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46 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the exoskeleton made up of?
-protein
-chitin
*called the cuticle
What are the functions of the exoskeleton?
-protection
-muscle attachment
-prevents water loss
-temperature regulation
What are the layers and their descriptions of the exoskeleton?
-epicuticle (waxy, very thin, prevents water loss, outermost layer)
-exocuticle (rigid)
-endocuticle (flexible)
What are setae?
-grow through holes in exoskeleton, attached to nerces, gives sense of touch
What are spines?
-channels for glands to excrete chemical defenses such as in the saddleback caterpillar
What types of mouths are there?
-chewing/biting
-sucking
-sponging
vestigial
What is the upper lip and lower lip called?
-Labrum (r for upper)
-Labium
What is the tongue called?
-hypopharynx
What is the maxilla and what does it have?
-second jaw which has palp which is used for tasting
What are some examples of sucking mouthparts?
-mosquito for piercing and sucking
-honey bee for sucking and handling wax and pollen
-butterfly for siphoning like a straw
What are some examples of sponging mouthparts?
-house fly which dissolves sugar and then sucks up liquid
-horse fly which slashes skin and drinks from pool of blood
What types of insects don't need eyes?
-eating machines such as maggots
What type of eyes do the Praying Mantis have?
-well developed to catch prey
-360 degree vision
What are compound eyes consist of?
-omatidia
How does light work in a compound eye?
-enters through cuticle
-enters lenses (crystalline cone)
-hits light sensitive cells
-nerves signal brain
Why is the visual spectrum important for insects to see?
-nectar is visible in UV range for honey bees
What are simple eyes known as?
Describe.
-Ocelli
-not present in all insects
-very sensitive to light
-tells when to hybernate, night, and day
What are the different types of antennae? How do they work?
-filliform: feel and taste
-plumose: detect pheremones
-serrate: don't know, they're saw-toothed
What is used to record electrical impulses for an antenna?
-electroantennogram
What identifies chemicals from the abdomen?
-HPLC: High pressure liquid chromatograph
What are the 5 main parts of insect legs?
-coxa
-trachanter
-femur
-tibia
-tarsi (claws at end)
What are the three types of legs?
-saltatorial
-fossorial
-raptorial
What are veins for in wings?
-reinformcement
What are wing types on insects?
-hemelytra; true bugs
-elytra; Colorado Potato Beetle
-scale; butterflies
What are two modified ovipositors?
-stinger
-cerci
What is a cerci?
-a modified ovipositer used for grasping, alarm, skipping ahead, and breathing
*has fast axon nerve to legs
What is the major difference between humans and insect respiration?
-humans have blood cells for oxygen, insects don't
What are spiracles?
-doors into and out of insect for respiration
-open for oxygen, close to keep moisture in
-located on thorax and abdomen (differ in numbers)
What type of circulatory system to insects have?
-open
What valve lets blood in?
Out to head?
-ostium
-aorta
What is the equivalent to blood in insects?
-hemolymph
What is reflex bleeding?
-bleeding from joints in defense against being eaten (bitter tasting)
What are the three basic parts of the digestive tract?
-foregut
-midgut
-hindgut
Describe the foregut.
-lined with cuticle and is shed when insect molts
-siliva and enzymes
-predigested, processed, and stored
Describe the midgut
-not line with cuticle
-breaks down food
-absorbs nutrients
Describe the hindgut.
-water is extracted and mixed with urine and pushed out
-lined with cuticle and shed when insect molts
Describe insect body fat.
-yellowish white mass
-mostly for storagte of nutrients
-sugar balance
What is like kidneys in insects and cleans blood?
-Malpighian tubules
(Marcello Malpighi in 17th century)
Describ Malpighian tubules.
-floatin gin hemolymph
-bathed in body fluid
-eliminates nitrogen waste
-maintain ion blaance
-located between midgut and hindgut
-dumps uric acid in with feces
what are the types of "urine" waste products in different creature?
-terrestrial insects: uric acid
-aquatic: ammonia
-humans: urea
What is included in the volutary CNS?
-brain
-ganglia or nerce bindles
-ventral nerve cord
What is the purpose of the central command?
-integrates information
-determines insect response
-controls colunatary action
-involved in learning
Describe Ganglia.
-can act seperately from brain
-delegates authority down stream
-What is teh peripheral nervous system for?
*Bring information to CNS
-antenna
-eyes
-various organs
*Sned repsponse back to muscles
-run, sting, eat
What is the vesceral nervaous system?
-involuntary action:
-digestion, heart beat, spiracles
What transports oxygen through insects and how?
-the tracheal system by having O2 dissolve in water