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131 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
_____ are pathways in and out of the skull.
Foramina
The _____, ____, & ____ fossa proceed like steps.
anterior, middle, & posterior
The temporal lobes are housed in the _____ fossa.
middle
The frontal lobes are housed in the _____ fossa.
anterior
The brain stem & cerebellum are housed in the ____ fossa.
posterior
What are true foramina of the skull?
'holes' that actually pierce the individual bones of the skull (instead of bones coming together to make hole)
The ___ & ____ bones form the anterior fossa of the skull.
frontal & ethmoid
The frontal bone separates the cranial cavity from _____.
the orbit of the eye
Borders of anterior fossa:
Anterior:________
Posterior:________
Anterior: anterior portion of frontal bone; Posterior: lesser wing of sphenoid
The middle fossa is formed from what bones?
sphenoid, temporal, & parietal
Borders of middle fossa:
Anterior:________
Posterior:________
Anterior: lesser wing of sphenoid; Posterior: petrous ridge of temporal bone
The posterior fossa is formed by which bone?
occipital
Borders of posterior fossa:
Anterior:________
Posterior:________
Anterior: petrous ridge of temporal bone;
Posterior: back of skull
Sphenoid means "wedged" b/c it is wedged b/tw which two bones?
frontal & temporal
Ethmoid means 'sieve', & the bone is called that because of the __________.
holes that cover its surface
The _____ is the protrusion of the ethmoid bone where cerebral falx attaches.
crista galli
The cerebral falx (attaches to crista galli) is a specialization of __________.
intracranial dura mater
The ___ is the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid where CN1 fibers pass thru from nasal cavity.
olfactory foramina
The ____ is a slit b/tw greater & lesser wings of sphenoid bone.
superior orbital fissure
The superior orbital fissure conveys structures between ____ & _____.
orbit & cranium
The optic foramen (optic canal) is ____ to superior orbital fissure.
MEDIAL
___ &____ pass through optic canal. How big is the optic canal/foramen?
optic nerve (CN II) & opthalmic artery; 11mm
The sellica turcica is ____ to the optic foramen in the midline.
POSTERIOR
The sellica turcica is a depression in the ______. It houses the ______.
sphenoid bone; pituitary gland
The foramen rotundum, ovale, & spinosum run _____ to the superior orbital fissure & from ___-___ of SPHENOID Bone
POSTERIOR; front to back
The carotid canal is ____ to the sphenoid bone in the petrous temporal bone.
postero-medial
___ & ___ pass through the carotid canal.
Internal carotid artery & internal carotid nerve plexus
The ___ is filled w/ connective tissue & only becomes a foramen post-mortem.
foramen lacerum
The internal auditory meatus is ____ to carotid canal.
posterior
The jugular foramen is ____ to the internal auditory meatus. What travels here?
posterior; IJV
THe jugular foramen is a pseudoforamen formed by joining of ___ & ___ bones.
petrous portion of temporal & occipital
The hypoglossal canal is found ____ to the jugular foamen.
medial
The foramen magnum is the place where _____ arteries ascend into skull.
vertebral
Where does the brain stem become the spinal cord?
At the foramen magnum
The posterior clinoid process is a lateral extension of ______.
DORSUM SELLAE (posterior portion of sella turcica)
The anterior clinoid process is associated with the _____.
TUBERCULUM SELLAE (anterior to concavitiy of sella turcica)
The _________ artery supplies the skull & dura mater.
MAJOR (MIDDLE) MENINGEAL
The middle miningeal artery is a branch of the _____ artery.
