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187 Cards in this Set

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BASIC STRUCTURE


2 KIDNEYS
2 URETERS
1 URINARY BLADDER
1 URETHRA
.
THESE CERTAIN WASTE PRODUCTS CONTAIN NITROGEN
1. UREA
2. URIC ACID
3. CREATININE
4. AMMONIA
.
WHICH NUTRIENT CONTAINS NITROGEN?

PROTEINS
.
OTHER IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS OF THE URINARY SYSTEMS
1. REGULATION OF FLUID & ELECTROLYTE BALANCE
2. REGULATION OF ACID-BASE BALANCE
3. PRODUCTION OF ERYTHROPOETIN
(INCREASES RBC PRODUCTION IN BONE MARROW)
4. SECRETION OF RENIN (CAUSES ANGIOTENSION I TO CHANGE TO ANGIOTENSION II WHICH VASOCONSTRICTS BLOOD VESSELS & INCREASES BP)
5. ACTIVATION OF VITAMIN D (INCREASES ABSORPTION OF CALCIUM & PHOSPHORUS FROM SMALL INTESTINE
.
KIDNEYS
LOCATION-UPPER ABDOMINAL CAVITY ON EITHER SIDE OF VETEBRAL COLUMN

BEHIND PERITONEIUM (RETROPERITONEAL)
,
SIZE OF KIDNEYS

4 INCHES LONG
2 INCHES WIDE
1 INCH THICK
,
KIDNEY PROTECTION

PROTECTED BY
1. RIBS
2. CUSHION OF ADIPOSE TISSUE
3. HAS FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE COVERING
,
BLOOD FLOW OF THE KIDNEYS

ABDOMINAL AORTA >> RIGHT AND LEFT RENAL ARTERIES >> KIDNEYS >> RIGHT AND LEFT RENAL VEINS >> INFERIOR VENA CAVA
.
3 AREAS OF THE KIDNEYS

1. CORTEX- OUTER PART
2. MEDULLA- INNER PORTION
3. RENAL PELVIS - EXPANSION OF UPPER END OF A URETER
.
PYRAMIDS-


SHELL SHAPED STRUCTURES OF RENAL MEDULLA COLLECTING TUBES COMING FROM THE NEPHRONS
.
PAPILLA-


NARROW END OF A PYRAMID
.
CALYX-


CUP SHAPED EXTENSIONS OF RENAL PELVIS
.
MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE -- NEPHRONS

1. MAIN FUNCTIONING UNITS OF THE KIDNEYS
2. ABOUT 1 MILLION IN EACH KIDNEY
.
2 PARTS OF A NEPHRON

1. RENAL CORPUSCLE (GLOMERULUS & BOWMANS CAPSULE

2. RENAL TUBULE (4 PARTS OF THE TUBULE)
.
BLOOD FLOW THROUGH NEPHRON

RENAL ARTERY >> ARTERIOLES >> AFFERENT ARTERIOLE >> GLOMERULUS (IN BOWMAN'S CAPSULE) >> EFFERENT ARTERILE >> PERITUBULAR CAPILLARIES >> VENULES >> RENAL VEIN
,
PARTS OF A RENAL TUBULE

BOWMAN'S CAPSULE >> PROXIMAL CONVOLUTED TUBULE >> LOOP OF HENLE >> DISTAL CONVOLUTED TUBULE >> COLLECTING TUBES
,
3 STEPS TO URINE FORMATION

1. GLOMERULAR FILTRATION
2. TUBULAR REABSORPTION
3. TUBULAR SECRETION
,
MAIN SUBSTANCES THAT ARE FILTERED
1. WATER
2. GLUCOSE
3. SODIUM
4. UREA -------- BODY DON'T NEED
5. URIC ACID ----- THEY ARE WASTE
6. CREATININE ---- PRODUCTS
.
TUBULAR SECRETION -- 3RD STEP
MOVEMENT OF SUBSTANCES FROM BLOOD IN PERITUBULAR CAPILLARIES INTO FILTRATE IN DISTAL AND COLLECTING TUBULES
.
MAIN SUBSTANCES THAT ARE SECRETED -3RD

