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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are the factors affecting bone development, growth and repair?
nutrition; vitamen a d and c; growth hormone;thyroid harmone; thyroid hormone; hormones; physical stress; sun exposure
what does vitamen d do?
absorbs calcium
lack of calcium in children?
to little g.h. in children?
to much g.h. in children?
to much g.h. in adulds?
what can to much thyroid harmone do?
stunt your growth
what happens with sun exposure and liver work together?
produce dehydrochelosterol and when it comes into contact w sun and makes vitamen d which makes calcum which makes bones hard
what is hematopoiesis?
process by which blood cells are formed by red bone marrow in medullary cavity; when aged, turns into yellow marrow which is inactive
what to inorganic salts do?
provide ions + and -; Ca ++ which give rigidity; forms bones; blood to clot; heart to beat; mus. contract; nerve impulse
what is a fracture?
break in a bone
what is an incomplete fracture?
hasnt gone completely through the bone
stays in skin no matter how broken bone is
broken and out of skin
caused by an accident
spontaneous (disease)
what are the parts of a long bone?
epiphysis; articular cartilage; diaphysis; periosteum; compact bone; spongy bone; trabeculae; medullary cavity; endosteum; marrow
at each end of bone, articuales w another bone.
what does articulate mean?
form joint
articular cartilage-
the articulating portion of the epiphysis is covered by it
the shaft of the bone between the epiphysis
vascular tough fibrous tissue that completely covers the bone except for the ends
compact bone-
tightly packed tissue in the wall of the diaphysis
spongy bone-
is what the epiphysis is largely composed of; aka cancellous bone; has trabeculae
bone plates found in epiphysis that support ends of long bones that have alot of pressure
medullary cavity-
a semirigid tube formed by compact bone in the diaphysis; a hollow chamber that is continuous with the spaces of the spongy bone
a thin membrane containing gone forming cells
type of soft connective tissue
intramembranous bones-
the broad flat bones of the skull
bone forming cells that deposit bony matris around themselves
what is intramembranous ossification?
the process of replacing connective tissue to form an intramembranous bone
what is endobhondral ossification?
the process of forming an endochondral bone by the replacement of hyaline cartilage
what is a green stick fracture?
an incomplete and the break occurs on the convex surface of the bend in the bone
involves an incomplets longitudinal break
complete and fragments the bone
complete and the break occurs at a right angle to the axis of the bone
occurs at an angle other than a right angle to the axis of the bone
is cause by twisting a bone excessively
what is osteoporosis?
when the skeletal system loses bone volume and mineral content and trabeculae so the bones develop spaces and canals which enlarge and fill eith fibrous and fatty tissues.
what increase the risk of osteoporosis?
low intake of dietary calcium and lack of physical exercise; drinking alcohol; smoking; genes
what develop it?
declining levels of estrogen
what is the axial skeleton composed of?
skull; ossicles; hyoid; vertebreal column; thoracic cage
appendicular skeleton?
pectorial girdle; upper limbs; pelvic girdle; lower limbs
pectorial girdle?
scapula 2, clavicle 2
upper limbs
humerous 2; radius 2; ulna 2; carpal 16; metacarpal 10; phalanx 28
pelvic girdle
coxal 2
lower limbs
femur 2; patella 2; tibia 2; fibula 2; tarsal 14; matatarsal 10; phalanx 28
a rounded process that usually articulates w another bone
a soft spot in the skull where membranes cover the space between bones
an opening through a bone that usually serves as a passageway for blood vessels nerves or ligaments
a deep pit or depression
a narrow ridge
a tubelike passageway within a bone
a prominent projection on a bone
a cavity within a bone
an interlocking line of union between bones
a relatively large process
a knoblike process usually larger than a tuberle
what are the disorders of the vertebral column?
herniated disk, kyphosis, lordosis, scoliosis
herniated disc-
ruptured or slipped disc
exaggerated thoracic curve; hunchback poor posture
an exaggerated lumbar curve; swayback
abnormal lateral curve, one hib lower than the other; cause unknown
common among amish ppl; brought by a male cat; its a person with extra digets
diff. in male and female skeletal
female iliac bones are more flared then males; f. hips are broader; f. pubic arch is greater, more distance between the ischial spines and the ischial tuberositires; f. pelvic cavity is usually wider; female pelvis are usually lighter and more delicate and show less evidence of muscle attachments