MAXILLARY
What are the 4 fontanelles in an infant's skull?
anterior; posterior; anteriolateral (spenoidal); posteriolateral (mastoid)
The ___ fontanelle is the largest in an infant. It has a _____ shape.
anterior; diamond(this is the one usually used to aspire fluids & test for infections)
The ____ eminence is a prominant place on an infant's skull.
parietal
Incomplete sutures & fontanelles serve 2 purposes in infants: ____ & _____
space for brain to grow (still developing); allows passage through birth canal
Bones of the skull fuse at _______.
fibrous sutures
What are the 3 sutures of the skull?
coronal, saggital, & lambdoid
The junction at the sagittal & lambdoid suture is called the ______.
lambda
The junction at the sagittal & coronal suture is called the ______.
bregma ('front')
The ______ (lateral to the sagittal suture) allow EMISSARY veins to pass).
parietal foramina
There are several grooves on inside of the skull for ____ & _____.
venous sinuses & arachnoid granulations
Cranial nerve I is made of ___ filaments that pass through the ____ to form ___.
20; cribriform plate of ethmoid bone; olfactory nerve in olfactory tract
CN II is the _______ nerve.
optic
CN II passes through the ______.
optic canal
Which cranial nerves pass through the superior orbital fissure?
CN 3,4,6, & V1
Cranial nerve V2 passes through ______.
foramen rotundum
Cranial nerve V3 passes through the ________.
foramen ovale
Which cranial nerves pass through the internal auditory meatus?
Cranial nerves 7 & 8
Which cranial nerves pass through the jugular foramen?
CN 9, 10, & 11
Where does CN 12 pass through?
The hypoglosseal canal
The ______ enters through the foramen spinosum.
middle meningeal artery
The _____ is a fusion of the occipital & sphenoid bones.
clivus ('slide')
The skull (calvaria) has two layers around a ______. What are these two layers?
diploic space; outer & inner table
What veins communicate b/tw those in the saclp & those in the diploic space?
emissary veins
How does blood flow in skull?
inside to outside
The dura mater in the skull has _____ layer(s). The dura mater in the spinal cord has ___.
2-skull;
1-spinal cord
The outer layer of dura mater in the skull is ______.
periosteal/endostial
The inner layer of dura mater in the skull is ______.
meningeal
The ______ layer of dura mater in the skull is continuous w/dura mater in s.c.
meningeal (inner layer)
Between the 2 layers of dura mater are ______.
dural venous sinuses
The dural venous sinuses in the dura mater are lined w/ _____ and act as veins.
endotheluim
Venous sinuses can be between what layers?
b/tw two dural layers or b/tw 2 meningeal layers
Injury to the dural venous sinuses can result in a ____.
subdural hematoma
The ______ artery runs within the dura mater.
middle meningeal artery
The middle meningeal artery bifurcates in the ______ into anterior & posterior branches.
middle cranial fossa
If the skull is fractured, the middle meningeal a. can rupture & create _______.
acute epidural hematoma
_____ is a potential space in the brain, so anything there is pathologic.
epidural space
The _____ sends arachnoid granulations (fist-like projections) into the dura mater.
arachnoid trebecula
The subarachnoid space is filled with ___, which is refiltered in the ____ system.
CSF; venous
CSF from arachnoid space enters ____ via ____ & is then recirculated.
dural sinus; arachnoid granulations
The pia mater is found on the _____ of the brain.
cortex & into the sulci
Arterial blood vessels in the brain lie ____ to the pia mater.
superior
_____ & ____ are specializations of the dura mater.
Falx Cerebri; Tentorium Cerebelli
The falx cerebri separates _____. It arises post. from ____ & attaches to _____.
left & right brain;
tentorium cerebelli, attaches to frontal bone & crista galli
The tentorium cerebelli houses the ______.
cerebellum
The dural venous sinuses have no ____ (gravity dependent).
valves
Standing on head can increase _____ (because there are no valves in dural venous sinuses)
intra-cranial pressure
The _____ sinus is in the midline, just below the skull.
superior sagittal
The superior sagittal drains into the _______.
confluence (on posterior aspect)
The ____ sinuses are foind on the outer portion of the brain, just under the skull.
left & right transverse
The left & right transverse sinuses drain into the _____.
confluence
The ____ sinus is found in the jxn of the falx cerebri & tentorium cerebelli.
straight
The _____ sinus is around the sellae turcica.
cavernous (it has its name b/c similar to erectile tissue)
The ____ sinus arises from the transverse sinuses to become the IJV.
