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63 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what are the factors affecting bone development, growth and repair?
nutrition; vitamen a d and c; growth hormone;thyroid harmone; thyroid hormone; hormones; physical stress; sun exposure
what does vitamen d do?
absorbs calcium
lack of calcium in children?
adults?
rickets
osteomala
to little g.h. in children?
to much g.h. in children?
to much g.h. in adulds?
dwarfism
giantism
acromegaly
what can to much thyroid harmone do?
stunt your growth
what happens with sun exposure and liver work together?
produce dehydrochelosterol and when it comes into contact w sun and makes vitamen d which makes calcum which makes bones hard
what is hematopoiesis?
process by which blood cells are formed by red bone marrow in medullary cavity; when aged, turns into yellow marrow which is inactive
what to inorganic salts do?
provide ions + and -; Ca ++ which give rigidity; forms bones; blood to clot; heart to beat; mus. contract; nerve impulse
what is a fracture?
break in a bone
what is an incomplete fracture?
hasnt gone completely through the bone
simple?
stays in skin no matter how broken bone is
compound?
broken and out of skin
traumatic?
caused by an accident
pathologic?
spontaneous (disease)
what are the parts of a long bone?
epiphysis; articular cartilage; diaphysis; periosteum; compact bone; spongy bone; trabeculae; medullary cavity; endosteum; marrow
epiphysis-
at each end of bone, articuales w another bone.
what does articulate mean?
form joint
articular cartilage-
the articulating portion of the epiphysis is covered by it
diaphysis-
the shaft of the bone between the epiphysis
periosteum-
vascular tough fibrous tissue that completely covers the bone except for the ends
compact bone-
tightly packed tissue in the wall of the diaphysis
spongy bone-
is what the epiphysis is largely composed of; aka cancellous bone; has trabeculae
trabeculae-
bone plates found in epiphysis that support ends of long bones that have alot of pressure
medullary cavity-
a semirigid tube formed by compact bone in the diaphysis; a hollow chamber that is continuous with the spaces of the spongy bone
endosteum-
a thin membrane containing gone forming cells
marrow-
type of soft connective tissue
intramembranous bones-
the broad flat bones of the skull
osteoblasts-
bone forming cells that deposit bony matris around themselves
what is intramembranous ossification?
the process of replacing connective tissue to form an intramembranous bone
what is endobhondral ossification?
the process of forming an endochondral bone by the replacement of hyaline cartilage
what is a green stick fracture?
an incomplete and the break occurs on the convex surface of the bend in the bone
fissured?
involves an incomplets longitudinal break
comminuted?
complete and fragments the bone
transverse?
complete and the break occurs at a right angle to the axis of the bone
oblique?
occurs at an angle other than a right angle to the axis of the bone
spiral?
is cause by twisting a bone excessively
what is osteoporosis?
when the skeletal system loses bone volume and mineral content and trabeculae so the bones develop spaces and canals which enlarge and fill eith fibrous and fatty tissues.
what increase the risk of osteoporosis?
low intake of dietary calcium and lack of physical exercise; drinking alcohol; smoking; genes
what develop it?
declining levels of estrogen
what is the axial skeleton composed of?
skull; ossicles; hyoid; vertebreal column; thoracic cage
appendicular skeleton?
pectorial girdle; upper limbs; pelvic girdle; lower limbs
pectorial girdle?
scapula 2, clavicle 2
upper limbs
humerous 2; radius 2; ulna 2; carpal 16; metacarpal 10; phalanx 28
pelvic girdle
coxal 2
lower limbs
femur 2; patella 2; tibia 2; fibula 2; tarsal 14; matatarsal 10; phalanx 28
condyle-
a rounded process that usually articulates w another bone
fontanel-
a soft spot in the skull where membranes cover the space between bones
foramen
an opening through a bone that usually serves as a passageway for blood vessels nerves or ligaments
fossa
a deep pit or depression
linea
a narrow ridge
meatus
a tubelike passageway within a bone
process
a prominent projection on a bone
sinus
a cavity within a bone
suture
an interlocking line of union between bones
trochanter
a relatively large process
tuberosity
a knoblike process usually larger than a tuberle
what are the disorders of the vertebral column?
herniated disk, kyphosis, lordosis, scoliosis
herniated disc-
ruptured or slipped disc
kyphosis-
exaggerated thoracic curve; hunchback poor posture
lordosis-
an exaggerated lumbar curve; swayback
scoliosis
abnormal lateral curve, one hib lower than the other; cause unknown
polydactyle
common among amish ppl; brought by a male cat; its a person with extra digets
diff. in male and female skeletal
female iliac bones are more flared then males; f. hips are broader; f. pubic arch is greater, more distance between the ischial spines and the ischial tuberositires; f. pelvic cavity is usually wider; female pelvis are usually lighter and more delicate and show less evidence of muscle attachments