1. HYDROGEN
2. POTASSIUM
3. AMMONIA
4. SOME DRUGS
.
URETERS

FUNCTION- CARRY URINE FROM KIDNEY TO BLADDER
.
URETERS

SIZE IS 10-12 INCH LONG TUBES

MUCOUS MEMBRANE LINING THAT IS CONTINOUS WITH LINING OF RENAL PELVIS AND BLADDER
HAS SENSORY NERVE RECEPTORS
HAS SMOOTH MUSCLE IN WALLS; PERISTALSIS PROPELS URINE TOWARD URINARY BLADDER
.
URINARY BLADDER

LIES IN PELVIC CAVITY BEHIND SYMPHYSIS PUBIS

FUNCTION: RESERVOIR FOR COLLECTING URINE
,
URINARY BLADDER
1. WALLS INCLUDE ELASTIC FIBERS AND SMOOTH MUSCLE THAT MAKE IT VERY STRETCHABLE
2. LINING IS MUCUS MEMBRANE THAT IS LOOSELY ATTACHED TO MUSCULAR LAYER, WHEN EMPTY LIES IN FOLDS (RUGAE)
3. INTERNAL URETHRAL SPHINCTER--SMOOTH MUSCLE THAT IS LOCATED WHERE BLADDER AND URETHRA CONNECT (INVOLUNTARY CONTROL)
.
2ND STEP-- TUBULAR REABSORPTION
1. MOVEMENT OF SUBSTANCES OUT OF RENAL TUBULES INTO BLOOD OF PERITUBULAR CAPILLARIES.
2. CAN OCCUR IN ALL AREAS OF TUBULES INCLUDING COLLECTING TUBES
3. 99% OF THE FILTRATE IS REABSORBED
4. MAIN SUBSTANCES THAT ARE REABSORBED
A. WATER B. GLUCOSE 100% C. SODIUM
/
BASIC FUNCTION OF THE URINARY SYSTEM


REMOVAL OF CERTAIN WASTE PRODUCTS AND EXCESS WATER FROM THE BODY AS URINE
.
1ST STEP GLOMERULAR FILTRATION
1.BLOOD PRESSURE INCREASED IN GLOMERULUS FORCES WATER AND DISSOLVES MATERIALS OUT OF GLOMERULUS INTO BOWMAN'S CAPSULE
**THIS IS CALLED FILTRATION**
THE FLUID IS CALLED FILTRATE
125 ML PER MIN (180 LITERS PER DAY)
,
URETHRA

FUNCTION; CARRIES URINE FROM BLADDER TO EXTERIOR THROUGH URINARY MEATUS
1. MUCUS MEMBRANE LINING THAT IS CONTINOUS WITH LINING OF BLADDER
,
URETHRA

IN FEMALES, ABOUT 1 1/2 INCHES LONG ANTERIOR TO VAGINA

IN MALES, ABOUT 8 INCHES LONG, EXTENDS THROUGH PROSTATE GLAND AND PENIS (OTHER FUNCTION; PASSASEWAY OF SEMEN)

EXTERNAL URETHRAL SPHINCTER-STRIATED MUSCLE THAT CIRCLES THE URETHRA JUST BELOW THE BLADDER (VOLUNTARY CONTROL)
.
MICTURITION REFLEX
1. WHEN BLADDER ACCUMULATED 300-400 ML OF URINE STRETCH RECEPTORS IN BLADDER WALLS ARE STIMULATED
2. NERVE IMPULSES ARE SENT TO SPINAL CORD THROUGH SENSORY NEURONS AND MOTOR NEURONS TRANSMIT IMPULSES BACK TO BLADDER MUSCLES AND THE INTERNAL URETHRAL SPHINCTER
3. BLADDER WALLS CONTRACT AND INTERNAL URETHRAL SPHINCTER RELAXES
4. URINE ENTERS THE URETHRA AND THE URGE TO VOID IS FELT (CEREBRAL CORTEX HAS TO RECOGNIZE THIS FEELING AND DECIDE WHAT TO DO ABOUT IT)
.
IF IT IS NOT A CONVENIENT TIME & PLACE TO VOID, THE EXTERNAL URETHRAL SPHINCTER CAN BE VOLUNTARILY CONTRACT AND PREVENT URINATION..THE BLADDER WILL CONTINUE TO FILL, AFTER ANOTHER ACCUMULATION OF 150ML, THE REFLEX WILL OCCUR AGAIN

