed to catch prey
-360 degree vision
What are compound eyes consist of?
How does light work in a compound eye?
-enters through cuticle
-enters lenses (crystalline cone)
-hits light sensitive cells
-nerves signal brain
Why is the visual spectrum important for insects to see?
-nectar is visible in UV range for honey bees
What are simple eyes known as?
-not present in all insects
-very sensitive to light
-tells when to hybernate, night, and day
What are the different types of antennae? How do they work?
-filliform: feel and taste
-plumose: detect pheremones
-serrate: don't know, they're saw-toothed
What is used to record electrical impulses for an antenna?
What identifies chemicals from the abdomen?
-HPLC: High pressure liquid chromatograph
What are the 5 main parts of insect legs?
-tarsi (claws at end)
What are the three types of legs?
What are veins for in wings?
What are wing types on insects?
-hemelytra; true bugs
-elytra; Colorado Potato Beetle
-scale; butterflies
What are two modified ovipositors?
What is a cerci?
-a modified ovipositer used for grasping, alarm, skipping ahead, and breathing
*has fast axon nerve to legs
What is the major difference between humans and insect respiration?
-humans have blood cells for oxygen, insects don't
What are spiracles?
-doors into and out of insect for respiration
-open for oxygen, close to keep moisture in
-located on thorax and abdomen (differ in numbers)
What type of circulatory system to insects have?
What valve lets blood in?
Out to head?
What is the equivalent to blood in insects?
What is reflex bleeding?
-bleeding from joints in defense against being eaten (bitter tasting)
What are the three basic parts of the digestive tract?
Describe the foregut.
-lined with cuticle and is shed when insect molts
-siliva and enzymes
-predigested, processed, and stored
Describe the midgut
-not line with cuticle
-breaks down food
-absorbs nutrients
Describe the hindgut.
-water is extracted and mixed with urine and pushed out
-lined with cuticle and shed when insect molts
Describe insect body fat.
-yellowish white mass
-mostly for storagte of nutrients
-sugar balance
What is like kidneys in insects and cleans blood?
-Malpighian tubules
(Marcello Malpighi in 17th century)
Describ Malpighian tubules.
-floatin gin hemolymph
-bathed in body fluid
-eliminates nitrogen waste
-maintain ion blaance
-located between midgut and hindgut
-dumps uric acid in with feces
what are the types of "urine" waste products in different creature?
-terrestrial insects: uric acid
-aquatic: ammonia
-humans: urea
What is included in the volutary CNS?
-ganglia or nerce bindles
-ventral nerve cord
What is the purpose of the central command?
-integrates information
-determines insect response
-controls colunatary action
-involved in learning
Describe Ganglia.
-can act seperately from brain
-delegates authority down stream
-What is teh peripheral nervous system for?
*Bring information to CNS
-various organs
*Sned repsponse back to muscles
-run, sting, eat
What is the vesceral nervaous system?
-involuntary action:
-digestion, heart beat, spiracles
What transports oxygen through insects and how?
-the tracheal system by having O2 dissolve in water