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147 Cards in this Set

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Positional terms: P 15
otic (ear) buccal (cheek) mental (chin), claviular (collar bone), axillary (arm pit, brachial (arm), antecubital (front of elbow)antebrachial (forearm), etc LOOK at chart
anatomy=
physiology=
structure
function of living things
types of anatomy:
gross anatomy, microscopic anatomy
gross anatomy
macroscopic anatomy-involves the examinination of relatively large structures and features usually visible w the unaided eye
approaches to gross anatomy
Surface anatomy: study of general form and superficial markings. Regional anatomy: anatomical organization of specific areas of the body, such as the head, neck, or trunk, systemic, study of organ systems, developmental anatomy: deals w time between conception and physical maturity.
subdivisions of microscopic anatomy:
cytology and histology
cytology
the analysis of the structure of individual cells (the simplest units of life)
histology
examination of tissues groups of specialized cells and cell products that work together to perform speciif functions
Types of physiology
cell physiology, special physiology, systemic physiologic, pathological physiology
Organization of living things:
atom, molecule, chemical, organelle, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms AM COCTOOO
6 characteristics of life
development, organization, responsiveness, metabolism, growth and Reproduction
DORM Growth and Reproduction
negative feedback is...
the most common regulatory method to maintain homestasis. It makes deviations less or smaller.
3 components of negative feedback:
1) Receptor/sensor, 2) Control center (usually brain) 3) effector (can change the variable)
Serous Membranes:
cover organs=
line cavities=
cover organs = visceral portion
line cavities=parietal portion
where is serous fluid found?
between two layers for lubrication
4 major body cavities
cranial, thoracic, abdominal, pelvic
catalysts have what effect on activation energy?
reduce the activation energy required
what are enzymes acting as in the body?
protein catalysts. They increas the rate of reaction , reduce energy required, are not changed themselves
Inorganic Chemistry...
has no carbon skeleton
pH is a measurement of
[H+]-acid, base, acidosis, alkalosis, buffers
Organic chemistry has four types of molecules
1) carbohydrates, 2)lipids, 3)proteins, 4)nucleic acids
Enzyme requires additional molecule active site
**cofactors (non-proteins)
minerals
Enzyme requires additional molecule Lock and key model-active site
**coenzymes (proteins)
vitamins
decomposition reaction
a reaction that breaks a molecule into smaller fragments AB---A + B
catabolism
the breakdown of complex organic molecules into simpler components, accompanied by a release of energy
synthesis
the opposite of decomposition It assembles large molecules from smaller components A + B = AB
endergonic reaction
ergonic reaction
absorbs energy
releases energy (exo=outside)
4 Properties of Water
1) Solubility, organic and inorganic substances will be soilvent in H20 2) Reactivity Chemical rxns occur in water, ex: hydrolysis and dehydration 3) High heat capacity-the ability to absorb and retain heat due to water molecules in a liquid state are atrratced to one another due to 'H' bonding 4) Lubrication. little friction between water molecules so if two opposing surfaces separated by a layer of water , friction between them is reduced.
6 classes of lipids
1) fatty acids
2) Eiconosoids
3) Glycerides
4) steroids
5) phosphlipids and glycolipids
7 categories of protein functions
1) support
2) movement
3) transport
4) buffering
5) metabolic regulation
6) coordination and control
7) defense
active transport
carrier mediated transport-moving against the gradient
endocytosis
involves phagocytosis which requires large portions of membrane and pinocytosis
Receptor Mediated Endocytosis (RME)
Most common waste molecule formed in the body is
carbon dioxide
water is ____ percent of body weight
50-60%
3 types of body fluids
solutions, suspensions, colloids
3 important cmpds in Inorganic chemistry:
water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide
What determines the three dimensional structure of large molecules (proteins)?
Hydrogen bonds
What are ions called in medical terms?
electrolytes
All forms of energy used in the body can be used to generate heat, thus helping us to maintain our body temperature.
T or F
T
Identify which of the following is not a function of water in the body.