IF IT IS A CONVENIENT TIME AND PLACE TO VOID THE EXTERNAL URETHRAL SPHINCTER CAN BE RELAXED AND THE BLADDER WILL EMPTY
,
IF IT IS NOT A CONVENIENT TIME & PLACE TO VOID, THE EXTERNAL URETHRAL SPHINCTER CAN BE VOLUNTARILY CONTRACT AND PREVENT URINATION..THE BLADDER WILL CONTINUE TO FILL, AFTER ANOTHER ACCUMULATION OF 150ML, THE REFLEX WILL OCCUR AGAIN

IF IT IS A CONVENIENT TIME AND PLACE TO VOID THE EXTERNAL URETHRAL SPHINCTER CAN BE RELAXED AND THE BLADDER WILL EMPTY
,
CHARACTERISTICS OF URINE

NORMAL OUTPUT IN 24 HOURS 1-2 LITERS (1000-2000 ML) MINIMAL ACCEPTED HOURLY OUTPUT 30ML
COLOR-LIGHT YELLOW--STRAW
COLOR-AMBER-DARK YELLOW
,
SPECIFIED GRAVITY--WEIGHT OF DISSOLVED MATERIAL IN A FLUID (SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF WATER IS 1.000)

SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF URINE 1.001 TO 1.035 DEHYDRATED
.
1.001 1.035

DILUTE CONCENTRATED

PH OF URINE 4.6--8 (AVERAGE 6.0) SLIGHTLY ACID
.
NORMAL CONSTITUENTS FOUND IN URINE
1. WATER
2. SALTS (NACL)
3. POTASSIUM K
4. HYDROGEN H
NITROGENOUS WASTES (UREA,CREATININE,URIC ACID,AMMONIA)
.
ABNORMAL CONSTITUENTS OF URINE
1. GLUCOSE
2. PROTEIN / ALBUMIN (TOO LARGE THRU GLOMEROUS)
3. BLOOD CELLS--RBC'S, WBC'S
4. BACTERIA
5. KETONES (ACETONE) FROM EXCESS FAT METABOLISM
,
URINE IS BASICALLY STERILE
.
FLUID BALANCE

1. WATER MAKES UP 50%-60% OF BODY WT
.
OCCUPIES 3 MAIN LOCATIONS
1. INTRACELLULAR--INSIDE THE CELLS
2. EXTRACELLULAR--OUTSIDE THE CELLS
INTERSTITIAL-BETWEEN THE CELLS
PLASMA-(INTRAVASCULAR) IN THE BLOOD VESSELS

THE VOLUMES OF ICF AND ECF (INTERSTITIAL & PLASMA) STAY RELATIVELY CONSTANT
,
THE BODY ADJUSTS ITS FLUID OUT PUT SO THAT IT EQUALS ITS FLUID INTAKE, THEREFORE THE TOTAL AMOUNT OF WATER IN THE BODY DOES NOT CHANGE
.
3 SOURCES OF FLUID INTAKE

1. LIQUIDS WE DRINK
2. THE WATER IN THE FOODS WE EAT
3. THE WATER FORMED BY CATABOLISM OF FOOD
FOOD + 02 = ENERGY
,
4 SOURCES OF FLUID OUTPUT

1. SKIN-PERSPIRATION
2. LUNGS-WATER IN EXPIRED AIR
3. INTESTINES-FECES
4. KIDNEYS-URINE
** THE FLUID OUTPUT THAT CHANGES THE MOST IS THAT FROM THE KIDNEYS **
,
CONTROL OF URINE VOLUME
**DIRECTLY**

ADH
* ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE

* FROM POSTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND

* DECREASES THE AMOUNT OF URINE BY MAKING THE COLLECTING TUBULES PERMEABLE TO WATER
.
**INDIRECTLY** ALDOSTERONE

* FROM ADRENAL CORTEX

* STIMULATES THE TUBULES TO REABSORB SODIUM AT A FASTER RATE SO WATER REABSORPTION IS ALSO INCREASED (URINE OUTPUT DECREASES)

* WHERE SODIUM GOES, WATER FOLLOWS
,
**INDIRECTLY** ANH

* ATRIAL NATRIURETIC HORMONE

* FROM HEARTS ATRIAL WALL

* HAS OPPOSITE EFFECT OF ALDOSTERONE DECREASES REABSORPTION RATE OF SODIUM AND WATER, WHICH INCREASES URINE OUTPUT
.
OTHER MECHANISMS THAT AFFECT FLUID BALANCE