SIGMOID
All sinuses drain into the ___.
IJV
The ____ sinus runs under the edge of the lesser wing of the sphenoid.
sphenoparietal
The ____ sinus is a plexus that runs on top of the clivus.
basilar
The _____ & _____ sinuses runs above & below the petrous ridge.
superior & inferior petrosal sinuses
The superior petrosal sinus drains into the ______.
transverse sinus
The inferior petrosal sinus drains into the ______.
IJV/sigmoid sinus
The ____ sinus runs in the midline of the occipital bone.
midline occipital
The ___ sinus runs around the foramen magnum.
marginal
While standing, the marginal sinus drains into _____. While lying, it drains into ____.
standing--marginal plexus into Batson's plexus; lying-- IJV
The ________ drains the deep structures of the brain.
Great Cerebral Vein of Galen
There are many small sinuses in the falx cerebri that connect ______.
several sinuses in the brain
There are _____ of the superior sinus that can bleed lots when one enters skull.
lateral lakes of superior sinus
The great cerebral vein of Galen & inferior sagital sinus drain into ______.
straight sinus
The ______ is the medial edge of the tentorium cerebelli. It separates the ______.
incisura; posterior & middle cranial fossas
The incisura wraps around the ____ & _____ aspects of the brain stem.
lateral & posterior
The space between the brain stem and incisura can be a place of ______.
herniation (Tentorial Herniation), pinching off nerves & arteries
The ______ is the only place in the body where an artery (which one?)traverses a vein.
cavernous sinus;
INTERNAL CAROTID
The ____ is in the middle of the cavernous sinus.
pituitary gland
Which cranial nerves pass through the cavernous sinus?
CN 3,4, 6, & V1
In a basilar skull fraction (base of skull is sheared), ____ can be lacerated.
Internal Carotid artery
If the ICA is lacerated in basilar skull fraction, what happens?
high pressure arterial blood reverses flow of venous blood- sinuses are then dilated
If the ICA is lacerated & venous blood flow is reversed, it's called ______.
CAROTID CAVERNOUS FISTULA
Clinical presentation of a carotid cavernous fistula results in _________.
pulsing eyeball (or stethescope over eye results in hearing pulse)
The facial veins can drain into the cavernous sinus DIRECTLY by ______.
superior & inferior opthalmic veins
The facial veins can drain into the pterygoid venous plexus INDIRECTLY by ______.
inferior opthalmic vein or deep facial vein
Infections (pimples) can communicate from face to sinuse & produce ______.
clots of blood, reducing flow, producing significant problems
The triangle around the nose is dubbed the DANGER ZONE b/c _______.
infections there can lead back to the sinuses (blood drains from med. angle of eye, nose, & lips into facial vein)
CSF is made 1º deep in brain by _____.
choroid plexuses
CSF flows into subarachnoid space around ______. What does this mean clinically.
spinal cord; CSF drawn from lumbar puncture can indicate pathology in the brain (spaces confluent)
The ____ nerve innervates the dura mater 1º in anterior & middle fossae.
TRIGEMINAL (V)
What nerves innervate the dura mater in the posterial fossa?
CNX & cervical nerves traveling with CNXII
What explains neck injuries causing headaches?
cervical nerves that innervate the dura mater in the posterior fossa
The left & right vertebral arteries fuse to form _____. Where is this a. located?
the basilar artery; (on the CLIVUS)
The basilar artery bifurcates into _______.
posterior cerebral arteries
The 2 branches of the internal carotid artery on the brain are ____ & ____.
anterior cerebral & middle cerebral arteries
The posterior cerebral arteries connect to middle cerebral arteries via _____.
posterior communicating artery
The two anterior cerebral arteries are connected by ____.
anterior communicating artery
The vertebral-basilar-post. cerebral-middle cerebral-anterior cerebral system composes _______.
CIRCLE OF WILLIS
____% of population doesn't have a circle of Willis, so stroke would be very bad.
25%
The main arterial supply of the brain comes from what 2 arteries?
vertebral arteries & left/right internal carotid arteries