a. chemical reactions - solvent or reactant
b. mixing medium to dissolve materials in the body
c. lubricant or other types of protection
d. enzyme for chemical reactions
e. stabilizing body temperature
d, enzymes for chemical reaction
As concentration of [H+] goes up, acidity goes up, and pH goes
down
What is the name of the cavity immediately surrounding the heart?
pericardium
What is the name for the serous membrane in the abdominal cavity?
peritoneum
The type of joint that is surrounded by a joint capsule and filled with fluid?
synovial
Structure that connects bone to bone
ligament
The small fluid filled structures that cushion between bones and tendons or other structures whose friction could damage tissues
bursas
the unique structure that is present in 80% of the population in the ligament of the head of the femur
blood vessel in fovea capitis
the structure in the knee joint that functions as cushions between bones
menisci
what happens when cell undergoes cell lysis
cell death
a human cell that has a flagella
sperm
connects muscle to bone
tendon
fluid portion of a cell
cytoplasm
circular movement in a joint
circumduction
Water moves across the cell membrane in response to the concentration gradient
osmosis
the specific process in which something moves across a semi-permeable membrane from high to low concentration
diffusion
the specific part of a membrane that covers organs
visceral
maintenaince of a relatively constant environment
homeostasis
largest congle structure in cell contains DNA
nucleus
type of cellular division in which cells split their genetic material and two haploid cells (gametes) are produced.
meiosis
the type of celluar division in which two identical cells are produced, each with the full number of chromosomes
mitosis
the protein in the dead outer layer of cells which provides waterproofing characteristics for the skin
keratin
Connective tissue called hemopoetic which is formed in the bone marrow
blood
ex. ball and socket joint
shoulder
the protein found that waterproofs the skin
keratin
the type of joint found in the adjacent bones of the cranial cavity
suture
type of secretory glands with no ducts which make their cellular products secrete into the bloodstream for dispersal.
endocrine
opposite of endocytosis which expels or secretes substances from the cell
exocytosis
secretory glands with ducts through which they secrete their products
exocrine
type of connective tissue which provides protection for the body and stores triglycerides for future energy
adipose
pigment that causes hair skin and eye color
melanin
cell "eats" substances found outside the cell
phagocytosis
cells that produce cartilage
chondroblast
outside connective tissue surrounding bone
periosteum
cells that produce bone
osteoblast
cells that maintain bone
osteocyte
cells that remodel bone
osteoclast
outside connective tissue sheath surrounding cartilage
perichondrium
organelle that forms proteins
ribosome
internal structural support for individual cells
cytoskeleton
active range of motion
range a joint can move on its own
passive range of motion
is when a therapist or other person moves the joint.
3 types protein fibers in connective tissue
collagen, reticular, elastic
3 types cartilage
hyaline, fibrocartilage, elastic
integumentary glands
sweat, ceruminous, lactiferous, sebaceous
thick skin
has no hair, has no stratum lucibum, and is on palmar and plantar
thin skin
has hair, is most of the body
fontanels
fibers that connect the bones before they fuse
5 major functions of untegumentary system
1) vitamin d production, 2)protection of underlying structures, 3)temperature regulation, 4) sensation, 5)excretion
stage of mitosis where chromosomes become visible
prophase
stage of mitosis where duplicate chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell
metaphase
stage of mitosis where chromatids separate and start moving to opposite poles
anaphase
state of mitosis in which two distinct nuclei are visible
telephase
3 types of cartilage
hyaline, fibrocartilage, elastic
Intramembranous ossification
starts with connective tissue, throguh interstitial and appositional growth becomes bone
endochondral ossification
page 176-177
starts with hyaline cartilage. Osteoblasts hypertrophy, the cartilage gradually is calcified as osteotypes die. Eventually, blood vessels enter the center.
thick skin vs thin skin
thick skin does not have hair, does not have the stratum lucidum, and covers the hands and soles of feet.