CAPILLARY BLOOD PRESSURE PUSHES WATER OUT OF BLOOD WHICH INCREASES INTERSTITIAL FLUID

PLASMA PROTEIN CONCENTRATION PULLS WATER INTO THE BLOOD FROM INTERSTITIAL FLUID TO MAINTAIN THE NORMAL PLASMA (BLOOD) VOLUME
.
* INTERSTITIAL FLUID VOLUME VARIES THE MOST

* PLASMA VOLUME FLUCTUATES ONLY SLIGHTLY AND BRIEFLY

* MUST HAVE ADEQUATE WATER INSIDE THE CELL IN ORDER THAT THE CELLS FUNCTION PROPERLY
,
PLASMA<->INTERSTITIAL<->INTRACELLULAR

MOST
,
ELECTROLYTES

* COMPOUNDS WHEN PLACED IN SOLUTION THAT DISSOCIATE (BREAK APART) INTO CHARGED ATOM (IONS)

* A VARIETY OF ELECTROLYTES ARE IMPORTANT FOR VARIOUS CELLULAR ACTIVITIES SUCH AS MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS AND NERVE IMPULSES AND ARE INVOLVED IN MAINTAINING FLUID BALANCE & ACID-BASE BALANCE

A VARIETY OF ELECTROLYTES ARE IMPORTANT
/
NORMAL LAB VALUES

POTASSIUM K+ 3.5--5.3 mEq
** MOST ABUNDANT ELECTROLYTE IN ICF

SODIUM NA+ 135--145 ECF
**MOST ABUNDANT ELECTROLYTE IN ECF

CHLORIDE Cl- 100-108 mEq
CALCIUM CA++ 9-11 MG
.
WHERE DO ELECTROLYTES COME FROM ??


FOOD AND DRINK THAT WE CONSUME
.
WHAT HORMES REGULATE POTASSIUM K+ LEVELS ??


ALDOSTERONE & ANH
,
WHAT HORMONES REGULATES SODIUM LEVELS ??


ALDOSTERONE & ANH
,
WHAT HORMONES REGULATES CA++ LEVELS??


PTH (PARATHYROID) AND CALCITONIN (THYROID)
,
WHERE DO WE LOSE ELECTROLYTES ???

URINE
FECES
PERSPIRATION
VOMITUS (VOMITING)

ADH DOES NOT AFFECT ELECTROLYTES
/
ACID BASE BALANCE

PH IS THE CONCENTRATION OF H+ IONS IN A SUBSTANCE
,
DECREASED PH = INCREASED H+ = ACID

INCREASED PH= DECREASED H+ = ALKALINE
,
3 WAYS ACID-BASE BALANCE IS MAINTAINED

1. BUFFERS
2. RESPIRATORY MECHANISM
3. RENAL MECHANISM

THEY MAINTAIN BLOOD PH AT 7.35-7.45
.
BLOOD PH IS 7.35-7.45

6.8 YOUR DEAD

8.0 YOUR DEAD
.
BUFFERS
1. BUFFER PAIRS CONSIST OF A WEAK ACID & WEAK BASE
2. CARBONIC ACID & SODIUM BICARBONATE
3. THEY PREVENT DRASTIC CHANGES IN PH MY MAKING A STRONG ACID OR BASE TO A WEAKER ACID OR BASE
4. THEY ARE LIKE A SPONGE, ABLE TO PICK UP H+, AND RELEASE H+ AS NEEDED
,
RESPIRATORY MECHANISM

DECREASE PH= INCREASED H+ = ACID = INCREASED RESPIRATIONS = DECREASED CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2)= DECREASED H+
.
RESPIRATORY MECHANISM

INCREASED PH= DECREASED H+ = ALKALINE = DECREASED RESPIRATIONS = INCREASED CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) = INCREASED H+ = DECREASED PH
.
IF PH INCREASES (ACID, INCREASED H+) RESPIRATIONS INCREASE = EXHALING MORE CO2 (CARBON DIOXIDE) = SO LESS CO2 (CARBON DIOXIDE) IN BLOOD = LESS H+ BEING MADE = BLOOD PH INCREASES
,
IF PH INCREASES (ALKALINE, DECREASED H+) RESPIRATIONS DECREASE = LESS CO2 (CARBON DIOXIDE) EXHALED = SO MORE CO2 (CARBOND DIOXIDE) IN BLOOD TO COMBINE WITH H20 (WATER)= MORE CARBONIC ACID = MORE BICARBONATE AND INCREASED H+ = BLOOD PH DECREASES
.
RENAL MECHANISM

1. FOR EVERY (SODIUM) NA+ REABSORBED IN DISTAL TUBULES, A H+ OR K+ HAS TO BE SECRETED
.
RENAL MECHANISM

2. IF PH IS DECREASED (ACID, INCREASED H+) H+ WILL BE SECRETED AND K+ WILL BE RETAINED (ONE ONLY NOT BOTH)
,
RENAL MECHANISM

3. IF PH IS INCREASED (ALKALINE, DECREASED H+) H+ WILL BE RETAINED AND K+ WILL BE SECRETED.
,
RENAL MECHANISM

4. IF K+ BECOMES LOW AND PH IS STILL TOO HIGH, BICARBONATE CAN BE SECRETED INTO THE URINE

5. ALSO H+ CAN COMBINE WITH AMMONIA AND CHLORIDE MAKING AMMONIUM CHLORIDE
.
RENAL MECHANISM

6. SO IF PH IS INCREASED (ALKALINE, DECREASED H+) AMMONIA IS SECRETED BY ITSELF
,
RENAL MECHANISM

7. SO BUFFERS ARE GOOD TO PREVENT DRASTIC CHANGES IN BLOOD PH, BUT CANNOT ELIMINATE ACIDS OR BASES
,
RESPIRATORY MECHANISM IS GOOD TO HELP BUT YOU CAN ONLY BREATHE SO FAST OR SLOW

RENAL MECHANISM IS THE BEST REGULATOR OF ACID BASE BALANCE BECAUSE KIDNEYS CAN RID OR KEEP H+ AND CAN EXCRETE BICARBONATE IF NEEDED.
,
CYSTO-
VESICO-



BLADDER
.
-URIA



URINE
RINATION
.
PYELO-




RENAL PELVIS
.
NEPHRO-
RENO-



KIDNEY
.
URETERO-




URETER
.
LITHO-




STONE
.
URINO-
URO-



URINE
.
-CELE




SWELLING
,
-TRIPSY




CRUSHING
,
-PEXY




SURGICAL FIXATION
,
ORCHIDO-
ORCHIO-
ORCHO-
TESTO-

TESTES
,
EPIDIDYMO-




EPIDIDYMIS
,
PROSTATO-




PROSTATE
,
SPERM-
SPERMATO-



SPERM
.
COLP-
VAGINO-



VAGINA
,
EPISIO-
VULVO-



PERINEUM
,
GYNECO-




WOMAN
,
NYSTERO-
METRO
UTERO-


UTERUS
.
OOPHORO-




OVARY
,
SALPINGO-




FALLOPIAN TUBE
.
MENO-




MENSTRUATION
,
MAMMO-
MASTO-



BREAST
.
VESICOURETEROPLASY




SURGICAL REPAIR OF URETERS AND BLADDER
.
CYSTOSCOPY



EXAM OF BLADDER WITH LIGHTED INSTRUMENT
.
NEPHROLITHIASIS




KIDNEY STONES
,
PYURIA




PUS IN URINE
,
NOCTURIA




URINATION AT NIGHT
.
PYELONEPHRITIS




INFLAMMATION OF RENAL PELVIS AND KIDNEY
,
HYDROCELE




SWELLING OF WATER
,
LITHOTRIPSY




CRUSHING OF STONE
,
ORCHIPEXY




SURGICAL FIXATION OF TESTES
,
EPIDIDYMITIS




INFLAMMATION OF EPIDIDYMIS
,
NEPHROLITHIASIS




KIDNEY STONES
,
PROSTATOCYSTITIS




INFLAMMATION OF PROSTATE AND BLADDER
,
ASPERMIA




ABSENCE OF SPERM
,
SPERMATOLYSIS




DESTRUCTION OF SPERM
,
COLPORRHAPHY




SURGICAL REPAIR OF VAGINA
,
AMENORRHEA




ABSENCE OF MENSTRUAL FLOW
,
GYNECOLOGIST


ONE WHO SPECIALIZES IN WOMEN (DISORDERS OF FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM)
.
MAMMOGRAM




X-RAY OF BREASTS
,
MASTECTOMY




SURGICAL REMOVAL OF BREAST
,.
HYSTEROTOMY




SURGICAL OPENING INTO UTERUS
,
SALPINGOOPHORECTOMY



SURGICAL REMOVAL OF FALLOPIAN TUBE AND OVARY
,
ENDOMETRIUM




LINING INSIDE UTERUS
,
EPISIOTOMY




SURGICAL OPENING OF PERINEUM
,
DEGLUTITION




SWALLOWING
.
MASTICATION




CHEWING
,
THE FLUID INSIDE THE CELLS ARE CALLED??