theories of aging
Death gene, at a certain age a "death gene" is activated. Mitochondrialdamage from free radicals, DNA damage- againg cells lack telomerase, ehich protects the telomeres that fight DNA damage, free radicals may also damage DNA,
2 major layers of the skin
epidermis, dermis
4 things that can change skin color
melanin, carotene, amt of oxygen in blood, skin thickness
nutrients required for bone growth
vit c, vit d, protein
characteristics associated with life
growth metabolism reproduction, organization, responsiveness, "DORM growth and responsiveness"
fontanels
membrannous areas in a newborn that make the head flexible for birth, suture fill in the gaps later
5 functions of integumentary sytem
vit d production, protection,
4 ways molecules/ions can pass through the plasma membrane
1) directly thru phospholipids membrane 2) membrane (protein) channels (pores) Each channel is specific for one molecule- Na K etc. 3) carrier molecules 4) vesicles
how do the number and type of organelles reflect the structure's specialized function?
for example, a muscle cell would need more ATP than a cheek cell, so it would have a lot more mitochondria.
what 3 things does cytosol have in it?
fluid, cytoskeleton, cytoplasmic inclusions (liquid drops of glycogen to store energy)
lipochromes
age pigment
hemoglobin transports
gases, melanin, and lipochromes
osmotic pressure
force to prevent water movement by osmosis across a membrane
what are three kinds of mediated transport?
facilitated diffusion (requires no energy but a carrier molecule, active transport (requires ATP), secondary active transport (co-transport and counter transport)
necropsy
examination of dead non-human body
histology
study of tissues under microscope
3 types of extra cellular matrix
protein fibers, ground substance, fluid
6 classes of adult connective Tissue
1) Loose (AREOLAR), connects skin to fat layer
2)dense (Irregular: collagenous, or elastic; Regular: collagenous or elastic
3) Special adipose (yellow or brown), and reticular
4) Cartilage-chondrocytes
5) Bone
6) Hemopoietic tissue (bone marrow) and blood
With movement, what happens to mucle tissue?
it contracts or shortens
action potentials
electrical activity in nervous tissue
2 types of nervous tissue cells
neuron and neuroglia
Neuroglia
ANYTHING THAT SUPPORTS A NEURON
hypodermis is also called
sub Q tissue. It is not a part of the skin
3 main causes of skin color
pigments: melanin & carotene,
blood volume: dilation, contraction
thickness
3 types of hair
lanugo, terminal, vellus
hair structure
shaft, root, matrix
What are nails made of
stratum corneum with hard keratin
2 major parts of the nail
nail root and nail body
3 changes that occur with aging
decrease bone density,
decrease in collagen in skin and decreased elasticity
decreased swaet gland activity
4 components of the skeletal system
bones, cartilage, tendons, ligaments
2 types of cartilage growth
appositional and interstitial
3 parts of bone
diaphysis, epiphysis, epiphyseal plate
bones grow only by _______ growth
appositional
appositional growth
formation of new bone on surface of older bone
factors affecting bone growth
genetics, nutrition, vit d, vit c, hormones (GH, thyroid, sex)
how many bones are in the skull?
22 seperate bones plus 6 auditory ossicles (3 on each side)
ligamentum nuchae
keeps head erect, elastic ligament
mastoid process
contains air cells of the middle ear
what is the purpose of the nasal conchae in nasal cavity
increase surface area in nasal cavity, clean warm and humidify air
purpose of the paranasal cavities
decrease the weight of the skull
calvaria
dome of the skull
crista galli
meninges attachment
sella turcica
turkish saddle, holds the pituitary gland (roof of the mouth)
foramen magnum
spinal cord attaches to brain
occipital condyles articulate with ----
atlas (yes joint)
vertebral colum has ___ bones in ____ regions
26; 5
intervertebral discs are made of
fibrocartilage
we have ____ pairs of ribs
12, 7 costal connect directly with the sternum
_____ is clinical landmark for CPR
Xiphoid process
joint in ankle
talocrural joint
sesamoid bones
small bones located within tendons