INTRACELLULAR FLUID
.
THE FLUID BETWEEN THE CELLS IS CALLED??




INTERSTITIAL FLUID
,
ANOTHER NAME FOR INTERSTITIAL FLUID AND PLASMA IS??



EXTRACELLULAR FLUID
.
THE COMPARTMENT OF FLUID THAT VARIES THE MOST IS THE ________ FLUID?



INTERSTITIAL
.
THE COMPARTMENT OF FLUID THAT FLUCTUATES ONLY SLIGHTLY AND ...??



PLASMA
,
WHEN WATER IS NEEDED INSIDE THE CELL, IT MOVES FROM??



INTERSTITIAL FLUID ...
,
WHEN CAPILLARY BLOOD PRESSURE IS INCREASED ???



MORE WATER IS PU...
,
WHEN THE PLASMA PROTEIN CONCENTRATION IS DECREASED???



LESS WATER IS PU...
,
THE HORMONE THAT STIMULATES THE RENAL TUBULES TO REABSORB...?



ALDOSTERONE
,
THE HORMONE THAT IS SECRETED BY THE HEART'S ATRIAL WALL TH???



ANH
,
THE HORMONE THAT DECREASES THE AMOUNT OF URINE BY MAKING TH...?



ADH (ANTIDIURECTIC HORMONE)
,
THE NORMAL BLOOD LEVEL OF SODIUM IS??




135-145 MEQ
.
THE NORMAL BLOOD LEVEL OF POTASSIUM IS??



9-11 MG
,
THE NORMAL BLOOD LEVEL OF CHLORIDE IS??




100-108 MEQ
,
THE NORMAL PH OF BLOOD IS???




7.35-7.45
,
BUFFERS ???




MAKE A STRONG ACID...
,
IF THE PH DECREASES, THE RESPIRATORY MECHANISM WILL ???



EXHALE MORE CO2...
,
IF THE PH INCREASES, THE RENAL MECHANISM WILL CAUSE ??



K+ TO BE SECRETED
,
IF PH DECREASES, THE RENAL MECHANISM WILL CAUSE??



AMMONIUM CHLORIDE
.
WHAT IS MICTURITION??




EMPTYING OF BLADDER
/
WHAT IS THE RENAL CORTEX??




OUTER PART OF KIDNEY
,
WHAT IS THE RENAL MEDULLA??




STRIPED INNER PART OF KIDNEY
.
WHAT ARE PYRAMIDS??




COLLECTING TUBES IN MEDULLA
.
WHAT IS A PAPILLA??




TYPE OF PYRAMID
,
WHAT IS THE CALYX??




CUP-LIKE EXTENSION OF RENAL PELVIS
.
WHAT IS THE RENAL PELVIS??



AREA OF KIDNEY THAT COLLECTS URINE FROM MEDULLA AND DRAINS INTO URETER
.
WHAT IS RENIN??



SECRETED BY KIDNEY AND HELPS TO MAINTAIN AN ADEQUATE BLOOD PRESSURE
,
WHAT IS ERYTHROPOETIN??



SECRETED BY KIDNEY AND STIMULATES RED BONE MARROW TO INCREASE RBC PRODUCTION
,
WHAT IS GLOMERULUS??



NETWORK OF CAPILLARIES IN NEPHRON WHERE FILTRATION OCCURS
.
WHAT IS BOWMAN'S CAPSULE



SURROUNDS GLOMERULUS AND RECEIVES THE FILTRATE
.
WHAT IS THE AFFERENT ARTERIOLE ??




CARRIES BLOOD TO GLOMERULUS
,
PERITUBULAR CAPILLARIES


BLOOD VESSELS THAT SURROUND THE TUBULES WHERE REABSORPTION AND SECRETION OCCUR
,
WHAT IS RUGAE??



FOLDS OF MUCUS MEMBRANE LINING WHEN BLADDER IS EMPTY
,
WHAT IS FILTRATION??



WATER AND DISSOLVED MATERIALS FORCED OUT OF GLOMERULUS BY INCREASED BP
.
WHAT IS REABSORPTION??


MOVEMENT OF SUBSTANCES OUT OF RENAL TUBULES INTO BLOOD OF PERITUBULAR CAPILLARIES
.
WHERE IS THE URETER?



TUBE THAT CARRIES URINE FROM KIDNEY TO BLADDER
,
WHAT IS THE URETHRA??



TUBE THAT CARRIES URINE FROM BLADDER TO THE EXTERIOR
,
WHAT ARE NITROGENOUS WASTES??


RESULTS FROM METABOLISM OF PROTEINS AND IS ELIMINATED FROM BODY BY URINARY SYSTEM
,
WHAT IS SPECIFIC GRAVITY??




WEIGHT OF DISSOLVED MATERIAL IN A FLUID
,
WHAT IS A NEPHRON??



MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE IN THE KIDNEY WHERE THE MAIN FUNCTIONS OCCUR
,
INTERNAL URETHRAL SPHINCTER DOES ???



SMOOTH MUSCLE (INVOLUNTARY) LOCATED WHERE BLADDER AND URETHRA CONNECT
,
WHAT IS EXTERNAL URETHRAL SPHINCTER DO??

STRIATED MUSCLE (VOLUNTARY) THAT CIRCLES THE URETHRA JUST BELOW THE BLADDER
.
WHAT IS A FUNCTION OF THE BLADDER?




RESERVOIR FOR URINE
,
AN ABNORMAL CONSTITUENT OF URINE IS??




ALBUMIN
,
WHEN THE BLADDER ACCUMULATES 300-400 OF URINE??



STRETCH RECEPTOR
,
BLOOD IS CARRIED TO THE KIDNEYS BY??




RENAL CORTEX
,
RIGHT CARD

BLOOD IS CARRIED TO THE KIDNEYS BY ??


RENAL ARTERIES
.
UREA, URIC ACID, AMMONIA, AND CREATININE ALL CONTAIN THE CL...?



NITROGEN
.
THE STRUCTURES THAT MAKE THE RENAL MEDULLA LOOK STRIPED ARE...??



COLLECTING TUBULES
,
THE MINIMAL ACCEPTED HOURLY URINE OUTPUT IS???



30 ML OR 30CC
,
THE NORMAL SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF URINE IS??



1.001 TO 13.0
.
THE AVERAGE PH OF URINE IS??




6.0
,
PERISTALSIS OCCURS IN THE URETERS DUE TO ??



SMOOTH MUSCLE
.
THE MALE SUBSTANCES THAT ARE FILTERED ARE??



WATER, SODIUM, G...
,
THE MAIN SUBSTANCES THAT ARE REABSORBED ARE ??



WATER, GLUCOSE, ...
.
THE MAIN SUBSTANCES THAT ARE SECETION??



POTASSIUM
HYDRO-
.
THE SITE WHERE MOST SECRETION OCCURS IS??



DISTAL CONVOLUTE...
,
THE MAIN FUNCTION OF THE URINARY SYSTEM IS??



REMOVAL AND ELIMINATION...
,
THE THREE PROTECTIVE STRUCTURES OF THE KIDNEYS ARE??

1. RIBS
2. ADIPOSE
3. ...
.
THE EXPANSION OF THE UPPER END OF THE URETER IS THE ??



RENAL PELVIS
,
THE EXTERNAL URETHRAL SPHINCTER IS ??




MADE OF VOLUNTARY
,
THE URETHRA OF A MALE HAS A SECOND FUNCTION WHICH IS ??



PASSAGEWAY FOR ...
,
A SPCECIFIC GRAVITY OF URINE THAT IS INCREASED WOULD INCLUDE ??



THE URINE IS VERY..
,
THE URETHRA OF A MALE HAS A SECOND FUNCTION WHICH IS??



PASSAGEWAY FOR S..
,
WHAT DO SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES DO??




PRODUCE SPERM
,
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE INTERSTITIAL CELLS??



PRODUCE TESTOSTERONE
.
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE EPIDIDYMIS??



PROVIDE A SPACE FOR SPERM TO MATURE
,
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE VAS DEFERENS??


CARRY SPERM FROM EPIDIDYMIS TO SEMINAL VESICLES
,